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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 10, 2018


Game changing game changes
Using stochastic games to analyze evolution of cooperation, leads to a surprising discovery.
IBM-EPFL-NJIT team demonstrates novel synaptic architecture for brain inspired computing
Two New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) researchers, working with collaborators from the IBM Research Zurich Laboratory and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, have demonstrated a novel synaptic architecture that could lead to a new class of information processing systems inspired by the brain.
Novel approach to making therapeutic proteins at point of care
A novel approach to making therapeutic proteins allows medicine to be developed in a suitcase-size system.
Multivitamins do not promote cardiovascular health
Multivitamins and mineral supplements do not prevent heart attacks, strokes or cardiovascular death.
Artificial intelligence helps Stanford researchers predict drug combinations' side effects
Millions of people take upwards of five medications a day, but testing the side effects of such combinations is impractical.
Mobile health devices diagnose hidden heart condition in at-risk populations
New research shows wearable mobile health devices improved the rate of diagnosis of a dangerous heart condition called atrial fibrillation.
Survey paints mixed view of New Yorkers' health
New Yorkers are getting heavier. And, like people across the country, many have difficulty sleeping and are suffering from depression.
Alternative splicing is crucial to muscle mass maintenance
Alternative splicing plays a crucial role in maintaining adult muscle mass, which has implications in aging and chronic disease.
Big Data analysis identifies new cancer risk genes
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona developed a new method to systematically identify genes contributing to heritable cancer risk.
Apps portray mental health issues as commonplace and easy to manage
A new analysis finds that mental health apps convey two dominant messages: that virtually everyone has some type of mental health problem and that individuals can easily manage those problems by using an app.
Booklet on childhood fever reduces antibiotic prescriptions if used
Antibiotic prescribing rates are not affected (to a statistically significant degree) when physicians have access to a parent-focused booklet on childhood fever but do decrease if the booklet is used.
Brain metastases common and difficult to treat in ROS1 lung cancer
Brain metastases were found to be fairly common in stage IV ROS1-positive cancers and in 47 percent of ROS1 patients, the brain was the first and only site of progression.
World Trade Center response crews may face higher heart attack, stroke risk
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase the risk for stroke and heart attack in both male and female city workers and volunteers who cleaned debris in the aftermath of the World Trade Center plane attack on Sept.
Stop antibiotics before resistance 'tipping point'
Treatments using antibiotics should stop as soon as possible to prevent patients passing the 'tipping point' of becoming resistant to their effects, new research has shown.
Vitamin D no defense against dementia
New research from South Australian scientists has shown that vitamin D (also commonly known as the sunshine vitamin) is unlikely to protect individuals from multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease or other brain-related disorders.
Biologists discover process that neutralizes tumors
Researchers discovered an unexpected twist in the tumor vs. T cell battle.
Perceptions of primary care notes by patients with mental health diagnoses
Primary care patients with mental health diagnoses are as enthusiastic about the utility of viewing their doctors' notes as other patients.
Removing barriers to advance care planning for cancer patients and their family caregivers
A pilot study from the Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University School of Medicine explores whether mindfulness, the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present, can enhance the ability of cancer patients and their families to consider and discuss emotionally challenging topics -- such as end-of-life preparations -- and support timely advance care planning.
Contribution of MOTs to road safety
The study 'Contribution of MOTs to road safety and the protection of citizens' health and the environment,' conducted by the Motor Vehicle Safety Institute 'Duque de Santomauro' of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, reveals that the Ministry of Transport tests (MOTs) prevent 133 deaths, nearly 12,000 injuries of differing severity and at least 17,700 traffic accidents a year.
UMN Medical School discovery could mean improved immunity against reinfections
University of Minnesota researchers have discovered a connection between the body's memory cells and a unique protein in the body called purinergic receptor P2RX7, influencing the body's long-term immune system.
Can a home-based, self-applied ECG patch improve the diagnosis of atrial fibrillation?
For approximately 20 percent of individuals who experience a stroke due to atrial fibrillation (AF; an irregular and often rapid heart rate), the occurrence of AF was not diagnosed until the time of their stroke or shortly afterward.
Suppressing negative emotions during health scare may whip up spiral of fear
Trying to suppress worries during a health scare, like the recent Zika outbreak, may lead to an ever-intensifying cycle of emotional suppression and fear, according to a team of researchers.
