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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 17, 2018


What psychological science can offer to reducing climate change
The consequences of climate change are immense, and believed by many experts to be largely irreversible (and exponential), causing threats coming from heat waves, flooding, declines in agriculture, and decreasing biodiversity, to name a few.
Researchers identify brain area linked to motivational disruptions in binge eating
Scientists at Rutgers Brain Health Institute have discovered that a small group of brain cells in the hypothalamus called 'orexin' neurons could be a promising target for medications for controlling binge eating episodes in individuals with obesity.
Is there an association between more frequent use of digital media by teens and symptoms of ADHD?
Frequent use of digital media may be associated with the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adolescence but more research is needed to know if the association is causal.
While men lose more weight on low-carb diets, women show improved artery flexibility
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 out of 3 American adults live with higher than normal blood sugar levels known as prediabetes.
New findings for 'gifted' Otago geneticist diagnosing rare genetic disorders
Recent research undertaken by University of Otago Cure Kids Professor Paediatric Genetics, Stephen Robertson, highlights the world-leading discoveries he is making regarding rare genetic disorders affecting children and the opportunity genomic analysis is providing.
Celebrating positives improves classroom behavior and mental health
Training teachers to focus their attention on positive conduct and to avoid jumping to correct minor disruption improves child behavior, concentration and mental health.
Mindset during meal planning changes food choices and brain responses to food
A simple instruction to change your thinking as mealtime approaches can help cut calories, according to new research from the University of Tübingen, Germany.
Diabetes drug with better side-effect tolerance could improve treatment
Improved medications for Type 2 diabetes are one step closer thanks to a new discovery reported this week by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and Syracuse University.
Brain iron levels may predict multiple sclerosis disabilities
A new, highly accurate MRI technique can monitor iron levels in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and help identify those at a higher risk for developing physical disability, according to a new study.
Concentrated wealth in agricultural populations may account for the decline of polygyny
Polygyny has been more common among relatively egalitarian low-tech horticulturalists than in highly unequal, capital-intensive agricultural societies.
What is the meaning of life? Ask a conservative
A deep analysis of a series of surveys across 16 countries that spanned several years shows that people who are on the conservative end of the political spectrum believe their lives are meaningful while those on the liberal end continue to search for meaning.
Incarceration of parents impacts health of their children into adulthood
A new study published in Pediatrics found that young adults who had a parent incarcerated during their childhood are more likely to skip needed healthcare, smoke cigarettes, engage in risky sexual behaviors, and abuse alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs.
Pediatric NEXUS head CT DI reliably guides blunt trauma imaging decisions
The Pediatric NEXUS Head Computed Tomography (CT) Decision Instrument (DI) reliably identifies blunt trauma patients who require head CT imaging and could significantly reduce the use of CT imaging.
Anti-obesity drug derived from chili peppers shows promise in animal trials
A novel drug based on capsaicin, the compound that gives chili peppers their spicy burn, caused long term weight loss and improved metabolic health in mice eating a high fat diet, in new studies from the University of Wyoming School of Pharmacy.
New findings suggest allergic responses may protect against skin cancer
The components of the immune system that trigger allergic reactions may also help protect the skin against cancer, suggest new findings.
Omega 3 supplements have little or no heart or vascular health benefit
Omega 3 supplements have little or no effect on the risk of heart disease, stroke or death -- according to new research led by the University of East Anglia, UK.
Broadly acting antibodies found in plasma of Ebola survivors
Recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks highlight the need for licensed treatments.
Using driving simulation to understand driver complacency at passive rail level crossings
The study replicates and extends prior research on the effectiveness of using driving simulators to detect and mitigate risky behaviors.
Machine-learning predicted a superhard and high-energy-density tungsten nitride
A collaborated research team led by Prof. Jian Sun and Prof.
Nitric oxide tells roundworms to avoid bad bacteria
Nitric oxide gas produced by a type of harmful bacteria lets roundworms know to stay away from it, says a new study published in eLife.
Researchers find that hunger hormones offer promising avenue for addiction treatment
Hormones that signal the body's state of hunger and fullness could be the key to new treatments for drug and alcohol addiction.
