Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 18, 2018
Experts address ways to support latest science education standards
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are K-12 science content standards, with three dimensions that are integrated in instruction at all levels: core ideas, science and engineering practices, and cross-cutting concepts.

Which strategies help cut consumption of sugary beverages in young children?
An Obesity Reviews analysis of published studies reveals strategies that can successfully reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in young children.

NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts
Scientists from the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute have developed a new bone engineering technique called Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering (SATE).

Mediterranean diet may improve academic performance by affecting sleep
A new Acta Paediatrica study indicates that following the Mediterranean diet may improve adolescents' academic performance, and the effect may relate to sleep quality.

Study finds high health burdens of very high risk drinking
In an Addiction Biology study, the estimated prevalence of very high risk drinking level (VHRDL, defined as drinking >100 g of ethanol per day) in 13 European Union countries was 0.74-0.85 percent, with a risk of disease or injury of 13.5 per 100 people with VHRDL per year.

Study reveals benefits of yoga for pregnant women
New research in pregnant women suggests that practicing yoga activates the parasympathetic nervous system (which is responsible for bodily functions when at rest) during the third trimester, improves sleep at night, and decreases α-amylase levels, indicating reduced stress.

AI technology could help protect water supplies
Progress on new artificial intelligence (AI) technology could make monitoring at water treatment plants cheaper and easier and help safeguard public health.

Study results may lead to improved diagnostics for breast cancer
A study in Molecular Oncology indicates that examining the protein and RNA in leftover materials from routine diagnostic tests for breast cancer may lead to more accurate diagnoses.

Cancer patients may experience delayed skin effects of anti-PD-1 therapy
Cancer patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies who develop lesions, eczema, psoriasis, or other forms of auto-immune diseases affecting the skin may experience those adverse reactions on a delay -- sometimes even after treatment has concluded.

FEFU scientists reported on toxicity of carbon and silicon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers
Nanoparticles with a wide range of applying, including medicine, damage cells of microalgae Heterosigma akashivo badly.

Cannabinoids may have a vast array of anti-cancer effects
Previous research has shown that cannabinoids can help lessen side effects of anti-cancer therapies.

Fish consumption may prolong life
Consumption of fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids was associated with lower risks of early death in a Journal of Internal Medicine study.

PCI patients discharged against medical advice twice as likely to be readmitted
In a new study, researchers found discharge against medical advice as the strongest predictor of 30-day unplanned readmissions in heart attack patients.

Bacterial armor could be a new target for antibiotics
Boosting efforts to fight antibiotic resistance, Stanford researchers have found that a thin membrane, thought to be just a shrink wrap around some bacterial cell walls, has structural properties critical for survival.

Research identifies new breast cancer therapeutic target
Research led by Suresh Alahari, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has shown for the first time that a tiny piece of RNA deregulates energy metabolism, an emerging hallmark of cancer.

CT scans may increase the risk of brain cancer
A new study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute suggests that CT scans, commonly used in medical imaging, may increase the risk of brain tumors.

Artery hardening and thickness not affected by stopping hormone therapy
Heart disease is still the number one killer of US women, and hormone therapy remains a top treatment for menopause symptoms.

When should emergency departments order imaging tests for epileptic seizures?
Patients who go to the emergency department (ED) with seizures often undergo neuroimaging, usually CT scans.

Breath tests may allow for earlier detection of pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer carries a very poor prognosis as most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage.

'Nowcasting' beach water quality
Arriving at your favorite beach only to discover it's closed because of bacterial contamination can be a bummer.

Gut's 'taste buds' help school the immune system in the thymus
UC San Francisco researchers were recently surprised to discover fully formed gut and skin cells in the thymus, a lemon-sized organ that sits in front of the heart and is responsible for training the T cells of the immune system not to attack the body's own tissues.

Innate stress
A team of researchers from the Higher School of Economics and the RAS Vavilov Institute of General Genetics has been able to statistically monitor the impact of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) on the subjective evaluation of well-being among men.