Warm handoffs do not improve attendance at behavioral health intake appointments
In programs that integrate behavioral health services into primary care, 'warm handoffs,' in which primary care clinicians introduce patients to behavioral health professionals, are commonly used.
Rising carbon dioxide levels pose a previously unrecognized threat to monarch butterflies
A new study conducted at the University of Michigan reveals a previously unrecognized threat to monarch butterflies: Mounting levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reduce the medicinal properties of milkweed plants that protect the iconic insects from disease.
LED lights reduce seabird death toll from fishing by 85 percent, research shows
Illuminating fishing nets with low-cost lights could reduce the terrible impact they have on seabirds and marine-dwellers by more than 85 percent, new research has shown.
Admitting community college students to med school can increase and diversify workforce
With both a growing demand for primary care physicians and declining medical student interest in the field, a new study offers a possible pathway to meeting the United States' primary care workforce needs.
Isolation and characterization of key enzyme for ephedrine production
Epimeron, Inc., a world-class provider of gene discovery and biosynthetic pathway optimization, today announced the isolation and characterization of an enzyme from Ephedra sinica catalyzing an essential step in the formation of the important drugs ephedrine and pseudoephedrine.
Finding a weak link in the frightful parasite Schistosoma
Researchers at the Morgridge Institute for Research shed light on the complex life cycle of Schistosoma, a parasite responsible for sickening hundreds of millions of people in the developing world.
American Association of Feline Practitioners releases new feline anesthesia guidelines
The American Association of Feline Practitioners today released the first feline-specific anesthesia guidelines to the veterinary community, which are published in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery.
How private prison companies are influencing immigration policy
In a new article, a trio of researchers led by Loren Collingwood, a political scientist at the University of California, Riverside, reported the discovery of a significant link between the presence of an ICE-contracted private detention facility in a federal legislator's district and that legislator's co-sponsorship of punitive immigration bills.
New 'scaly' snails species group following striking discoveries from Malaysian Borneo
Six new species of unique land snails whose shells are covered with what look like scales are described from the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo in the open-access journal ZooKeys.
Diagnosis is a collaborative process
According to family physician Norbert Donner-Banzhoff, building an effective relationship with a patient and making a diagnosis are not separate skills.
Ecology and AI
Using more than three million photographs from the citizen science project Snapshot Serengeti, researchers trained a deep learning algorithm to automatically identify, count and describe animals in their natural habitats.
Drug's impact on amino acid transporter may offer non-small cell lung cancer patients new hope
An amino acid transporter named xCT may affect the growth and progression of non-small cell lung cancer, a discovery that may predict the five-year survival rate of patients suffering from this cancer, now at 16 percent, researchers at Georgia State University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center have concluded.
Baker's yeast helped MSU-based biologists to understand drug resistance in fungi
MSU-based biologists advanced in understanding of fungal drug resistance mechanisms.
Researchers prevent, reverse renal injury by inhibiting immune-regulating molecule
Study findings from a team of scientists led by George C.
California's cap-and-trade air quality benefits mostly go out of state
California has one of the world's most progressive cap-and-trade designed to reduce greenhouse gases.
Tropical Storm Chris gives NASA satellite a signature 'C'
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, an instrument aboard looked at Tropical Storm Chris' water vapor and cloud temperatures.
Extreme heat and reduced cognitive performance in adults in non-air-conditioned buildings
Students in dormitories without air conditioning performed worse on cognitive tests during a heat wave compared with students living in air-conditioned dorms.
Ancient bones reveal 2 whale species lost from the Mediterranean Sea
Two thousand years ago the Mediterranean Sea was a haven for two species of whale which have since virtually disappeared from the North Atlantic, a new study analyzing ancient bones suggests.
That sound makes me dizzy
Researchers from the University of Utah have discovered why certain people experience dizziness when they hear a particular sound, such as a musical tone.
Six transformations needed to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals: New report
The World in 2050 (TWI2050) initiative has launched a new report, setting out six key transformations that will enable the world to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
New report says individual research results should be shared with participants more often
When conducting research involving the testing of human biospecimens, investigators and their institutions should routinely consider whether and how to return individual research results on a study-specific basis through an informed decision-making process, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Newly discovered properties of ferroelectric crystal shed light on branch of materials
Ferroelectric materials are behind some of the most advanced technology available today.
