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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 16, 2018


Traumatic brain injury biomarker shows promise to support rapid damage evaluation and predict outcomes
A new study in The American Journal of Pathology found that a brain lipid molecule, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), was significantly increased after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a preclinical animal model.
A step closer to quantum computers: NUS researchers show how to directly observe quantum spin effects
A team led by Associate Professor Yang Hyunsoo from the National University of Singapore Faculty of Engineering has found a practical way to observe and examine the quantum effects of electrons in topological insulators and heavy metals.
Single-celled architects inspire new nanotechnology
ASU professor Hao Yan and his colleagues have designed a range of nanostructures resembling marine diatoms -- tiny unicellular creatures.
Football training may preserve bone health in prostate cancer patients
Androgen deprivation therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer can lead to loss of muscle and bone mass.
Flipping the switch: Making use of carbon price dollars for health and education
A switch from subsidizing fossil fuel to pricing CO2-emissions would not only help to meet global climate targets but also create additional domestic public revenues.
Pattern of association between toddler self-regulation, kindergarten obesity risk
Obesity is among the long-term adult health consequences associated with poor self-regulation during childhood.
Mobile coupons can increase revenue both during and after a promotion
New research from Binghamton University, State University at New York finds that mobile coupons can affect both short- and long-term sales goals, and that targeting customers with the right type of mobile coupon can boost revenue.
Protecting tropical forest carbon stocks may not prevent large-scale species loss
As the world seeks to curb human-induced climate change, will protecting the carbon of tropical forests also ensure the survival of their species?
Increased communication between hospitals improves patient care and survival rates
More than a million patients are transferred between hospitals each year in the U.S.
Particulate matter increases drought vulnerability of trees
Particulate matter deposits on leaves increase plant transpiration and the risk of plants suffering from drought.
Olfactory receptors have more functions than merely smell perception
Numerous studies to date have shown that olfactory receptors are relevant not only for smell perception, but that they also play a significant physiological and pathophysiological role in all organs.
Archaeologists discover bread that predates agriculture by 4,000 years
At an archaeological site in northeastern Jordan, researchers have discovered the charred remains of a flatbread baked by hunter-gatherers 14,400 years ago.
Surveys of patients about health care providers are likely of little use
For anyone who has ever taken a survey after a medical appointment and wondered whether the effort was worthwhile, the answer is probably 'No,' says a Baylor University psychologist and researcher.
Forget joysticks, use your torso to pilot drones
Your torso is more intuitive -- and more precise -- than joysticks for piloting drones, both simulated and real, according to a recent study by EPFL scientists.
The BMJ launches special collection on research for health in the Americas
The BMJ is launching a special collection of articles that will explore how research can drive effective and efficient health systems across the Americas.
In borophene, boundaries are no barrier
Defects are often observed when making borophene, the single-atom form of boron, but unlike in other two-dimensional materials, these mismatched lattices can assemble into ordered structures that preserve the material's metallic nature and electronic properties.
From the lab to the real world: program to improve elderly mobility feasible in community
A pilot study led by researchers from Tufts University and conducted at the Somerville Council on Aging in Somerville, Mass., translated for the first time the physical activity benefits of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders study in a community setting.
Geologists from MSU found out how over 2.6 Ga years old rocks were formed at Limpopo Complex
MSU geologists and their colleagues from South Africa and Novosibirsk studied the interaction between the oldest blocks of the Earth's continental crust.
Overcoming a major barrier to developing liquid biopsies
An international consortium tested nine different methods for RNA sequencing to understand and standardize the best way to sequence small RNAs.
Study: Reducing carbon emissions will limit sea level rise
A new study demonstrates that a correlation also exists between cumulative carbon emissions and future sea level rise over time -- and the news isn't good.
Weight loss surgery may affect the risk of cancer
A new analysis published in the BJS (British Journal of Surgery) indicates that weight loss surgery may affect an individual's risk of developing cancer.
Yale-developed test for Alzheimer's disease directly measures synaptic loss
Yale researchers have tested a new method for directly measuring synaptic loss in individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
The immune system: T cells are built for speed
It was previously thought that the T cell would concentrate the receptors at certain points in order to achieve the highest possible sensitivity.