UCI-led study finds therapy dogs effective in reducing symptoms of ADHD
In a first of its kind randomized trial, researchers from the UCI School of Medicine found therapy dogs to be effective in reducing the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children.

Low-dose ketamine may be an effective alternative to opioids
Opioids are commonly prescribed in the emergency department (ED) for the treatment of acute pain, but due to the epidemic of opioid misuse, analgesic alternatives are being explored.

Proteomics studies on the basic biology of Alzheimer's, cancer and listeriosis
Recent articles in the journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics investigate metabolic quirks of cancer cells, the effects of inhibiting the enzyme that generates amyloid beta, and the mechanism by which a bacterial toxin kills host cells.

Otago-led research cites faulty science and ethics in DNA analyzes of 'Ata'
University of Otago-led international collaborative research calls into question the ethics and skeletal and genomic analysis surrounding research into the much publicised alien-like 'Atacama mummy'.

Moderate alcohol consumption may boost male fertility
The question of whether alcohol intake affects male reproductive function is controversial.

New research shows little effect of omega 3 on risk of heart disease, stroke or death
Omega 3 is a type of fat. Small amounts of omega 3 fats are essential for good health, and they can be found in the food that we eat.

UM professor studies complexities of biodiversity, disease transmission
Biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate as infectious diseases increasingly spill over from wildlife to humans.

TGen-led study shows DNA methylation related to liver disease among obese patients
A TGen-led team has identified how DNA methylation is associated with a condition known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which can lead to liver cirrhosis and death, and is one of the leading indicators for liver transplants.

Autism risk determined by health of mom's gut, UVA research reveals
The mother's microbiome, the collection of microscopic organisms that live inside us, determines the risk of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in her offspring, new research from the UVA School of Medicine shows.

Scientists uncover DNA 'shield' w/crucial roles in normal cell division
New fundamental complex in cells drives 'messy' form of DNA repair.

Study offers strategies to prevent death by suicide in patients with cancer
In addition to focusing on curing or prolonging the life of patients with cancer, it is important to also address mental health aspects of cancer care, especially because there is an elevated incidence of death by suicide in this patient population.

Biological signalling processes in intelligent materials
Researchers are developing innovative biohybrid systems with information processing functionality.

Sugar improves memory in over-60s, helping them work smarter
Sugar improves memory in older adults -- and makes them more motivated to perform difficult tasks at full capacity -- according to new research by the University of Warwick.

Prolonged opioid use before knee or hip replacement surgery increases risk of poor outcomes
Patients who take prescription opioids for more than 60 days before total knee or hip replacement surgery are at significantly higher risk of being readmitted to the hospital and of undergoing repeat joint-replacement surgery, compared to patients with no preoperative opioid use, reports a study in the July 18 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Dementia could be detected via routinely collected data, new research shows
A new machine-learning model that scans routinely collected NHS data has shown promising signs of being able to predict undiagnosed dementia in primary care, according to research by the University of Plymouth.

Lower default amount of opioid pills in electronic medical record may reduce opioid prescribing
Lowering the default amount of opioid pills prescribed to patients in a health care system's electronic medical record was associated with a deccrease in the amount of opioids prescribed systemwide.

Beef jerky and other processed meats associated with manic episodes
An analysis of more than 1,000 people with and without psychiatric disorders has shown that nitrates--chemicals used to cure meats such as beef jerky, salami, hot dogs and other processed meat snacks--may contribute to mania, an abnormal mood state.

NSF-supported researchers to present new results on hurricanes and other extreme events
The availability of water from underground aquifers is vital to the basic needs of more than 1.5 billion people worldwide.

For Mexican immigrants, politics is a family affair
SF State Assistant Professor of Political Science Marcela García-Castañon researches the important role spousal relationships play in forming political identities among immigrants, especially in today's political climate.

Splitting water: Nanoscale imaging yields key insights
In the quest to realize artificial photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel -- just as plants do -- researchers need to not only identify materials to efficiently perform photoelectrochemical water splitting, but also to understand why a certain material may or may not work.

