Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 19, 2018
Lying in a foreign language is easier
It is not easy to tell when someone is lying.

New training platform for big data analysis
The Galaxy Europe project has set up an infrastructure offering online tutorials for researchers in the life sciences.

Complementary medicine for cancer can decrease survival
People who received complementary therapy for curable cancers were more likely to refuse at least one component of their conventional cancer treatment, and were more likely to die as a result, according to researchers from Yale Cancer Center and the Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center (COPPER) at Yale School of Medicine.

Discovery of kidney cancer driver could lead to new treatment strategy
In a study published in the journal Science, researchers suggest that ZHX2 is a potential new therapeutic target for clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is the most common type of kidney cancer.

Neural inflammation plays critical role in stress-induced depression
A group of Japanese researchers has discovered that neural inflammation caused by our innate immune system plays an unexpectedly important role in stress-induced depression.

Study finds Medicaid expansion boosts employment
A study from the University of Kansas found individuals with disabilities were more likely to be employed in states that expanded Medicaid than their peers in non-expansion states, reducing the need to live in poverty to qualify for Medicaid coverage.

How plant breeding technologies could make fruits and vegetables more exciting to eat
Forget vegetables with dull colors and fuzzy skin or fruits that lack of flavor -- the produce aisle of the future could offer plant products that are designed for creative cooks and fussy eaters.

Determining the bioaccumulation of 9 metals in aquatic invertebrates in mining areas
A study conducted by the UPV/EHU's Animal Ecotoxicity and Biodiversity Group in collaboration with the University of Vigo has proposed an ecological threshold concentration of 9 metals for 10 taxa of aquatic macroinvertebrates from clean sites in the Nalón river basin (Asturias).

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers
In research published 18 July in Physical Review X, an international team show that a quantum computer is less in thrall to the arrow of time than a classical computer.

Analytical tool predicts genes that can cause disease by producing altered proteins
A new computational tool predicts genes that can cause disease due to the production of truncated or altered proteins that take on a new or different function, rather than those that lose their function.

A social tool for evaluating the environmental impact of residential buildings
for the first time, an open-source computing tool can, simply and intuitively, calculate the CO2 emissions in each phase of a building project, in order to obtain a global picture of its carbon footprint from its conception and to help decide every variable in the construction process.

Researchers are one step closer to developing eye drops to treat common sight loss condition
Scientists at the University of Birmingham are one step closer to developing an eye drop that could revolutionise treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

From cradle to grave: Model identifies factors that shaped evolution
This study brings us closer to knowing the complex interactions between topography and climate change, and how these factors influence the evolutionary histories and biodiversity of species in natural ecosystems.

High fruit and vegetable consumption may reduce risk of breast cancer
Women who eat a high amount of fruits and vegetables each day may have a lower risk of breast cancer, especially of aggressive tumors, than those who eat fewer fruits and vegetables, according to a new study led by researchers from Harvard T.H.

Disparities in cancer mortality rates among minority subpopulations in NY
Analysis of cancer death data from 2008-2014 in New York state revealed high cancer mortality rates among US-born blacks and Puerto Ricans and relatively low cancer mortality rates among Hispanic South Americans and Asians.

Computer model predicts how fracturing metallic glass releases energy at the atomic level
Metallic glasses are an exciting research target, but the difficulties associated with predicting how much energy these materials release when they fracture is slowing down development of metallic glass-based products.

US opioid prescribing rates by congressional district
Congressional districts with the highest opioid prescribing rates are predominantly concentrated in the southeastern U.S., with other hotspots in Appalachia and the rural west, according to the first study to focus on opioid prescribing rates at the congressional district level.

Scientists reveal the links between deep carbon cycle and geodynamics of big mantle wedge
The formation age of the big mantle wedge beneath eastern Asia and the lithospheric thinning mechanism of the North China craton are two key scientific issues.

Study: ADHD drugs do not improve cognition in healthy college students
Contrary to popular belief across college campuses, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications may fail to improve cognition in healthy students and actually can impair functioning, according to a study by researchers at the University of Rhode Island and Brown University.

Study reveals long-term effectiveness of therapy for common cause of kidney failure
Among individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, those who were treated with tolvaptan for up to 11 years had a slower rate of kidney function decline compared with historical controls.

Low-cost formulas in the manufacturing of non-stick food molds
A University of Córdoba research group designs a new way to manufacture molds allowing small and medium-sized businesses to improve their creativity.

New malicious email detection method that outperforms 60 antivirus engines -- Ben-Gurion
They compared their detection model to 60 industry-leading antivirus engines as well as previous research, and found their system outperformed the next best antivirus engine by 13 percent -- significantly better than such products including Kaspersky, MacAfee and Avast.

