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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 03, 2018

Housing for health
In a novel approach to improving outcomes for children, a pediatric hospital worked with community partners to address neighborhood effect syndrome as a target for pediatric health care -- treating the neighborhood as a patient.
New UK research links even low levels of air pollution with serious changes in the heart
Research from the UK has found that people exposed to even low levels of air pollution have heart remodelling, similar to that seen in the early stages of heart failure.
Ensuring equality: Penn develops method to measure and operationalize inclusive culture
Inclusiveness of workplace culture can be measured by a concrete set of six factors, according to a study published today in JAMA Network Open from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
What factors might contribute to inclusive culture in health care organizations?
Researchers compiled six factors that health care workers believe can contribute to an inclusive culture within health care organizations and promote a diverse workforce.
Eating crickets can be good for your gut, according to new clinical trial
A new clinical trial shows that consuming crickets can help support the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and that eating crickets is not only safe at high doses but may also reduce inflammation in the body.
Transgender individuals likely have higher risk for heart disease
Transgender individuals may be at higher risk for heart disease, according to a review article published by Michael S.
Monash scientists show that highly lethal viruses hijack cellular defences against cancer
Henipaviruses are among the deadliest known viruses and have no effective treatments.
What role do inflammatory cytokines play in creating T cell exhaustion in cancer?
A better understanding of the role secreted inflammatory cytokines play in the tumor microenvironment that results in the differentiation of effector T cells into exhausted T cells points to possible approaches to improve the antitumor activity of T cells and to intervene in T cell exhaustion.
New research opens door to expanding stem cells available for transplants
Researchers from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research and collaborators have identified a way to expand blood-forming, adult stem cells from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB).
NASA finds a compact center in Hurricane Hector
Hurricane Hector has a small, tight center surrounded by strong storms.
Study: Older people less apt to recognize they've made a mistake
University of Iowa researchers have found that older people are less likely than younger people to realize when they've made a mistake.
Key gene to accelerate sugarcane growth is identified
Brazilian researchers developed a sugarcane line with the ScGAI gene expression silenced.
The rules of attraction: Scientists find elusive molecule that helps sperm find egg
A recent report in Nature Communications by scientists affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory identifies a key molecule driving chemoattraction between sperm and egg cells in marine invertebrates.
NASA finds power in Tropical Storm Shanshan's center
An infrared look by NASA's Terra satellite found powerful storms in the center of Tropical Storm Shanshan, the newest tropical storm in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.
A periodic table of molecular knots
Using computational predictive models, the scientists identified a shortlist, a kind of 'periodic table', of the most designable knot types, i.e. those knots that could easily self-assemble under appropriate physical and chemical conditions.
The subtle mechanics of an avalanche -- as seen in 3D
Drawing on the fact that the snow in an avalanche can behave like both a solid and a fluid, a young researcher at EPFL and SLF has managed to simulate a snow slab avalanche with unrivaled precision.
Each tropical tree species specializes in getting the nutrients it needs
Researchers looking for general patterns in the way tropical trees capture nutrients were surprised to find that every species has its own way of getting the nutrients it needs.
The fate of Arctic mosquitoes depends on habitat and access to blood meals
The future of Arctic mosquitoes (Aedes nigripes) in western Greenland depends on aquatic habitat and access to blood meals, according to a Dartmouth study.
Workshop advances plans for coping with disruptions on ITER
Close-up look at workshop on mitigating disruptions in ITER, the international fusion experiment under construction in France to demonstrate the practicality of fusion power.
Reading the motor intention from brain activity within 100ms
A study by Tokyo Tech researchers has developed a new technique to decode motor intention of humans from Electroencephalography.
The best of both worlds: Basic-to-acidic flash switching for organic synthesis
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology developed a fast and practical technique using a micro-flow reactor for the synthesis of pure N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs).
Improved passphrases could make online experiences both user-friendly and secure
The human factors researchers' alternative passphrase systems showed significantly better user recall compared with existing systems.
The marriage of topology and magnetism in a Weyl system
Topology is a global aspect of materials, leading to fundamental new properties for compounds with large relativistic effects.
Locusts help uncover the mysteries of smell
By looking into the brains of locusts, researchers in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St.
JRC analysis assists response to Laos dam collapse
Scientists at the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, have carried out a dam break analysis to assist with emergency response efforts following catastrophic flooding in the Mekong Delta.