Fatty liver disease pandemic needs 'gold standard' human-relevant research
New study calls for human-based tools to unravel the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Scientists discover a mechanism of drug resistance in breast and ovarian cancer
A new study helps explain why certain cancers don't respond to treatment, and offers hope for overcoming this deadly resistance.

Materials processing tricks enable engineers to create new laser material
By doping alumina crystals with neodymium ions, engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a new laser material that is capable of emitting ultra-short, high-power pulses -- a combination that could potentially yield smaller, more powerful lasers with superior thermal shock resistance, broad tunability and high-duty cycles.

Compound identified that protects against neurodegeneration
Researchers from the University of Liverpool have identified a new compound that protects against neurodegeneration in nematode worms.

Cities as study proxies for climate change
Cities can serve as useful proxies to study and predict the effects of climate change, according to a North Carolina State University research review that tracks urbanization's effects on plant and insect species.

Researchers identify characteristics of over the counter skin lightening users
(Boston) -- The desire for unblemished, clear skin permeates all cultures and societies, making the practice of skin lightening to minimize spots and even a skin tone quite common worldwide.

HIV infection doubles risk of heart disease, global study finds
People infected with HIV are twice as likely to suffer from heart disease, research has found.

Warming rivers make marked contribution to global greenhouse gas levels
Warming streams and rivers could be disproportionately contributing to the amount of planet-warming greenhouse gases, according to a new study.

P38 alpha: The switch controlling obesity and diabetes
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC) have now uncovered the mechanism by which brown fat cells are activated to generate heat and eliminate excess fat.

Lake bed reveals details about ancient Earth
Sulfate samples from an ancient lake bed yield new clues about the 'Boring Billion' years in Earth history between 'oxygenation events' that allowed life as we know it.

Memorization test & resting state EEG components in mild & subjective cognitive impairment
Memorization test and non linear EEG analysis could be helpful in identifying subjects at high risk of dementia at the very early stages of cognitive impairment.

Water may be key to understanding sweetness
A cranberry, honey or a candy bar - which tastes the sweetest?

Social media can help with recovery for those who self-injure, U of G prof finds
Those who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) often go online for information and support.

Finding a planet with a 10 years orbit in a few months
To discover the presence of a planet around stars, astronomers wait until it has completed three orbits.

Iowa State study: Air pollution negatively associated with US national park visitation
The research matched pollution data to monthly park visitation statistics at 33 heavily visited national parks and found that visitation responds most to ozone during months with poor air quality.

In rats, perinatal exposure to phthalates impairs brain structure and function
Rats exposed in the womb and during lactation to plasticizing chemicals known as phthalates had fewer neurons and synapses than those that were not exposed, researchers report in a new study.

Physicians who visit patients post-hospitalization give more comprehensive discharge plans
(Boston)-- When resident physicians visit the homes of their former hospital patients they are better able to assess patient needs and understand the important role that community services and agencies play in keeping them at home and out of the hospital, according to a new study by Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM).

Suomi NPP satellite finds an elongated Tropical Storm Ampil
Tropical Depression 12W formed in the Philippine Sea and NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite analyzed the storm in infrared light.

Origami-inspired device helps marine biologists study aliens
Scientists have tried to find the safest and most effective ways to explore marine life in the oceanic water, the largest and least explored environment on Earth, for years.

Sunscreen reduces melanoma risk by 40 per cent in young people
A world-first study led by University of Sydney has found that Australians aged 18-40 years who were regular users of sunscreen in childhood reduced their risk of developing melanoma by 40 percent, compared to those who rarely used sunscreen.

Traditional Tibetan medicine exposes people and environment to high mercury levels
Many people view the Tibetan Plateau, or 'Roof of the World,' as a pristine alpine environment, largely untouched by pollution.