Research on British teeth unlocks potential for new insights into ancient diets
Goofy, yellow and crooked: British smiles have sometimes had a less-than-flattering international image, but a new study has put tartar from our infamously bad teeth to good use.
Social isolation: Animals that break away from the pack can influence evolution
For some animals -- such as beetles, ants, toads, and primates -- short-term social isolation can be just as vital as social interaction to development and long-term evolution.
Why men might recover from flu faster than women
Men may recover more quickly from influenza infections because they produce more of a key lung-healing protein, a study from scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests.
Majority of older adults with probable dementia are likely unaware they have it, study suggests
A Johns Hopkins Medicine analysis of information gathered for an ongoing and federally sponsored study of aging and disability adds to evidence that a substantial majority of older adults with probable dementia in the United States have never been professionally diagnosed or are unaware they have been.
Researchers enable transmission of specific colors of light over long distances
Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing.
As we get parched, cognition can easily sputter, dehydration study says
Getting parched can fuzz attentiveness and make it harder to solve problems.
New cost-effective instrument measures molecular dynamics on a picosecond timescale
Studying the photochemistry has shown that ultraviolet radiation can set off harmful chemical reactions in the human body and, alternatively, can provide 'photo-protection' by dispersing extra energy.
How does the sun's rotational cycle influence lightning activity on earth?
A collaborative research team in Japan has taken the first steps to understanding how the sun's rotational cycle influences lightning activity.
New target protein for colon cancer identified
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified a new potential target protein (c-Cbl) they believe can help further the understanding of colon cancer and ultimately survival of patients with the disease.
The ancient armor of fish -- scales -- provide clues to hair, feather development
How do scale patterns on fish provide understanding of the development of feathers, fur -- and even cancer?
Discrepancies found in prescription drug labeling pregnancy information across four countries
A study comparing the evidence and recommendation levels of pregnancy information in new prescription drug labeling found significant discrepancies in labeling information among the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Korea.
Study shows 5,000 percent increase in native trees on rat-free palmyra atoll
New research published in PLOS ONE this week demonstrates dramatic positive benefits for native trees following rat removal at Palmyra Atoll, a magnificent National Wildlife Refuge and natural research laboratory located about 1000 miles south of Hawaii.
End-of-life care across England not prioritized, despite aging population
Research by King's College London has found that English local authorities have failed to prioritize palliative and end-of-life care, despite the health care challenges posed by a rapidly aging population.
Brain changes responsible for the appetite effects of cannabis identified in animal studies
New research on how cannabis use alters eating behavior could lead to treatments for appetite loss in chronic illness, according to experts at Washington State University.
Solutions to water challenges reside at the interface
Leading Argonne National Laboratory researcher Seth Darling describes the most advanced research innovations that could address global clean water accessibility.
Study: Childhood abuse linked to greater risk of endometriosis
A study of more than 60,000 women has found that sexual and physical abuse in childhood and adolescence is associated with a greater risk of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis diagnosed during adulthood.
Childhood adversity increases susceptibility to addiction via immune response
Childhood adversity permanently alters the peripheral and central immune systems, increasing the sensitivity of the body's immune response to cocaine, reports a study by researchers at the IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation and University of Rome 'La Sapienza', Italy.
A dozen new moons of Jupiter discovered, including one 'oddball'
Twelve new moons orbiting Jupiter have been found -- 11 'normal' outer moons, and one that they're calling an 'oddball.' A team led by Carnegie's Scott S.
Black children subjected to higher discipline rates than peers
Elementary school discipline policies that rely on expulsions or suspensions as punishment may be fostering childhood inequality, a new study shows.
Study demonstrates impact of temperature on mitochondrial DNA evolution
A new study by researchers at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), provides evidence towards selection in mtDNA due to variations in temperature.
Free malaria tests coupled with diagnosis-dependent vouchers for over-the-counter malaria treatment
Coupling free diagnostic tests for malaria with discounts on artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) when malaria is diagnosed can improve the rational use of ACTs and boost testing rates, according to a cluster-randomized trial published this week in PLOS Medicine by Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara of Duke University, USA, and colleagues.
Early supper associated with lower risk of breast and prostate cancer
People who have their evening meal before 9 p.m. or wait at least two hours before going to sleep have lower risk of breast and prostate cancer.
