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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | July 24, 2018


Bin the bug spray: Study shows EU pesticide ban failing to protect suburban bees
Bees living in suburban habitats are still being exposed to significant levels of pesticides despite the EU ban on the use of neonicotinoid pesticides on flowering crops, new research from University of Sussex scientists shows.
Few young women with PID screened for HIV or syphilis in emergency departments
Although women who have pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are at heightened risk for also being infected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), few adolescent females diagnosed with PID in the nation's pediatric emergency departments undergo laboratory tests for HIV or syphilis, according to a retrospective cohort study published online July 24, 2018, in Pediatrics.
World-first quantum computer simulation of chemical bonds using trapped ions
Simulation of chemical bonds and reactions is expected to be one of the first applications for at-scale quantum computers.
What would your dog do to help if you were upset? Quite a bit, study finds
Dogs are thought to be very aware of people's emotions, but if a pup's owner was really upset, would it actually go out of its way to offer help and comfort?
Wildfire management designed to protect Spotted Owls may be outdated
According to a new study, forest fires are not a serious threat to populations of Spotted Owls, a species that acts as an indicator of biological health to the old-growth forests where they live.
Research shows how the Little Ice Age affected South American climate
For the first time, scientists reconstruct the rainfall distribution in Brazil during the climate changes that marked the Middle Ages using isotopic records from caves.
Environment key battle ground in fight to tackle antibiotic resistance
The environment could be as important a battle ground as the clinic in the global fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance, new research has shown.
Protein discovery may explain why patients develop resistance to new anti-cancer drugs
A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has identified a protein complex that might explain why some cancer patients treated with the revolutionary new anti-cancer drugs known as PARP inhibitors develop resistance to their medication.
Antibiotic resistance in a leech's gut
Plastic surgery patients were getting infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria, and no one knew why.
Depression and antidepressants are associated with an increased risk of VTE
In the first review of its kind, new research has found that depression and the use of antidepressants are each associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE).
Diabetic-level glucose spikes seen in healthy people, Stanford study finds
A device that keeps extra-close tabs on the ups and downs of blood glucose levels reveals that most people see only a partial picture of the sugar circulating in their blood, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Fitness trackers prove helpful in monitoring cancer patients
Fitness trackers can be valuable tools for assessing the quality of life and daily functioning of cancer patients during treatment, a new study has found.
Blood test might help reduce unnecessary CT scans after traumatic brain injury
Peer reviewed / Observational study / Humans A high sensitivity blood test might help doctors rule out traumatic intracranial injuries like brain haemorrhage and contusion before resorting to CT scanning, according to a large, multicentre observational trial published in The Lancet Neurology journal.
Study supports blood test to help diagnose brain injury
For the first time in the US, a blood test will be available to help doctors determine if people who've experienced a blow to the head could have a traumatic brain injury such as brain bleeding.
Researchers find new way to target flu virus
Researchers used an atom-level simulation to define one mechanism by which the flu virus infects cells.
Blood test can predict optimal treatment for advanced prostate cancer, study finds
An international collaborative study between Lawson Health Research Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Royal Marsden and Epic Sciences is one of the first to demonstrate that a blood test can predict how patients with advanced prostate cancer will respond to specific treatments, leading to improved survival.
High-throughput flow cytometry in drug discovery
A new special issue of SLAS Discovery reflects examples of the recent groundswell of creative new applications for high-throughput flow cytometry (HTFC) in drug discovery.
First randomised trial of 'kick and kill' approach to HIV cure leaves puzzles to be solved
Researchers have reported the results of the first randomised clinical trial to test a novel strategy involving waking up and then killing the 'sleeping' HIV that is hiding in the body using an experimental approach known as 'kick and kill'.
Les efforts pour préserver la population de loris se montrent efficaces
Un programme à long terme visant à préserver les loris de Kuhl en rétablissant une population disparue de l'espèce sur une île voisine de Rimatara, sur laquelle il n'y a pas de rats noirs prédateurs, révèle l'importance de ce type de programme de protection pour la durabilité des espèces d'oiseaux en voie d'extinction.
Estimated prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders is nearly 1 in 8 among children in India
Almost one in eight children aged 2-9 years living in India may have at least one neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), according to prevalence estimates published this week in PLOS Medicine.
WSU Researchers see positive policing changes after cannabis legalization
Washington State University researchers have found that marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington has not hurt police effectiveness.
Study explores risk factors linked to chikungunya and dengue outbreaks
In one of the largest studies of its kind, researchers analyzed chikungunya and dengue outbreak data from 76 countries over a period of 50 years, focusing on regions across the Indian Ocean.