Disney Animation to premiere first VR short at SIGGRAPH 2018
Walt Disney Animation Studios will debut its first ever virtual reality short film at SIGGRAPH 2018, and the hope is viewers will walk away feeling connected to the characters as equally as they will with the VR technology involved in making the film.

Tropical Cyclone Son-Tinh makes landfall and NASA examines its trail of rainfall
Tropical Cyclone Son-Tinh made landfall in Vietnam and left a trail of heavy rainfall in its wake.

App, brief intervention may be lifesaver for suicidal teens
A preliminary study from UT Southwestern's O'Donnell Brain Institute shows an intervention program that includes a personalized app could make a difference: Researchers found the rate of attempted suicides by teenagers who received the intervention was halved compared to those who received the standard care during their hospitalization.

Fruit fly species can learn each other's dialects
Fruit flies from different species can warn each other when parasitic wasps are near.

Relax, just break it
Argonne scientists and their collaborators are helping to answer long-held questions about a technologically important class of materials called relaxor ferroelectrics.

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern
An international team of scientists has discovered a new, exotic form of insulating material with a metallic surface that could enable more efficient electronics or even quantum computing.

Plague vaccine bait -- look who's coming to dinner
Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers suspected and have now confirmed that plague vaccine bait, designed to protect prairie dogs and assist with recovery efforts of the black-footed ferret, is readily consumed by thousands of small rodents each year but with no apparent ill effect.

Scientists surmount epigenetic barriers to cloning with two-pronged approach
An international group of researchers have raised the viability of mice that were cloned using a method called somatic cell nuclear transfer, by stimulating two epigenetic factors, and by doing this have shown that creating cloned animals more efficiently will require further work in the area of epigenetics.

New particles are formed also in the polluted air of major cities
Researchers from the University of Helsinki's Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR) have discovered a mechanism that leads to atmospheric new particle formation in megacities.

Oil biodegradation inhibited in deep-sea sediments
Degradation rates of oil were slower in the dark and cold waters of the depths of the Gulf of Mexico than at surface conditions, according to an international team of geoscientists trying to understand where the oil went during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers
A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may have adverse effects on the development of memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.

Newly discovered armored dinosaur from Utah reveals intriguing family history
Fossils of a new genus and species of an ankylosaurid dinosaur -- Akainacephalus johnsoni -- have been unearthed in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in southern Utah, USA, and are revealing new details about the diversity and evolution of this group of armored dinosaurs.

Fewer injuries in girls' sports when high schools have athletic trainers
Availability of a full-time certified athletic trainer in high school reduces overall and recurrent injury rates in girls who play on the soccer or basketball team, according to a study published in Injury Epidemiology.

The influence of plant photosynthetic indices on the effectiveness of PRI use
In the framework of the actively developing practice of ''precision farming'', Lobachevsky University researchers are working to develop and introduce methods for spatially heterogeneous treatment of plants that minimize costs and improve the ecological quality of the crops, due to the less intensive use of chemical compounds.

Phages work together to suppress CRISPR bacterial immunity
CRISPR are an essential part of bacterial immunity designed to defend against foreign DNA.

Having the right name helps one to find housing
Discrimination against ethnic minorities on the housing market is declining -- in Germany and other Western European countries and in the USA.

Diabetes increases the risk of cancer, with a higher risk in women
Diabetes is a risk factor for all-site cancer for both men and women, but the increased risk is higher in women than in men, according to a new article in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).

Association of complementary medicine, cancer treatment, survival
The use of complementary medicine by patients with four common cancers (breast, prostate, lung or colorectal) was associated with refusal of conventional cancer treatment and with a greater risk of death, although the difference in survival may be alleviated by adherence to all recommended conventional cancer therapies.

Robots working as a group are able to determine the optimal order of their tasks
Could robots soon help rescue crews save the survivors of a natural disaster?

The Lancet: Response to HIV/AIDS epidemic at risk of 'dangerous complacency' as urgent change in approach is needed
HIV rates persist in high risk, marginalised populations and the Commission authors warn that a resurgence of the epidemic is likely as the largest generation of young people age into adolescence and adulthood.

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes
Thermal runaway has been a long-standing issue impeding the development of high-energy-density batteries.

Building blocks of life
A collaborative research team based in Japan has designed new proteins that can self-assemble into the complex structures underlying biological organisms, laying the groundwork for leading-edge applications in biotechnology.