Obesity and inflammation -- A deadly combination for prostate cancer
A new Osaka-centered study identified the mechanisms of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced prostate cancer progression.
Algorithm identifies patients best suited for antidepressants
Results of a new study bring us closer to identifying individuals likely to benefit from antidepressants.
Gold nanoparticles to find applications in hydrogen economy
The international team of scientist of Peter the Great St.
Major study identifies new hay fever risk genes
In a large international study involving almost 900,000 participants, researchers from the University of Copenhagen and COPSAC have found new risk genes for hay fever.
High vinculin levels help keep aging fruit fly hearts young
A new discovery in how heart muscles maintain their shape in fruit flies sheds light on the crucial relationship between cardiac function, metabolism, and longevity.
No more zigzags: Scientists uncover mechanism that stabilizes fusion plasmas
Article describes simulation of mechanism that eliminates sawtooth instabilities in fusion plasmas.
Digital media use linked to behavioral problems in kids
Teens who spend lots of time using digital devices are prone to psychiatric problems, reports a team of USC scientists in a new study that appears today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
For professional baseball players, faster hand-eye coordination linked to batting performance
Professional baseball players who score higher on a test of hand-eye coordination have better batting performance -- particularly in drawing walks and other measures of 'plate discipline,' reports a study in the July issue of Optometry and Vision Science, the official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.
The scent of coffee appears to boost performance in math
Research at Stevens Institute of Technology reveals that the scent of coffee alone may help people perform better on the analytical portion of the Graduate Management Aptitude Test, or GMAT, a computer adaptive test required by many business schools.
Study examines strength of evidence of drugs granted 'breakthrough' approval
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created the Breakthrough Therapy designation in 2012 to expedite the development and review of drugs and biologics intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions when preliminary clinical evidence suggested better improvement over existing therapies.
Sap-sucking bugs manipulate their host plants' metabolism for their own benefit
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany, have shown for the first time that free-living, sap-sucking bugs can manipulate the metabolism of their host plants to create stable, nutritious feeding sites.
White mass shooters receive sympathetic media treatment
White mass shooters receive much more sympathetic treatment in the media than black shooters, according to a new study that analyzed coverage of 219 attacks.
Variations of a single gene drive diverse pigeon feather patterns
In a new study, a team led by University of Utah biologists has discovered that different versions of a single gene, called NDP (Norrie Disease Protein), have unexpected links between color patterns in pigeons, and vision defects in humans.
FSU research finds troubling disadvantages, including bias, against women in business
Florida State University researchers, Drs. Gang Wang and Michael Holmes, uncover startling findings about the role of gender on CEOs' careers following their investigation of decades of research focusing on business management practices.
Close-ups of grain boundaries reveal how sulfur impurities make nickel brittle
Engineers at the University of California San Diego have shed new light on a scientific mystery regarding the atomic-level mechanism of the sulfur embrittlement of nickel, a classic problem that has puzzled the scientific community for nearly a century.
Decade of research shows little improvement in websites' password guidance
Leading brands including Amazon and Wikipedia are failing to support users with advice on how to securely protect their data, a study shows.
Study: Protein found to be key component in irregularly excited brain cells
In a new study in mice, researchers have identified a key protein involved in the irregular brain cell activity seen in autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy.
The freediving champions of the dolphin world
New research explains how some populations of bottlenose dolphins can dive to almost 1,000 meters while avoiding decompression sickness.
The depths of the ocean and gut flora unravel the mystery of microbial genes
Surprisingly, the functions of a huge number of microbial genes are still unknown.
GPM satellite sees Tropical Cyclone Son-Tinh dropping rain in the Philippines
As Tropical Depression 11W was strengthening into Tropical Storm Son-tinh near the northern Philippines, the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite analyzed its rainfall.
Who made the error? The brain distinguishes causes of errors to perform adaptation
Osaka University scientists examined positions to detect motor and target errors and whether error signals from these positions were used for learning, finding that the parietal lobe detected causes of motor errors in arm reaching and provided signals to compensate for errors.
Newly discovered shark species honors female pioneer
The 'Shark Lady,' Mote Marine Lab founder Eugenie Clark, has received the ultimate ichthyologist honor: having a new species of shark, Squalus clarkae, named after her.