Latest stevia research published in Journal of Nutrition
The Journal of Nutrition recently published a comprehensive review of the latest stevia science in its July 2018 issue.
Research finds that sunscreen users receive less than half the sun protection they think
Researchers from King's College London have assessed just how much sun protection people actually receive, based on typical use.
Empathetic dogs lend a helping paw
Many dogs show empathy if their owner is in distress and will also try to help rescue them.
New study: Omega-3s help keep kids out of trouble
Something as simple as a dietary supplement could reduce disruptive, even abusive behavior, according to newly released research by a team led by a UMass Lowell criminal justice professor who specializes in the intersection of biology and behavior.
Regulation of cell orientation and shape for tissue morphogenesis
A collaborative research group led by Kumamoto University has developed a new control system for regulating the morphology and orientation of cells that constitute animal tissues.
Scientists unlock the properties of new 2D material
A new two-dimensional material has become a reality, thanks to a team of Danish and Italian scientists.
Computing power solves molecular mystery
By using a novel combination of two simulation techniques, researchers have found a new way to investigate the behaviour of molecules.
High glucose spikes are common in 'healthy' people
It is well known that glucose levels above or below certain thresholds can cause damage to organs; however, a new study publishing July 24 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by researchers at Stanford University reveals that 'normal' blood glucose levels are often not normal at all -- they stray much farther from the healthy ranges than we assumed.
Alzheimer's disease risk impacted by the liver, diet
Reduced levels of plasmalogens are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's Disease, according to new research presented this week at AAIC 2018.
Paleontologists discover largest dinosaur foot to date
As it turns out, 'Bigfoot' was a dinosaur -- a giant, plant-eating one.
Can treatment for depression after a heart attack reduce the long-term risk of another cardiac event
Depression has been associated with poorer medical outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including heart attack and unstable angina.
Changes in bacterial mix linked to antibiotics increase risk for type 1 diabetes
A single course of antibiotics early in childhood may increase risk for Type 1 diabetes.
Bats harbor a gene swiped from an ancient Ebola-like virus -- here's how they may use it
Some 18 million years ago, an ancestor of mouse-eared bats 'stole' genetic material from an ancient virus related to Ebola.
Military spending did not 'crowd out' welfare in Middle East prior to Arab Spring
Findings dispute 'guns versus butter' narrative as a major factor behind the Arab Spring.
NASA satellite shows Son-Tinh's swan song
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite found Tropical Depression Son-Tinh over southern China early on July 24.
Host antibodies shape gut microbiome by changing bacteria gene expression
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Science in Japan have discovered how antibodies secreted in the gut promote the growth of beneficial bacteria.
Skin's immune 'alarm' may explain light-induced rashes in lupus patients
U-M researchers are studying an overabundant signaling protein tied to UV light sensitivity in patients with lupus.
Ebola virus gene stolen and preserved by myotis bats, study finds
A gene from the deadly Ebola virus that allows the virus to escape from the human immune system has been identified in the genome of a group of bats that is found worldwide, including North America.
Updated recommendations for treating, preventing HIV infection
A volunteer panel of experts in HIV research and patient care evaluated new data and treatments to update recommendations from the International Antiviral Society-USA for the use of antiretroviral drugs in this special communication article.
Satellite tracking reveals Philippine waters are important for endangered whale sharks
A new scientific study published in PeerJ - the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences has tracked juvenile whale sharks across the Philippines emphasising the importance of the archipelago for the species.
How to stop rape: ground-breaking work in Nairobi by a group of Stanford statisticians
The NGO No Means No Worldwide approached Stanford researchers to assess the impact of its programs.
New material for solid oxide fuel cells
Chemists from Ural Federal University and the Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences together with colleagues from Greece proposed new materials for the cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells.
Hydrogen and plastic production: New catalyst with a dual function
Chemists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have developed a new, low-cost catalyst for plastic production.
Border wall threatens biodiversity
Federal plans to complete a continuous wall along the US-Mexico boundary would threaten the existence of numerous plant and animal species, according to a new study.
A domestic electron ion collider would unlock scientific mysteries of atomic nuclei
The science questions that could be answered by an electron ion collider (EIC) -- a very large-scale particle accelerator - are significant to advancing our understanding of the atomic nuclei that make up all visible matter in the universe, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Report from the leech's gut: Even trace amounts of antibiotics boost resistant bacteria
An international team of researchers recently took a deep dive into the microbiome of blood-sucking medicinal leeches and made a surprising observation: low levels of antibiotics in the animal's environment improved the survival of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in its gut.
New research focuses on treating non-cognitive symptoms of people with dementia
New research presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2018 in Chicago focuses on the recent successes and ongoing challenges of drug and non-drug treatments for the non-cognitive symptoms experienced by people living with Alzheimer's dementia.