In the ocean's twilight zone, tiny organisms may have giant effect on Earth's carbon cycle
In a new study that challenges scientists' presuppositions about the carbon cycle, researchers find that tiny organisms may be playing in outside role in the way carbon is circulated throughout the ocean.

Old Theban port of Chalcis: A medieval maritime crossroads in Greece
One CNRS researcher, in cooperation with Greek colleagues, has focused her attention on a widely disseminated style of ceramics called the 'main Middle Byzantine Production,' found in all four corners of the Mediterranean.

More category 5 hurricanes forecasted by scientists
Researchers at Chapman University have learned from studying 2012's Hurricane Sandy, that we are more likely to see larger, more powerful hurricanes in the future.

Alcohol-related cirrhosis deaths skyrocket in young adults
Liver disease deaths jumped by 65 percent in the United States, from 1999-2016, disproportionately affecting adults ages 25-34.

Lateral gene transfer enables chemical protection of beetles against antagonistic fungi
An international team of researchers has discovered that bacteria associated to Lagria villosa beetles can produce an antifungal substance very similar to one found in tunicates living in the marine environment.

Timing of dinner may affect breast and prostate cancer risk
A new International Journal of Cancer study reveals that eating an early supper and having a long interval between the last meal and sleep are associated with lower breast and prostate cancer risks.

Barley heads east
New study identifies human choice and environmental adaptation as crucial factors for the spread of food staple in prehistory.

Link found between bitter-taste sensitivity and cancer risk
High bitter-taste sensitivity is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer in older British women, according to researchers who conducted a unique study of 5,500 women whose diet, lifestyle and health has been tracked for about 20 years.

Voluntary medical male circumcision may cost-effectively prevent HIV in Zimbabwe
Voluntary medical male circumcision could impact Zimbabwe's HIV epidemic in the coming years, and this investment may save costs in the longer term.

Erasing the memory of T cells could reverse vitiligo symptoms
Researchers have found that targeting the activity of a class of T cells restores pigmentation of the skin in a mouse model of vitiligo.

Heart attack risk on the rise for pregnant women and death rate remains high
Study shows that the risk of having a heart attack while pregnant, giving birth, or during the two months after delivery, continues to increase for American women.

Novel approach studies whale shark ages the best way -- while they are swimming
A new study of whale sharks, using a novel approach to gathering data, shows these endangered animals can live longer and grow larger than previously believed.

Scientists lack vital knowledge on rapid Arctic climate change
Arctic climate change research relies on field measurements and samples that are too scarce, and patchy at best, according to a comprehensive review study from Lund University in Sweden.

Asian-Americans face barriers to healthy aging
Older Asian-American immigrants are healthier and happier if they are socially active, connected to their families and communities and are able to maintain their cultural values while adapting to western culture, according to a new Rutgers study.

Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas
A first-of-its-kind survey of the world's sandy shorelines with satellite data found that they have increased slightly on a global scale over the past three decades but decreased in protected marine areas, where many beaches are eroding.

Poor air quality does not offset exercise's heart benefits
Even in areas with moderate to high levels of traffic pollution, regular physical activity reduced the risk of first and recurrent heart attack.

Glowing bacteria on deep-sea fish shed light on evolution, 'third type' of symbiosis
For the first time, scientists have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of bacteria that live in anglerfish bulbs.

New creepy, crawly search and rescue robot developed at Ben-Gurion U
'The RSTAR is ideal for search and rescue operations in unstructured environments, such as collapsed buildings or flooded areas, where it must adapt and overcome a variety of successive obstacles to reach its target,' says Dr.

Do stress balls or hand holding reduce anxiety during skin cancer surgery?
Exploring whether hand-holding or squeezing a stress ball would reduce patient anxiety during skin cancer surgery under local anesthesia was the main focus of this randomized clinical trial.

Molecular culprits of protein aggregation in ALS and FTLD
The mutated and aggregated protein FUS is implicated in two neurodegenerative diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).

A carcinogen at the gym
Gyms are places people go to get healthier. But nearly half the gyms in the U.S. contain a potentially addictive carcinogen -- tanning beds, report UConn researchers in the July 18 issue of JAMA Dermatology.