Children with better coordination more likely to achieve at school
Young children with better eye-to-hand coordination were more likely to achieve higher scores for reading, writing and math according to new research -- raising the possibility schools could provide extra support to children who are clumsy.
Fishy chemicals in farmed salmon
The American Chemical Society journal Environmental Science & Technology featured research by Carla Ng, assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Pitt's Swanson School of Engineering, on the cover of its June 19 issue.
Asian residents are exposed to 9 times more air pollution than Americans or Europeans
Asian car drivers are exposed to nine times more pollution than their European and American counterparts, a comprehensive study has found.
How Mycobacterium tuberculosis escapes death in macrophages
The bacteria that cause the devastating disease tuberculosis have the ability to escape destruction and grow after they are engulfed by lung macrophages, the immune cells that are supposed to destroy pathogens.
Developmental screening and surveillance rates remain low, new study suggests
Only about one-third of young children in the US receive recommended screenings or surveillance designed to catch developmental delays.
An ATM that dispenses antioxidants
Research led by a Salk Institute professor along with collaborators from Yale, Appalachian State University and other institutions found that a protein called ATM (short for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) can sense the presence of ROS and responds by sounding the alarm to trigger the production of antioxidants.
Male couples report as much domestic violence as straight couples
Nearly half of all men in a new study about intimate partner violence in male couples report being victims of abuse.
Strategy for 'No-Mining Zones' in the Deep Sea
An international team of researchers has developed a comprehensive set of criteria to help the International Seabed Authority (ISA) protect local biodiversity from deep-sea mining activities.
Research update: Cellular 'garbage disposal' has another job
Johns Hopkins researchers have found that the cellular 'garbage disposal,' known to scientists as proteasomes, may not only be responsible for the removal of cellular waste, but actually work on some of the most important proteins to neuronal development.
July/August 2018 Annals of Family Medicine media tip sheet
Annals of Family Medicine is a peer-reviewed, indexed research journal that provides a cross-disciplinary forum for new, evidence-based information affecting the primary care disciplines.
Patients with early kidney cancer benefit from robotic partial nephrectomy
A comprehensive study by the Keck School of Medicine of USC has found that robotic partial nephrectomy offers significantly better patient outcomes as compared with open or laparoscopic techniques.
Seal serum offers protection from inflammation
Seal serum seems to posses anti-inflammatory properties, which protects the delicate lung tissues that one would expect would sustain damage following deep dives.
The 'Big Bang' of Alzheimer's: Scientists ID genesis of disease
Scientists have discovered a ''Big Bang'' of Alzheimer's disease - the precise point at which a healthy protein becomes toxic but has not yet formed deadly tangles in the brain.
Bypass maneuver
It is possible to enroll at a Russian university without sitting the Unified State Exam (USE) via a 'hybrid' vocational track originally created to encourage upward mobility of disadvantaged social groups.
As brain extracts meaning from vision, study tracks progression of processing
Study finds that six brain regions shared more responsibility than thought for how the brain moves from raw perception to determining the categorical meaning of what's seen.
Physicians and patients perceive good communication differently
Family physicians have a different view of what constitutes good communication compared to patients and trained clinical raters.
What does the koala genome tell us about the taste of eucalyptus?
Sequencing of the koala genome has revealed some interesting qualities about these marsupials on their sense of taste.
Aspirin desensitization improves alcohol-induced allergies in patients with underlying respiratory disease
Patients who suffer from aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) often experience an additional allergic reaction when drinking alcohol, including nasal congestion, wheezing, and a runny nose.
Testosterone prescriptions have sharply dropped in the past few years
Testosterone use in the United States tripled between 2001 and 2011, mostly in men without a clear indication for it.
Towards winning the war on feral wild rabbits
New research shows how two biological control agents have been effective in reducing the numbers of feral rabbits in Australia.
American Cancer Society outlines blueprint for cancer control in the 21st century
The American Cancer Society is outlining its vision for cancer control in the decades ahead in a series of articles that forms the basis of a national cancer control plan.
Unique brain 'fingerprint' can predict drug effectiveness
Personalized medicine -- delivering therapies specially tailored to a patient's unique physiology -- has been a goal of researchers and doctors for a long time.
Evolution does repeat itself after all
A team of University of Konstanz biologists led by Professor Axel Meyer shows that evolutionary outcomes can be predicted.
Rocky planet neighbor looks familiar, but is not Earth's twin
Last autumn, the world was excited by the discovery of an exoplanet called Ross 128 b, which is just 11 light years away from Earth.