Comparison of outpatient antibiotic prescribing in traditional medical, retail clinic settings
Outpatient antibiotic prescribing varied among traditional medical and retail clinic settings and during visits with respiratory diagnoses where antibiotics were inappropriate, patterns that suggest differences in patient mix and antibiotic overuse.
Unhealthy blood fat profile linked to greater odds of having only one or no kids
An unhealthy blood fat (lipid) profile before pregnancy is linked to greater odds of having only one or no children, suggests an observational study published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Magnetized wire could be used to detect cancer in people, Stanford scientists report
A magnetic wire used to snag scarce and hard-to-capture tumor cells could prove to be a swift and effective tactic for early cancer detection, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
New tool to calculate 'nitrogen footprint' offers guide to pollution reduction
University of Melbourne researchers have helped create the first tool to calculate the 'nitrogen footprint' of an organisation.
Fetal gene therapy prevents fatal neurodegenerative disease
A fatal neurodegenerative condition known as Gaucher disease can be prevented in mice following fetal gene therapy, finds a new study led by UCL, the KK Women's and Children's Hospital and National University Health System in Singapore.
Yale cancer researchers suggest new treatment for rare inherited cancers
Studying two rare inherited cancer syndromes, Yale Cancer Center (YCC) scientists have found the cancers are driven by a breakdown in how cells repair their DNA.
Death rates from heart failure higher for women than men
Death rates from heart failure are higher for women than men, and hospitalization rates have increased in women while declining in men, found a study from the University of Ottawa Heart Institute published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
AASM publishes clinical practice guideline on use of actigraphy for sleep disorders
Actigraphy can be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of adult and pediatric patients with suspected sleep disorders, including circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, according to a clinical practice guideline from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM).
'Invisible' stool blood linked to heightened risk of death from all causes
'Invisible' blood detected in the stools is linked to a heightened risk of death from all causes, as well as from bowel cancer, reveals research published online in the journal Gut.
Homology Medicines announces publication of in vivo gene editing data with nuclease-free technology
Homology Medicines, Inc., a genetic medicines company, announced today a peer-reviewed publication demonstrating that Homology's technology induces efficient and precise in vivo gene editing.
MagicMark: A marking menu using 2-D direction and 3-D depth information
A recent study presents a novel marking menu, MagicMark, to extend the selection capability of large screen interactions.
An immigrant workforce leads to innovation, according to new UC San Diego research
New federal restrictions on the temporary H-1B visa, which allows high-skilled foreign workers to be employed by U.S. companies, have increased debate on the economic impacts of the program, but little is known about its effect on product innovation -- until now.
The origins of pottery linked with intensified fishing in the post-glacial period
A study into some of the earliest known pottery remains has suggested that the rise of ceramic production was closely linked with intensified fishing at the end of the last Ice Age.
Disruption tolerant networking to demonstrate internet in space
NASA's Human Exploration and Operations and Science Mission Directorates are collaborating to make interplanetary internet a reality.
'Underworked' victims of modern slavery endure extra exploitation
People trapped in modern slavery can be 'underworked' by ruthless employers, to increase their debt bondage and provide revenue from living costs.
Sound waves reveal diamond cache deep in Earth's interior
Sound waves reveal a surprisingly large diamond cache deep in Earth's interior, an international team including MIT researchers reports.
Key social reward circuit in the brain impaired in kids with autism, Stanford study shows
Children with autism have structural and functional abnormalities in the brain circuit that normally makes social interaction feel rewarding, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine.
What happens when we heat the atomic lattice of a magnet all of a sudden?
'We now have a clear picture of how the hot atomic lattice and the cold magnetic spins of a ferrimagnetic insulator equilibrate with each other.' says Ilie Radu, scientist at the Max Born Institute Berlin.
Using 'shade balls' in reservoirs may use up more water than they save
Preventing reservoir evaporation during droughts with floating balls may not help conserve water overall, due to the water needed to make the balls.