Low/no calorie soft drinks linked to improved outcomes in advanced colon cancer patients
Drinking artificially-sweetened beverages is associated with a significantly lower risk of colon cancer recurrence and cancer death, a team of investigators led by a Yale Cancer Center scientist has found.

Mayo Clinic study: Anesthesia, surgery linked to decline in memory and thinking
In adults over 70, exposure to general anesthesia and surgery is associated with a subtle decline in memory and thinking skills, according to new Mayo Clinic research.

The puzzling problems of urban particle formation
Researchers who studied the heavily polluted air of Shanghai, China, between 2014 and 2016 report the chemical conditions that led to the surprising formation of new particles in the city's atmosphere, particles that likely worsened regional air quality.

Monkeys benefit from the nut-cracking abilities of chimpanzees and hogs
Researchers of the University of Amsterdam and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology describe for the first time the scavenging behaviour of mangabey monkeys, guinea fowls, and squirrels on energy-rich nut remnants cracked by chimpanzees and red river hogs.

Yeast species used in food industry causes disease in humans
A major cause of drug-resistant clinical yeast infections is the same species previously regarded as non-pathogenic and commonly used in the biotechnology and food industries.

Scientists uncover the role of a protein in production & survival of myelin-forming cells
A paper published today in Nature Communications explains how researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center of The City University of New York have uncovered the role of a protein known as 'PRMT5' in the production of myelin and, ultimately, proper development and function of the Central Nervous System.

Younger children tend to make more informed decisions
A new study from the University of Waterloo has found that in some ways, the older you get the worse your decision making becomes.

Colombia peace deal brings new threat to country's rainforest
The historic peace treaty in Colombia which brought an end to half a century of violence has led to mass deforestation.

Food for thought: How the brain reacts to food may be linked to overeating
The reason why some people find it so hard to resist finishing an entire bag of chips or bowl of candy may lie with how their brain responds to food rewards, according to researchers who found that when certain regions of the brain reacted more strongly to being rewarded with food than being rewarded with money, those people were more likely to overeat.

Enzyme identified as possible novel drug target for sickle cell disease, Thalassemia
Medical researchers have identified a key signaling protein that regulates hemoglobin production in red blood cells, offering a possible target for a future innovative drug to treat sickle cell disease.

Rapid cloud clearing phenomenon could provide another piece of climate puzzle
Researchers from North Carolina State University have described rapid and dramatic clearing of low cloud cover off the southwest coast of Africa.

Deep-diving scientists say shallow reefs can't rely on twilight zone systems for recovery
A team of highly trained scientific divers -- led by researchers from the California Academy of Sciences -- explored Pacific and western Atlantic reefs to test a widely held hypothesis that climate-stressed life from shallow reefs can take refuge at mesophotic depths (100-500 feet beneath the ocean's surface).

BU researcher receives NIH award to examine repetitive head injuries in former NFL players
Michael Alosco, PhD, assistant professor of neurology at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), has received a five-year, $793,000 K23 Award from the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).

A 'fingerprint' for anthropogenic climate change in a new place
Adding to evidence attributing observed atmospheric changes to manmade influences, climate scientists leveraging satellite data from recent decades have identified a human 'fingerprint' on Earth's atmosphere in a new place: the troposphere, or, the lowest region of the atmosphere.

Viruses cooperate to overcome immune defences of bacteria
Virus particles that infect bacteria can work together to overcome antiviral defences, new research shows.

Generic direct acting antivirals in treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients
There has been published results of the study 'ORIGINAL VERSUS GENERIC DIRECT ACTING ANTIVIRALS IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C PATIENTS: REAL LIFE DATA FROM LATVIA' authored by Tolmane I, Rozentale B, Arutjunana S et al., recently.

Diabetes during pregnancy may increase baby's heart disease risk
Gestational diabetes may increase the risk of blood vessel dysfunction and heart disease in offspring by altering a smooth muscle protein responsible for blood vessel network formation.

China's 'livestock revolution' demands 'new transition'
Demand for animal protein and increasing wealth fuelled a tripling in the domestic production of livestock in China between 1980 and 2010, and the rise, despite some improvements in efficiencies at the farm level, had significant impacts on environmental sustainability, nationally and globally.

Association of monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation and cancer risk
Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation without calcium for up to four years wasn't associated with reduced cancer risk among adults in New Zealand.

Wait, just a second, is your doctor listening?
On average, patients get about 11 seconds to explain the reasons for their visit before they are interrupted by their doctors.