Sepsis kills. Prompt care saves kids' lives
More than one in 10 children hospitalized with sepsis die, but when a series of clinical treatments and tests is completed within an hour of its detection the odds of death shrink 40 percent, according to the largest ever analysis of pediatric sepsis.
Scientists link more than 1,000 gene variants to educational attainment
Genetics experts have determined that a combination of more than 1,000 genetic variants across the genome can predict the length of a person's formal education to a degree comparable with the usual demographic predictors.
Rice with fewer stomata requires less water and is better suited for climate change
Study finds engineered rice lines with low stomatal density used just 60 percent of the normal amount of water and were able to survive drought and high temperatures for longer than unaltered plants.
Living systematic review describes the epidemiology of sexual transmission of Zika virus
Zika virus (ZIKV) may be sexually transmissible for a shorter period than previously estimated, according to a systematic review published this week in PLOS Medicine by Michel Counotte and Nicola Low of the University of Bern in Switzerland, and colleagues.
Scientists warn that proposed US-Mexico border wall threatens biodiversity, conservation
Writing in BioScience, a group of scientists led by Robert Peters, William J.
New research collection targets insect pests of pulse crops
Around the world, pulse crops -- such as beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils -- are an important staple in the modern food supply, and their cultivation is growing in the United States and many other Western countries.
Young galaxy's halo offers clues to its growth and evolution
A team of astronomers has tested a new way of studying the properties of the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy using W.
Research shows a promising new class of antibodies protects against HIV-1 infection
A group of scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute have zeroed in on a new defense against HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS.
Rise of the grasshoppers: New analysis redraws evolutionary tree for major insect family
Thanks to a decade-long analysis of grasshoppers' genetic relationships, scientists now have the clearest picture yet of the evolutionary pathways grasshoppers have followed to attain their incredible diversity -- and the findings put the birthplace of the broadest lineage of grasshoppers in South America, not Africa, as previously thought.
Recycling provides manufacturers with real competitive and economic advantages, study says
In addition to being environmentally friendly, recycling can help manufacturers develop new, strategic sources of raw materials -- particularly rare and precious metals -- giving them a competitive advantage, according to research co-authored by an Indiana University Kelley School of Business professor.
A protein that promotes compatibility between chromosomes after fertilization
A research team from the Center for Biomedical Research, at the University of Algarve, and Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, led by Rui Gonçalo Martinho and Paulo Navarro-Costa has identified the mechanism by which the fertilized egg balances out the differences between chromosomes inherited from the mother and the father.
Averting toxic chats: Computer model predicts when online conversations turn sour
The internet offers the potential for constructive dialogue and cooperation, but online conversations too often degenerate into personal attacks.
Scientists warn of border wall's impacts on biodiversity
A continuous wall on the border between the United States and Mexico would harm a multitude of animal species by fragmenting their geographic ranges, thousands of scientists say.
Link found between resilience to dyslexia and gray matter in the frontal brain
A new joint Tel Aviv University and University of California San Francisco study identifies the brain mechanism that accounts for the discrepancy between low decoding skills and high reading comprehension in some children with dyslexia.
Transplanted kidney survives longer
The lifespan of a transplant kidney has significantly improved over the last thirty years.
New guidelines for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults
Experts have updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection.
Widespread connections among neurons help the brain distinguish smells
Organization--or lack of it--in brain's piriform cortex allows us to differentiate one smell from another.
Bats may have co-opted viral proteins produced by Ebola for immune function
Approximately 18 million years ago, genes encoding viral proteins 35 (VP35s) integrated into the genomes of Myotis (mouse-eared) bats.
Made-to-measure silicon building blocks
Silicones are synthetic materials used in a broad range of applications.
IU researchers develop model for predicting landslides caused by earthquakes
A model developed by researchers at Indiana University can help experts estimate the likelihood of landslides that will be caused by earthquakes anywhere in the world.
Where Martian dust comes from
The dust that coats much of the surface of Mars originates largely from a single thousand-kilometer-long geological formation near the Red Planet's equator.
Experts band together to eradicate prostate cancer
A multidisciplinary consortium has developed a more accurate way to test new treatments for the most aggressive form of prostate cancer.
Researchers characterize 'mutational burden' of human induced pluripotent stem cells
In a new study, published in this week's issue of Cell Reports, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine scrutinized the whole genome sequences of 18 induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from skin cells that they had reprogrammed to identify and characterize somatic mutations.
Intestinal virus study shows major changes associated with inflammatory bowel disease
Study comparing healthy and diseased mouse intestinal tracts shows unexpected changes in viral communities.