Seeing through the eyes of a crab
Crabs combine the input from their two eyes early on in their brain's visual pathway to track a moving object, finds new research published in JNeurosci.
Paper: Email incivility has a ripple effect on households
The negative repercussions of email incivility extend beyond the workplace, and can even negatively affect a domestic partner's attitude toward their own work, says a new paper from YoungAh Park, a professor of labor and employment relations at Illinois.
More data needed to determine safety of probiotics and prebiotics
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics often fail to report potential harms.
Researchers map 'family trees' of acute myeloid leukemia
For the first time, a team of international researchers have mapped the family trees of cancer cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to understand how this blood cancer responds to a new drug, enasidenib.
OSU researchers determine why pulsed sparks make for better ignition
Researchers have learned the mechanisms behind a means of improved ignition, helping to open the door to better performance in all types of combustion systems.
What's causing the voltage fade in Lithium-rich NMC cathode materials?
Researchers led by a University of California San Diego team have published work in the journal Nature Energy that explains what's causing the performance-reducing 'voltage fade' that currently plagues a promising class of cathode materials called Lithium-rich NMC (nickel magnesium cobalt) layered oxides.
Researchers identify model for reducing binge drinking in college students
The study also analyzed participants' overall willingness to initiate and sustain responsible drinking habits or abstinence.
Early treatment with nusinersen can mean better outcomes for babies
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease that affects motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in muscle atrophy and widespread weakness that eventually impair swallowing and breathing.
Thawing permafrost microbiomes fuel climate change
A University of Queensland-led international study could lead to more accurate predictions or the rate of global warming from greenhouse gas emissions produced by thawing permafrost in the next 100 years.
Electronic stickers to streamline large-scale 'internet of things'
Researchers at Purdue University and the University of Virginia have developed a new fabrication method that makes tiny, thin-film electronic circuits peelable from a surface.
Fruit fly mating driven by a tweak in specific brain circuit
According to a new National Institutes of Health-funded study, it is not destiny that brings two fruit flies together, but an evolutionary matchmaker of sorts that made tiny adjustments to their brains' mating circuits, so they would be attracted to one another while rejecting advances from other, even closely-related, species.
New study reveals how foreign kelp surfed to Antarctica
A research team led by the Australian National University (ANU) has found the first proof that Antarctica is not isolated from the rest of the Earth, with the discovery that foreign kelp had drifted 20,000 kilometers before surfing to the continent's icy shores.
How to build efficient organic solar cells
Twenty-five researchers from seven research institutes have put their heads together to draw up rules for designing high-efficiency organic solar cells.
Study: Indigenous peoples own or manage at least one quarter of world's land surface
Indigenous Peoples have ownership, use and management rights over at least a quarter of the world's land surface according to a new study published this week in the journal Nature Sustainability.
Plastic chemical linked to smaller prefrontal cortex, reduced cognitive ability in rats
Adult rats that had been exposed before birth and during nursing to a mixture of chemicals found in a wide range of consumer products have a smaller medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and perform worse on an attention-switching task than rats not exposed to the chemicals early in life.
Microscopic trampoline may help create networks of quantum computers
Researchers have developed a microscopic ''trampoline'' that can absorb microwave energy and bounce it into laser light -- a crucial step for sending quantum signals over long distances.
Effective diagnosis of persistent facial pain will benefit patients and save money
Patients with persistent facial pain are costing the economy more than £3,000 each per year, new research has revealed.
A constellation of symptoms presages first definitive signs of multiple sclerosis
Canadian researchers document the health problems that precede a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.
NYU study uncovers connections between early childhood program and teenage outcomes
A new study published in PLOS ONE by researchers from New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development examined the long-term impacts of an early childhood program called the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) and found evidence suggesting that the program positively affected children's executive function and academic achievement during adolescence.
A scientist's final paper looks toward earth's future climate
A NASA scientist's final scientific paper, published posthumously this month, reveals new insights into one of the most complex challenges of Earth's climate: understanding and predicting future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and the role of the ocean and land in determining those levels.