Broken bones among older people increase risk of death for up to 10 years
Broken bones among older people increase their risk of death for up to 10 years, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Diabetes raises risk of cancer, with women at even greater likelihood, a major new study has found
A global review involving almost 20 million people has shown that having diabetes significantly raises the risk of developing cancer, and for women the risk is even higher.

Evidence of Salmonella Paratyphi C found for the first time in medieval northern Europe
Genome research conducted by the University of Warwick suggests that enteric fever, a potentially lethal disease more commonly found in hot countries, was present in medieval Europe.

Taking the lead toward witchweed control
A compound that binds to and inhibits a crucial receptor protein offers a new route for controlling a parasitic plant.

Caffeine affects food intake at breakfast, but its effect is limited and transient
A new study featured in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics found that after drinking a small amount of caffeine, participants consumed 10 percent less at a breakfast buffet provided by researchers, but this effect did not persist throughout the day and had no impact on participants' perceptions of their appetites.

Chemists characterize the fatal fungus among us
Life-threatening fungal infections affect more than two million people worldwide.

NASA's Aqua Satellite finds a more organized, large Tropical Storm Ampil
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on July 19, the large Tropical Storm Ampil appeared much more organized than it did the previous day.

Former inmates at high risk for opioid overdose following prison release
A recent study in North Carolina found that in the first two weeks after being released from prison, former inmates were 40 times more likely to die of an opioid overdose than someone in the general population.

Deadly Rift Valley fever: New insight, and hope for the future
Health control measures alone could be ineffective in the long term fight against the deadly Rift Valley fever which affects both humans and animals, a new study in the journal PNAS reports.

In a warming climate, Arctic geese are rushing north
As Arctic temperatures continue to rise, migratory barnacle geese have responded by speeding up their 3,000-kilometer migration in order to reach their destination more quickly with fewer stops along the way, according to new evidence reported in Current Biology on July 19.

Overcoming resistance to a standard chemotherapy drug
Winship researchers identified an enzyme responsible for making tumors and cancer cell lines resistant to cisplatin, along with an experimental drug, lestaurtinib, which targets that enzyme.

Are you prone to feeling guilty? Then you're probably more trustworthy, study shows
New research from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business finds that when it comes to predicting who is most likely to act in a trustworthy manner, one of the most important factors is the anticipation of guilt.

Traveling to the sun: Why won't Parker Solar Probe melt?
This summer, NASA's Parker Solar Probe will launch to travel closer to the Sun, deeper into the solar atmosphere, than any mission before it.

Targeting headaches and tumors with nano-submarines
Scientists at the Mainz University Medical Center and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have developed a new method to enable miniature drug-filled nanocarriers to dock on to immune cells, which in turn attack tumors.

Researchers move closer to completely optical artificial neural network
Researchers have shown that it is possible to train artificial neural networks directly on an optical chip.

Binge drinking during adolescence impairs working memory, finds mouse study
Using a mouse model to simulate binge drinking, researchers at Columbia University showed that heavy alcohol use during adolescence damages neurons in the part of the brain involved in working memory.

Why does making new egg cells require so much cell death?
A highly detailed study of how the roundworm C. elegans forms oocytes suggests that the egg-making process leads to the formation and subsequent destruction of cells with an extra nucleus, but that some cellular materials are recycled into new eggs.

New battery could store wind and solar electricity affordably and at room temperature
A new type of flow battery that involves a liquid metal more than doubled the maximum voltage of conventional flow batteries and could lead to affordable storage of renewable power.

Cold fronts may increase stroke mortality
Study conducted in Southern Hemisphere's subtropical zone detects correlation between drop in temperature and rise in deaths from stroke, especially among women and older people.

Oregon researchers say sea pickles are adapting to the Pacific Northwest
Tubular colonial jellies known as pyrosomes that arrived in 2014 along North America's Pacific Northwest Coast appear to be adapting to cooler water and may become permanent residents.

Infrared sensor as new method for drug discovery
Using an infrared sensor, biophysicists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have succeeded in analysing quickly and easily which active agents affect the structure of proteins and how long that effect lasts.

Abrupt cloud clearing events over southeast Atlantic Ocean are new piece in climate puzzle
Although clouds grow and dissipate all of the time, scientists think that low-lying clouds off the coast of subtropical Africa are being disrupted not simply by wind from the continent, but rather by a wave mechanism.

The effectiveness of chlorhexidine is limited in preventing infections in oral procedures
A large number of bacteria are present in human mouths and may pass into the blood when procedures such as the removal of a tooth are carried out.

No refuge in the deep for shallow reef ecosystems
Deep water coral reefs are not the places of refuge for shallow reef organisms that some scientists have considered them to be, a new report suggests.