Chance of being prescribed opioids for minor injury differs dramatically by where you live
Patients who sought care for a sprained ankle in states that were found to be 'high prescribers' of opioids were approximately three times more likely to receive a prescription for the drugs than those treated in 'low-prescribing' states, according to new research.
Bigfoot was a dinosaur
The dinosaur foot known as 'Bigfoot,' described in a new scientific paper recently published in the open-access journal PeerJ -- the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences, was excavated in 1998 by an expedition from the University of Kansas, with Anthony Maltese, lead author of the study, as member of the crew.
NASA analyzes tropical storm Wukong's strawberry-shape
Infrared satellite imagery provides temperature data, and when NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Wukong, the coldest cloud tops circling the center resembled a strawberry and leaf.
Certification standards, education critical for social workers in school safety efforts
Aaron Thompson, associate professor of social work at the University of Missouri and a former school social worker and principal, says that school social workers play a key role in helping at-risk children.
Common painkillers triple harmful side effects in dementia
Two studies at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2018 (AAIC) highlight a significant increase in harmful side effects related to the use of commonly prescribed opioid painkillers in people with dementia.
Coldwater streams may provide refuge against changing climate
Coldwater stream habitats are vulnerable to effects of climate change, particularly to changes in precipitation and air temperatures that alter their hydrology.
Treatments for cancer and sickle cell disease deplete germ cells in young boys
Scientists have discovered that some treatments for cancer and sickle cell disease can destroy the germ cells that go on to develop into sperm in the testes of young boys.
Digital transformation: challenge and opportunity for migrant workers
As technology transforms the job market, migrant workers are in a more precarious position than others, according to a new study from the Joint Research centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service.
NASA examines brightness temperatures of Tropical Cyclone 15W
Brightness temperatures are one of the things that scientists look at when analyzing a tropical cyclone.
No sign of symmetrons
One of the candidates for 'dark energy' is the symmetron field.
Enzyme AEP's importance to immunity discovered
AEP has been identified as a key regulator of the immune system in new research from Newcastle University, UK.
Visualizing chemical reactions on bimetal surfaces
Professor Park's research team identified that the formation of metal-oxide interfaces is the key factor responsible for the synergistic catalytic effect in bimetal catalysts.
Researchers use nanotechnology to improve the accuracy of measuring devices
Scientists from Higher school of economics and the Federal Scientific Research Centre 'Crystallography and Photonics' have synthesized multi-layered nanowires in order to study their magnetoresistance properties.
Unless we spot changes, most life experiences are fabricated from memories
We may not be able to change recent events in our lives, but how well we remember them plays a key role in how our brains model what's happening in the present and predict what is likely to occur in the future, finds new research in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
Blasting tiny craters in glass, creating material to miniaturize telecommunication devices
Modern communication systems often employ optical fibers to carry signals across or between devices, combining more than one function into a single circuit.
Research shows climate change affects recreational behavior
Research at the University of New Hampshire shows that as unfavorable water quality conditions in lakes continue to rise, anglers, boaters and beach goers are using various coping mechanisms that can alter their behavior, from switching to a different location or activity to simply abandoning the experience altogether.
Advances along the gut-liver-brain axis in Alzheimer's disease
Four new studies reported at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2018 in Chicago investigated how the digestive system, including gut and liver functions, may be related to changes in the brain, and to brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
New study finds police-related fatalities may occur twice as often as reported
According to a new study led by a Cornell University researchers, an average of nearly three men in the United States are killed by police use of deadly force every day.
Surrey develops new crime fighting algorithm that could predict reoccurring illegal activity
A new algorithm developed by the University of Surrey and Georgia Tech could give police departments the upper hand in their fight against crime.
Plenty of habitat for bears in Europe
A new study spearheaded by the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) and the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) shows that there are still many areas in Europe where bears are extinct but with suitable habitat for hosting the species.
Intractable hiccups may be more common than we think
Everyone gets hiccups, but some people suffer intractable hiccups that last longer than a month.
Decline in heat-related deaths in Spain despite rising summer temperatures
Contrary to expectations, global warming has not given rise to an increase in heat-related mortality in Spain.
Pieces of mantle found rising under north and south ends of Cascadia fault
With four years of data from 268 seismometers on the ocean floor and several hundred on land, researchers have found anomalies in the upper mantle below both ends of the Cascadia Subduction Zone.
New evidence supports radical treatment of widespread form of malaria
A team of malaria experts from a large international research collaboration has published results supporting the need for a radical cure strategy to tackle one of the most debilitating forms of malaria caused by the Plasmodium vivax parasite.
UCLA biologist works to create a new field, merging the sciences and architecture
UCLA biologist leads effort to create a new field of study addressing collective behavior and physical spaces.

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