Study suggests buried Internet infrastructure at risk as sea levels rise
Thousands of miles of buried fiber optic cable in densely populated coastal regions of the United States may soon be inundated by rising seas, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Oregon.
New platform discovered at City of Hope poised to be next generation of genetic medicines
A City of Hope scientist discovered a gene-editing technology that could efficiently and accurately correct the genetic defects that underlie certain diseases, positioning the new tool as the basis for the next generation of genetic therapies.
Plant mothers talk to their embryos via the hormone auxin
In plants, it has been clear for a while that maternal signals regulate embryo development.
Getting to know the microbes that drive climate change
A new understanding of the microbes and viruses in the thawing permafrost in Sweden may help scientists better predict the pace of climate change.
Older kids who abuse animals much more likely to have been abused themselves
Older children who abuse animals are two to three times as likely to have been abused themselves as kids that don't display this type of behavior, highlights a review of the available evidence published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Genetic marker for drug risk in multiple sclerosis offers path toward precision medicine
A team of researchers has uncovered a specific gene variant associated with an adverse drug reaction resulting in liver injury in a people with multiple sclerosis (MS).
India's deadly monsoon rainfall measured with NASA's IMERG
This year's monsoon has been assessed as average but India's Meteorological Department statistics show that daily mean rainfall for the country has recently been above normal.
New ALS therapy in clinical trials
New research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St.
SF State researcher explores how information enters our brains
A new study by SF State Associate Professor of Psychology Ezequiel Morsella suggests that we have less control over our conscious thoughts than previously assumed.
Childhood infections may have lasting effects on school performance
Severe infections leading to hospitalizations during childhood are associated with lower school achievement in adolescence, reports a study in the July issue of The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (PIDJ).
Technique may improve lung delivery of bacteria-killing phage
A new delivery system for bacteriophages--viruses that selectively attack harmful bacteria--could help give doctors a new way to battle lung infections that threaten older patients and people with cystic fibrosis.
High-stakes cellular process critical to small intestine development
A new study examining how the developing small intestine grows in mice found a surprising sequence of cellular events akin to a death-defying, high-wire circus performance in order for the organ to reach a proper length.
Convergence of synaptic signals is mediated by a protein critical for learning and memory
Researchers at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience demonstrate that PKC is a highly versatile molecule, capable of assimilating many disparate sources of information.
Crowdsourcing friendly bacteria helps superbug cause infection
Antimicrobial resistant pathogens crowdsource friendly bacteria to survive in immune cells and cause disease, a new study by the University of Sheffield has revealed.
Faster photons could enable total data security
Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure.
Restrictions on research grant applications cause chaos
Mathematicians at the University of Kent, with input from the University of Sheffield, have established that current restrictions on academics applying for research grants are causing major problems, harming smaller institutions and minorities in the process.
Missing bones and our understanding of ancient biodiversity
Fossils come in many shapes and sizes, ranging from isolated fragments of bones and teeth to complete skeletons.
Heritable genome editing: Action needed to secure responsible way forward
An independent inquiry by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics has concluded that editing the DNA of a human embryo, sperm, or egg to influence the characteristics of a future person ('heritable genome editing') could be morally permissible.
AI-based framework creates realistic textures in the virtual world
Many designers for the virtual world find it challenging to design efficiently believable complex textures or patterns on a large scale.
Electric car batteries souped-up with fluorinated electrolytes for longer-range driving
Researchers at the University of Maryland (UMD), the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have figured out how to increase a rechargeable battery's capacity by using aggressive electrodes and then stabilizing these potentially dangerous electrode materials with a highly-fluorinated electrolyte.
Kelp's record journey exposes Antarctic ecosystems to change
A 20,000 km journey by kelp through what were thought to be impassable barriers created by polar winds and currents has significant implications for how Antarctic ecosystems will change with global warming.
Australia has a new venomous snake -- And it may already be threatened
The ink has not yet dried on a scientific paper describing a new species of snake, yet the reptile may already be in danger of extinction due to mining.