Diabetes diagnosis can improve health of the household
Partners of people with newly diagnosed diabetes are more likely to change their health behaviors than partners of people without the disease.
NASA's GPM satellite obtains excellent views of Beryl's remnants
As the remnants of former tropical cyclone Beryl moved through the northern Leeward Islands and Puerto Rico, the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite gathered important rainfall data on the storm.
Use of prescribed testosterone therapy in US decreases in recent years
Testosterone use in the United States tripled from 2001 through 2011, mostly in men without a clear indication.
Revealing the mechanism behind animals' sixth sense
A research team in DGIST discovered genes that detect and control movement and identified the motor mechanism of proprioception sense receptors.
Physician views of self-monitoring blood glucose in patients not on insulin
Physicians continue to recommend routine self-monitoring of blood glucose for patients with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes, in spite of its lack of effectiveness, because they believe it drives the lifestyle change needed to improve glycemic control.
Researchers discover a way to peer inside proteins to see how they are wired
Understanding how a protein is wired could help researchers develop ways to control its activity, and scientists at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center, CUNY, believe they've come up with a reliable way to determine this, according to a newly published study in eLife.
The relationship between alcohol outlets and traffic crashes
A new study by the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation examines the relationship between the number and location of alcohol outlets (such as bars or liquor stores or other places where alcohol is sold) and traffic crashes.
Want an expensive engagement ring? Looks count
Men are willing to purchase more showy, expensive engagement rings when they imagine themselves with an attractive woman rather than a woman with average looks.
Primates adjust grooming to their social environment
Researcher of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, show that wild chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, two primate species who live in complex social groups, choose their grooming partners based on a variety of criteria, including their social relationship with them and their potential partner's dominance rank.
Brain arousal compound noradrenaline plays critical role in sensory perception
A new Tel Aviv University study suggests that noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter responsible for arousal in the brain, plays a vital role in early sensory perceptions of the world.
Altered gene regulation is more widespread in cancer than expected
Researchers identified hundreds of cancer-associated genes for which structural rearrangements in their regulatory regions were associated with altered expression in cancer.
New human study: Short-term improved vascular function after consuming red raspberries
A recent randomized controlled trial, published in the Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, provides insights on the promising outcomes of short-term improvements in blood vessel function among healthy males who consumed dietary achievable amounts of red raspberries.
Unplugged holidays tipped to increase
James Cook University researchers in Australia say the phenomenon of the 'digital-detox' is on the rise and could be an important part of the tourism industry in the future.
A chaperonin protein, GroEL, has a more complex mechanism than was thought before
A Japanese research team led by Kanazawa University studied molecular interactions in the chaperonin protein GroEL.
Individual characteristics that predict multiple chronic conditions are identified
Results of a 10-year study find that, for adults age 50 and older, risks of developing multimorbidity are positively associated with age and are higher for those with low socioeconomic status, obesity, low level of physical activity, or an external locus of control (believing that life events are outside of their control).
Study unveils components of successful key account management
Dynamic capabilities play a key role in successful key account management, according to a new study by researchers from the University of Eastern Finland, Cranfield University and the University of Portsmouth.
What separates the strong from weak among connections in the brain
Some synapses are much stronger than most of their neighbors.
Regulation reality gap for small businesses bodes ill for Brexit
Small business owners lack understanding of critical regulations and compound the problem with over-confidence, shows research from the University of Bath which suggests small businesses will struggle to comply with the raft of regulatory changes post Brexit.
Can acupuncture reduce treatment-related pain for women with early-stage breast cancer?
Treatment for breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors often results in joint pain, which can contribute to treatment nonadherence.
Carbon is the new black
Engineers with the University of Cincinnati are leveraging a partnership with Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to create clothing that can charge your cell phone.
Promising clinical trial results of tucatinib with T-DM1 against HER2+ breast cancer
Of 57 patients treated, 48 percent responded to the combination, with cancer control of median 8.2 months.
Scribes may be more financially viable under capitated payment
Team documentation (i.e., the use of scribes) has the potential to improve primary care clinician satisfaction and efficiency, yet little has been known about the financial and time use implications.
Study shows how HIV is shielded from immune attack
Scientists from UNSW Sydney and the UK have discovered that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hijacks a small molecule from the host cell to protect itself from being destroyed by the host's immune system.
What is the role of the physician when a patient discloses intimate partner violence perpetration?