Learning from 'Little Monsters'
By studying deep and shallow water zones of streams and their resident invertebrates, researcher reveals mysteries of fresh water life.

Single-molecule magnetic tweezers reveal dual function of FACT in gene regulation
Professors LI Wei and LI Ming from the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently improved the temporal and spatial resolution of their self-developed magnetic tweezers.

New study puts a figure on sea-level rise following Antarctic ice shelves' collapse
Scientists have shown how much sea level would rise if Larsen C and George VI, Antarctic ice shelves at risk of collapse, were to break up.

Mayo Clinic researchers uncover methods to quantify the yips and golfer's cramp
Almost every golfer knows the feeling. Minutes after a picture-perfect drive down the fairway, a cascade of inexplicable missed putts leads to a disappointing triple bogey.

Most Americans support Endangered Species Act despite increasing efforts to curtail it
Roughly four out of five Americans support the Endangered Species Act, and only one in 10 oppose it, found a survey of 1,287 Americans.

Analysis of prostate tumors reveals clues to cancer's aggressiveness
Using genetic sequencing, scientists have revealed the complete DNA makeup of more than 100 aggressive prostate tumors, pinpointing important genetic errors these deadly tumors have in common.

Aggressive immune cells aggravate Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease, formerly also referred to as shaking palsy, is one of the most frequent disorders affecting movement and the nervous system.

The tale of mRNA mixed tail
IBS biologists have identified how mixed tails -- made of different nucleotides -- protect mRNA from degradation for longer.

Toward a secure electrical grid
Professor João Hespanha suggests a way to protect autonomous grids from potentially crippling GPS spoofing attacks.

'Good cholesterol' may not always be good
Postmenopausal factors may have an impact on the heart-protective qualities of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) -- also known as 'good cholesterol.' The findings bring into question the current use of total HDL cholesterol to predict heart disease risk.

Origami-inspired device enables easy capture, release of delicate underwater organisms
A new device developed by a University of Rhode Island engineer and researchers at Harvard University safely traps delicate sea creatures inside a folding polyhedral enclosure and lets them go without harm using a novel, origami-inspired design.

Reconstruction of Arctic Barents-Kara sea ice extent changes over the last millennium
The Arctic Barents-Kara Sea is considered as one of the cradles for cold waves over the Eurasian continent, and it's a key sea sector that is closely connected with cold waves over Eurasia.

Are vision impairments more frequent among children with developmental dyslexia?
Developmental dyslexia emerges in childhood and is a reading disorder believed to involve language processing deficits.

Two faces offer limitless possibilities
Named for the mythical god with two faces, Janus membranes -- double-sided membranes that serve as gatekeepers between two substances -- have emerged as a material with potential industrial uses.

New insights into plants' conquest of land
The Earth is filled with diverse and remarkable plant forms from the tallest redwoods that pierce forest canopies, to the smallest mosses that blanket the ground underfoot.

ASU scientists use satellites to measure vital underground water resources
With the hope of providing water resource managers with better tools to help keep aquifers healthy, a team of scientists from Arizona State University and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are using the latest space technology to look underneath Earth's surface to measure this precious natural resource.

Careful patient selection is the key to achieving the best results for vaginal mesh surgery
The high number of reported complications from transvaginal repairs for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) using vaginal mesh have led to a significant decline in its use, despite its initial promise.

Four World Cup gold medals -- and a baby
Marit Bjørgen was a world-class athlete at the top of her career -- and then she decided to have a baby.

Australia led global push to tackle PCOS -- the principal cause of infertility in women
Australian led global guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of the primary cause of infertility in women will be published simultaneously in three international journals, supported by a suite of health professional and patient resources to improve health outcomes for women with PCOS.

From cradles to graves: Modeling the ecology and evolution of biodiversity
Researchers have created a model capable of simulating the complex history of life in South America over thousands of years -- an effort to better understand the many complex factors affecting the emergence, distribution and extinction of species on the continent.

Treating dementia with the healing waves of sound
Ultrasound applied to the brain could help treat patients with dementia.

Most common shoulder operation is no more beneficial than placebo surgery
In a landmark study published this week in the BMJ, Finnish researchers show that one of the most common surgical procedures in the Western world is probably unnecessary.

Paralyzed mice with spinal cord injury made to walk again
Most people with spinal cord injury are paralyzed from the injury site down, even when the cord isn't completely severed.

Complete fly brain imaged at nanoscale resolution
Scientists at HHMI's Janelia Research Campus have taken detailed pictures of the entire brain of an adult female fruit fly using transmission electron microscopy. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to