Self-control and obesity: Gender matters in children
A toddler's self-regulation -- the ability to change behavior in different social situations -- may predict whether he or she will be obese come kindergarten, but the connection appears to be much different for girls than for boys.
Emotional robot lets you feel how it's 'feeling'
Cornell University researchers have developed a prototype of a robot that can express 'emotions' through changes in its outer surface.
New development in 3D super-resolution imaging gives insight on Alzheimer's disease
One major problem with understanding Alzheimer's is not being able to clearly see why the disease starts.
Researchers crack the code of the final blood group system
Ever since the blood type was discovered in 1962, no one has been able to explain why some people become Xga positive while others are Xga negative.
Genome damage from CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing higher than thought
Scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute have discovered that CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing can cause greater genetic damage in cells than was previously thought.
NASA catches tropical cyclone 11W passing northern Philippines
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of recently formed Tropical Depression 11W.
Implications of unmet promise of a miracle drug for Alzheimer's disease
In 'The Unmet Promise of a Miracle Drug for Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Practice, Policy, and Research,' the authors lament the unmet promise of a miracle drug for Alzheimer disease but are heartened by what they see as encouraging improvements in care (care transformation) for a growing population of older adults, many with dementia.
NASA finds fading Sub-Tropical Storm Beryl devoid of center precipitation
On Sunday, July 15, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that Sub-Tropical Storm Beryl was devoid of precipitation around its center of circulation and infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite confirmed it.
Study of high-energy neutrinos again proves Einstein right
A new study by MIT and others proves Einstein is right again.
Behavior-influencing policies are critical for mass market success of low carbon vehicles
Policies to entice consumers away from fossil-fuel powered vehicles and normalize low carbon, alternative-fuel alternatives, such as electric vehicles, are vital if the world is to significantly reduce transport sector carbon emissions, according to new research.
Researchers find hidden signals in RNAs that regulate protein synthesis
Scientists have long known that RNA encodes instructions to make proteins.
Early puberty in white adolescent boys increases substance use risk
White adolescent boys experiencing early puberty are at higher risk for substance use than later developing boys, a new Purdue University study finds.
How many people die from tuberculosis every year?
The estimates for global tuberculosis deaths by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) differ considerably for a dozen countries, according to a study led by ISGlobal.
Researchers engineer bacteria to create fertilizer out of thin air
A team at Washington University in St. Louis has created a bacteria that uses photosynthesis to create oxygen during the day, and at night, uses nitrogen to create chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Study shows painful eczema symptoms negatively impact quality of life
A new study published in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology shows that eczema symptoms can have a profoundly negative impact on quality of life for those who suffer -- even worse than for those with common chronic illnesses like heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Temple study calls into question IVC filter effectiveness in DVT patients undergoing CDT
The true benefit of inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) placement at the time of catheter-directed thrombolysis for patients with deep vein thrombosis is unclear.
Tackling cancer at ground zero with designer molecules
A new molecule designed by University of Adelaide researchers shows great promise for future treatment of many cancers.
Nursing notes can help indicate whether ICU patients will survive
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have found that sentiments in the nursing notes of health care providers are good indicators of whether intensive care unit (ICU) patients will survive.
Active surveillance of lung subsolid nodules reduces unnecessary surgery and overtreatment
Subsolid nodules (SSN) can be considered a biomarker of lung cancer risk and should be managed with long-term active surveillance.
Public attention on cognitive evaluation test used on President Trump
A screening test used in a cognitive evaluation of President Donald Trump received considerable public attention after it was announced earlier this year.
Astronomers find a famous exoplanet's doppelganger
One object has long been known: the 13-Jupiter-mass planet beta Pictoris b, one of the first planets discovered by direct imaging, back in 2009.
AI accurately predicts effects of genetic mutations in biological dark matter
A new machine learning framework, dubbed ExPecto, can predict the effects of genetic mutations in the so-called 'dark matter' regions of the human genome.
Friendlier fish may be quicker to take the bait
The bluegill on your dinner plate might have been more social than the rest of its group, according to a new study from the University of Illinois, and its removal from the lake could mean major changes for the remaining population.

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