SwRI-led team creates high-fidelity images of Sun's atmosphere
A Southwest Research Institute-led team discovered never-before-detected, fine-grained structures in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona.

Neurons can carry more than one signal at a time
New research from Duke University shows that neurons in the brain can carry two signals at once, using a strategy similar to multiplexing in telecommunications.

Social Impact Bonds have a role but are no panacea for public service reform
The first evaluation of Social Impact Bonds (SIB) in health and social care in England suggests that while they encourage a stronger emphasis on demonstrating results than comparable ways of commissioning public services, there is still no clear evidence that SIBs lead to better client outcomes or if they are more cost-effective than alternative approaches.

A safe and effective way to whiten teeth
In the age of Instagram and Snapchat, everyone wants to have perfect pearly whites.

Metal too 'gummy' to cut? Draw on it with a Sharpie or glue stick, science says
Your everyday permanent markers, glue sticks and packing tape may offer a surprisingly low-tech solution to a long-standing nuisance in the manufacturing industry: Making soft and ductile, or so-called 'gummy' metals easier to cut.

Overuse of antibiotics not what the doctor ordered
With increased use of antibiotics worldwide linked to growing antibiotic resistance, a world-first study co-authored by a QUT researcher has highlighted the growing impact of non-prescription supply of antibiotics in community pharmacies, and the urgent need for better enforcement of laws.

Supersharp images from new VLT adaptive optics
ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has achieved first light with a new adaptive optics mode called laser tomography -- and has captured remarkably sharp test images of the planet Neptune and other objects.

Doing school differently
Alternative schooling programs could deliver greater learning outcomes for young people who are struggling at school.

Atlantic circulation is not collapsing -- but as it shifts gears, warming will reaccelerate
Data suggest that the recent, rapid slowdown of the Atlantic Ocean circulation is not a sign of imminent collapse, but a shift back toward a more sluggish phase.

New retinal ganglion cell subtypes emerge from single-cell RNA sequencing
Single-cell sequencing technologies are filling in fine details in the catalog of life.

Using adrenaline in cardiac arrests results in less than 1 percent more people leaving hospital alive
A clinical trial of the use of adrenaline in cardiac arrests has found that its use results in less than 1 percent more people leaving hospital alive -- but almost doubles the risk of severe brain damage for survivors of cardiac arrest.

Study first to confirm where baby white sharks 'hang out' in the North Atlantic
A team of scientists is the first to confirm the movement patterns and seasonal migrations of baby white sharks in the north Atlantic Ocean.

Great Barrier Reef not bouncing back as before, but there is hope
The Great Barrier Reef is losing its ability to recover from disturbances, but effective local management could revive its capacity to bounce back.

Study finds melanoma biomarkers predicting checkpoint blocker response
Scientists at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center (DF/BWCC) have identified biomarkers in melanoma that could help tailor immunotherapy treatments to maximize the benefits for patients while reducing the likelihood of severe side effects.

Solar thermal energy will help China cut costs of climate action
A new study investigates the best combination of renewables for providing the lowest cost to power system operators in two of China's provinces best suited to scale up renewable energy.

The relationship between charge density waves and superconductivity? It's complicated
For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material.

Researchers solve mystery of how ALL enters the central nervous system
A research team led by Duke Cancer Institute scientists has found that this blood cancer infiltrates the central nervous system not by breaching the blood-brain barrier, but by evading the barrier altogether.

Light-controlled polymers can switch between sturdy and soft
MIT researchers have designed a polymer material that can change its structure in response to light, converting from a rigid substance to a softer one that can heal itself when damaged.

China's livestock transition: Driving forces, impacts, and consequences
To explore the impact of 'livestock revolution' (or transition) in China, a research group led by Prof MA Lin from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, together with collaborators from home and abroad, quantified the livestock transition by using a Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response framework.