Molecular tracer, seen with PET scan, shows concentrations of abnormal proteins
In a small study of military personnel who had suffered head trauma and had reported memory and mood problems, UCLA researchers found brain changes similar to those seen in retired football players with suspected chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a degenerative brain disease linked to repeated blows to the head
Getting to a 75 percent sugar reduction: How researchers discovered sweet spot for Stevia
JULY 17, 2018 (Brussels, Belgium) -- A team of 27 scientists working with a major stevia supplier has created a systematic way to spot blends of steviol glycosides with outstanding taste performance.
The rise of secondary imaging interpretations
Among Medicare beneficiaries, the frequency of billed secondary interpretation services for diagnostic imaging services increased from 2003 to 2016 across a broad range of modalities and body regions, often dramatically.
Studies of all PIH proteins in zebrafish reveal distinct roles in axonemal dynein assembly
A research team led by Masahide Kikkawa, a professor of the University of Tokyo, established zebrafish mutants of all four PIH-protein genes and solved the structures of axonemal dyneins in mutant spermatozoa by cryo-electron tomography.
A single genetic change in gut bacteria alters host metabolism
Scientists have found that deleting a single gene in a particular strain of gut bacteria causes changes in metabolism and reduced weight gain in mice.
SD mines scientists and students contribute to IceCube breakthrough
An international team of scientists, including researchers at the South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, have found the first evidence of a source of high-energy cosmic neutrinos, ghostly subatomic particles that can travel unhindered for billions of light years from the most extreme environments in the universe to Earth.
Immigrants and their children are more likely to be profiled for citizenship
Law enforcement official are most likely to ask first- or second-generation Latinos for papers proving their right to be in the US.
Feeding plants to this algae could fuel your car
The research shows that a freshwater production strain of microalgae, Auxenochlorella protothecoides, is capable of directly degrading and utilizing non-food plant substrates, such as switchgrass, for improved cell growth and lipid productivity, useful for boosting the algae's potential value as a biofuel.
BU: Almost half of US adults who drink, drink too much, and continue to do so
A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers has found that about 40 percent of adults in the United States who drink alcohol do so in amounts that risk health consequences, and identifies a range of factors associated with starting or stopping drinking too much.
Homogeneous BTK occupancy assay
A time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based BTK occupancy assay measures target engagement in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in lymph-node and bone-marrow samples.
Exploding waves from colliding dissipative pulses
The interaction of traveling waves in dissipative systems, physical systems driven by energy dissipation, can yield unexpected and sometimes chaotic results.
The pain circuit breaker
In a new study published in the journal Peer J this week, researchers at UniSA's Body in Mind Research Group have found people suffering osteoarthritis in the knees reported reduced pain when exposed to visual illusions that altered the size of their knees.
Effort to preserve lory population shows success
A long-term plan to preserve the Rimatara lorikeet by restoring an extirpated population of the species on a neighboring island that is free of predatory ship rats is demonstrating the importance of this kind of protective program for the sustainability of endangered bird species. A case study published in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) report Global Reintroduction Perspectives: 2018--Case Studies from Around the Globe sums up the results of an effort that began in 2000.
World's largest study on allergic rhinitis reveals new risk genes
An international team of scientists led by Helmholtz Zentrum München and University of Copenhagen has presented the largest study so far on allergic rhinitis in the journal 'Nature Genetics'.
UTA regional assessment shows segregation, challenges
After extensively analyzing fair housing in North Texas, UTA researchers have discovered that in many cases, segregation and associated problems are becoming more pronounced.
Forty percent of people have a fictional first memory, says study
Researchers have conducted one of the largest surveys of people's first memories, finding that nearly 40 per cent of people had a first memory which is fictional.
Potential for Antarctica to become plastics dumping ground and home for new species
Antarctica is not as isolated from the rest of the world as scientists have thought, new research reveals, with potential for drifting plastics to create problems in the continent in future and new species to colonise there as the climate warms.
Despite digital revolution, distance still matters
Even when people have well-connected social networks beyond their home cities and across state lines, they are still most frequently interacting with people who are geographically nearby.
Hormonal data in breath from whales interpreted for health indicators
Scientists were able to capture 100 blow samples from 46 right whales.

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