Math + good posture = better scores
A San Francisco State University study finding that students perform better at math while sitting with good posture could have implications for other kinds of performance under pressure.
Study examines how age and ethnicity impact HIV testing
Brandon Brown, an HIV researcher at the University of California, Riverside's School of Medicine, is the lead author on a study published today in the journal Medicine, in which he and his co-authors argue that interventions are urgently needed to reach older adults and Hispanics to address HIV testing and beliefs.
Groundbreaking poplar study shows trees can be genetically engineered not to spread
The largest field-based study of genetically modified forest trees ever conducted has demonstrated that genetic engineering can prevent new seedlings from establishing.
Twin study highlights importance of both genetics and environment on gene activity
A study in PLOS Genetics used a unique cohort of over 700 pairs of twins to identify the factors influencing chemical modifications to DNA across the genome.
Low plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids associated with preterm birth
Pregnant women who had low plasma levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in their first and second trimesters were at a significantly higher risk of early preterm birth when compared with women who had higher levels of these fatty acids, according to new research from Harvard T.H.
Assembly of fluctuating molecules in artificial cell membrane
Toyohashi University of Technology has, in cooperation with Kanazawa University, discovered the aggregates of a hydrophilic-polymer-modified lipid in a lipid bilayer membrane.
Research shows that cystic fibrosis impacts growth in the womb
New research, published in Thorax, funded by the Cystic Fibrosis Trust has shown that babies with cystic fibrosis (CF) are born weighing less than babies without the condition, even allowing that they are more likely to be born prematurely.
Nanotube 'rebar' makes graphene twice as tough
Rice University researchers have found that reinforcing graphene with embedded carbon nanotubes makes the 2D nanomaterial more than twice as tough as pristine graphene.
High-resolution imaging of nanoparticle surface structures is now possible
Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface.
UC Davis researchers find quiet viruses alter body's response to vaccines, pathogens
UC Davis researchers have shown that low levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV) have a significant impact on microbe and immune cell populations and how the immune system responds to the influenza vaccine.
Cocaine relapse is reversed with BDNF microinjections in the brain
Investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina discover that brain-derived neurotropic factor reduced cocaine relapse in a preclinical model when administered before a cue-induced relapse event, as reported in Addiction Biology.
Lead or follow: What sets leaders apart?
Leaders are more willing to take responsibility for making decisions that affect the welfare of others.
Analysis chronicles changes in US investment in R&D
A new analysis examines how changes in innovation within firms and a shortage of human capital in the United States in the fields of software and IT have driven US multinational companies to establish and expand new innovation hubs abroad.
Parasite infections with multiple strains are more harmful to vertebrate hosts
The incredible amount of genetic diversity in parasites means humans are often infected with multiple strains, which could make infections worse and increase the prevalence of the parasite over time.
Research shows how hungry bacteria sense nutrients in their environment
University of Leicester research sheds light on how bacteria regulates metabolism which could help to combat infectious diseases including tuberculosis
Engineered genetic machinery derived from E. coli delivers new amino acids to proteins
Approximately 15 years ago, scientists first saw the potential of an engineered, bacteria-derived genetic machinery for incorporating non-canonical amino acids into proteins produced in eukaryotic cells.
Rethinking ketchup packets: New approach to slippery packaging aims to cut food waste
New research from Virginia Tech aims to cut down on waste -- and consumer frustration -- with a novel approach to creating super slippery industrial packaging.
A deeper look at severe asthma yields NET results
A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital published this week in Science Immunology models allergic lung inflammation and provides new insights into how asthma develops and progresses, with important implications for the most clinically advanced drugs designed to treat severe asthma.
The new tree of life of freshwater macroinvertebrates in the European continent
A study from the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute of the University of Barcelona (IRBio-UB) analysed how water macroinvertebrate species, such as beetles, mosquitos and dragonflies, evolved and diversified since their beginnings.
The chemistry of Yellowstone's hot springs (video)
Yellowstone National Park is a popular destination for vacationers and nature lovers.
Small-scale fisheries threatened: Shared management, communication key to success
New research shows that co-management approaches -- based on shared responsibility for resource management among individuals and institutions -- can build resilience to socio-environmental change by strengthening use of science in decision making and promoting adaptive capacities, such as learning and leadership.

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