Searching for wind for the future
The first quantification of wind energy in Saudi Arabia points to high wind power potential for many decades to come.

UCLA engineers develop world's most efficient semiconductor for thermal management
Working to address 'hotspots' in computer chips that degrade their performance, UCLA engineers have developed a new semiconductor material, defect-free boron arsenide, that is more effective at drawing and dissipating waste heat than any other known semiconductor or metal materials.

Planck: final data from the mission lends support to the standard cosmological model
With its increased reliability and its data on the polarisation of relic radiation, the Planck mission corroborates the standard cosmological model with unrivalled precision for these parameters, even if some anomalies still remain.

X-ray data may be first evidence of a star devouring a planet
MIT analysis of X-ray data suggests the first observations of a star swallowing a planet, and may also explain the star's mysterious dimming.

Quick soil test aims to determine nitrogen need
One of the essential nutrients for vigorous crop production is nitrogen.

Discovering structure in the outer corona
Using advanced algorithms and data-cleaning techniques, scientists discovered never-before-detected, fine-grained structures in the outer corona -- the Sun's million-degree atmosphere -- by analyzing images taken by NASA's STEREO spacecraft.

Secular countries can expect future economic growth, confirms new study
New research measuring the importance of religion in 109 countries spanning the entire 20th century has reignited an age-old debate around the link between secularisation and economic growth.

Suomi NPP satellite sees compact storm Son-Tinh Headed for Vietnam
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite flew over Tropical Storm Son-Tinh on July 18 after it crossed over Hainan Island, China and as it moved into the Gulf of Tonkin.

Novel botulinum toxin compound relieves chronic pain
A modified form of botulinum toxin gives long-lasting pain relief in mice without adverse effects and, in time, could replace opioid drugs as a safe and effective way of treating chronic pain, according to research by UCL, the University of Sheffield and the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto.

Puzzling results explained: A multiband approach to Coulomb drag and indirect excitons
A new theoretical study explains previous mystifying experimental results, in which coupled charged particles moved in exactly the opposite direction to that predicted.

Identified RNA molecules that regulate action of male hormone in prostate cancer
A study detected in tumoral tissue hundreds of RNAs that do not encode proteins but appear to regulate effects of androgens and androgen receptors on gene expression in tumors.

Research brief: UMN researchers develop DIY field imaging system
Farmers and plant breeders can now build their own automated field camera track system to collect data on dynamic plant traits, such as crop lodging and movement, as it's happening in the field to help reduce losses in crop yield.

Allergies: Mugwort pollen as main source of airborne endotoxins
Different airborne substances can cause respiratory problems for asthma sufferers.

Billion-year-old lake deposit yields clues to Earth's ancient biosphere
A sample of ancient oxygen, teased out of a 1.4 billion-year-old evaporative lake deposit in Ontario, provides fresh evidence of what the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere were like during the interval leading up to the emergence of animal life.

An underwater pokéball for capturing sea creatures
The ocean is home to millions of soft-bodied creatures -- jellyfish, sponges, octopuses, squid, etc.

Study finds climate determines shapes of river basins
Short and squat, or long and thin? An MIT study finds climate determines a river basin's shape.

Ozone levels in US national parks similar to levels in largest US cities
Ozone concentrations in U.S. national parks like Yellowstone and Acadia were largely indistinguishable from ozone levels in America's largest metropolitan areas between 1990 and 2014, according to a new analysis.

For one tropical tree, effective seed dispersal relies especially on elephants
Deer, bears, gibbons, but especially elephants, play an important role in seed dispersal for a large-fruited tree in the forests of Thailand, according to a new study publishing July 18 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Kim McConkey of the National Institute of Advanced Studies in Bangalore and colleagues from BIOTEC, Thailand.

CALET succeeds in direct measurements of cosmic-ray electron spectrum up to 4.8 TeV
An international team of researchers, led by Professor Shoji Torii of Waseda University, succeeded in the direct, high-precision measurements of cosmic-ray electron spectrum up to 4.8 TeV, based on observations with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to