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and has lasting impacts on the health and well-being of the entire family involved.
Challenging the conventional wisdom on calculus
Contrary to widely-held opinion, taking high school calculus isn't necessary for success later in college calculus -- what's more important is mastering the prerequisites, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry -- that lead to calculus.
Global Innovation Index 2018: China cracks top 20
China broke into the world's top 20 most-innovative economies as Switzerland retained its No.
Immune discovery should help develop improved vaccines for infants and newborns
Specific immune danger signals are highly efficient in triggering immune responses in infants and newborns, whose immune systems function very differently to those of adults.
UA researchers preparing for quick radiation diagnostic test in case of a nuclear disaster
Researchers' goal is to improve radiation testing through gene expression.
Tablet computers can be of use in speech therapy for kids
Thus, computer games have been established to be a potential benefit for speech therapy and for children's motivation and satisfaction from classes.
Two new USPSTF recommendation statements
In two new statements, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes current evidence is insufficient to make recommendations assessing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with certain nontraditional risk factors and screening for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and CVD risk with the ankle-brachial index (ABI).
Mapping the urban vitality of Barcelona
Researchers at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have mapped Barcelona and its conurbation using a new methodology based on urbanism activist Jane Jacobs' ideas on how cities should be configured to become vital spaces.
Want to be an elite weightlifter? It takes a strong pair of knees
Researchers from China's Ningbo University have discovered what makes the critical difference between an elite snatch style weightlifter and a sub-elite one, according to a new study published in the journal Heliyon.
Teen crash risk highest during first three months after getting driver's license
Teenage drivers are eight times more likely to be involved in a collision or near miss during the first three months after getting a driver's license, compared to the previous three months on a learner's permit, suggests a study led by the National Institutes of Health.
Mapping the genetic controllers in heart disease
Researchers have developed a 3D map of the gene interactions that play a key role in cardiovascular disease, a study in eLife reports.
Alcohol consumption is associated with nocturnal leg cramps
New research finds that, among patients over 60 years old, there is a strong association between consumption of alcoholic beverages and nocturnal leg cramps.
Living in areas with less sun may increase your risk of OCD
Living at higher latitudes, where there is also less sunlight, could result in a higher prevalence rate of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
Scientists trigger hot flashes in female and male mice
By activating a single type of neuron, scientists triggered hot-flash-like symptoms in mice.
Global quadrupling of cooling appliances to 14 billion by 2050 -- new report
Soaring global need for cooling by 2050 could see world energy consumption for cooling increase five times as the number of cooling appliances quadruples to 14 billion -- according to a new report by the University of Birmingham, UK.
Underlying mechanism discovered for magnetic effect in superconducting spintronics
Superconductor-ferromagnet structures are widely regarded as the building blocks of superconducting spintronic technology.
Differences in the mouths of youth born with HIV may increase their risk of dental decay
A team of scientists from The Forsyth Institute, a global leader in oral health research, in collaboration with the NIH-funded Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), has published the results of a new study indicating that differences in the mouth bacteria of youth born with HIV may increase their risk of cavities.
Study examines safety and efficacy of TPA in mild stroke cases
A national study looking at IV tPA treatment in mild stroke cases, led by researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine, is published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Biochemists discover cause of genome editing failures with hyped CRISPR system
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago are the first to describe why CRISPR gene editing sometimes fails to work, and how the process can be made to be much more efficient.
Every person has a unique brain anatomy
Like with fingerprints, no two people have the same brain anatomy, a study by researchers of the University of Zurich has shown.
NASA spots Typhoon Maria's ragged eyewall replacement
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean early on July 10 and obtained a visible image of Typhoon Maria.
Wider access to HIV prevention drugs still needed
Anti-HIV drugs are highly effective, yet new infections continue because not everyone has equal access to treatment.
Wetting of surfaces is surprisingly difficult to measure reliably
A group of researchers from Aalto University in Finland and Sun Yat-sen University in China provide a standardized approach to improve the accuracy and reliability of contact angle measurements of surfaces.
Balancing foreign judgments against domestic policies
Judges should balance between universal norms of justice and the sovereignty of individual nations when deciding when to use the public policy doctrine, writes Mr.
New approach to treating infectious diseases as an alternative to antibiotics
Osaka University-led researchers clarified how pathogenic E. coli bacteria attached to the host intestinal epithelium.

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