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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 07, 2018

Sensor could help doctors select effective cancer therapy
MIT chemical engineers have developed a sensor that lets them see hydrogen peroxide inside cancer cells and determine whether they are responding to drugs that affect redox signaling.
Severely obese people can reduce risk of atrial fibrillation with exercise
New research suggests that exercise can have a moderating effect on the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.
New emerging research suggests Montmorency tart cherries may help enhance gut health
Montmorency tart cherries may play a role in improving gut health, suggests a first-of-its kind human trial of nine adults combined with a parallel laboratory study published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.
Paper identifies genes associated with risk for aggressive breast cancer
A new study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute has identified specific genes associated with increased risk for triple-negative breast cancer, providing the basis for better risk management.
Injection of vasoactive intestinal peptide into the eye improves corneal transplant survival
A new study in The American Journal of Pathology reports for the first time that injection of neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) directly into the eye of mice enhanced corneal graft survival.
Retired pro football and hockey players learn that CTE isn't inevitable
An in-depth study of retired football and hockey players--including cognitive, psychological, and brain imaging techniques--finds no increase in the rate of early-onset dementia, reports the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (JHTR).
Archaeologists found traces of submerged Stone Age settlement in Southeast Finland
The prehistoric settlement submerged under Lake Kuolimojarvi provides us with a clearer picture of the human occupation in South Karelia during the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic Stone Age (about 10,000 - 6,000 years ago) and it opens up a new research path in Finnish archaeology.
Scientists shed new light on hepatitis B virus origins
Researchers have provided new insight on the geographical origins and global spread of two classes of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), according to a study in eLife.
Back to the future: breast cancer reprises pathways found in fetal cells
Salk Institute scientists have uncovered a reason for the uncanny likeness between cells in the most malignant cancers and the embryonic cells of the organ in which the cancer originated: cells in human basal-like breast cancers share features with the embryonic mammary (breast) stem cells that are the progenitors of all cell types in the mammary gland (of a mouse).
How axons change chemical cues to mechanical force
Neural networks in the brain form by an axon extending from one neuron to interact with another.
Researchers look to worms for a new model of a peripheral nervous system disease
Scientists have discovered that a microscopic roundworm develops similar nerve damage to human patients when their muscle cells are genetically engineered to produce TTR proteins.
Study of 21 retired NFL and NHL players doesn't find evidence of early onset dementia
New University at Buffalo research is adding important information to the body of knowledge about the cognitive and behavioral status of a group of retired professional athletes who spent their careers in contact sports.
How people view crime depends on the politics of when they were growing up
A new study in the British Journal of Criminology indicates that the different political periods in which people 'came of age' has an important influence on their perception of crime, even decades later.
California's Mendocino complex of fires now largest in state's history
California has been dealing with record breaking fires for the past month and they aren't even halfway through their fire season.
Oregon has its share of fire storms
Oregon, one state above California, is also having its share of fire storms and weather concerns.
Pacific Ocean's effect on Arctic warming
New research, led by former Carnegie postdoctoral fellow Summer Praetorius, shows that changes in the heat flow of the northern Pacific Ocean may have a larger effect on the Arctic climate than previously thought.
Study finds managed waterways are not isolated from effects of climate change
A study led by researchers at Indiana University has found that human changes to rivers and streams in the United States and Canada do not isolate these natural resources from the effects of climate change.
Research reveals molecular details of sperm-egg fusion
By revealing the structure of proteins that enable sperm and egg to fuse to form zygotes in plant and protozoan species, the new study may aid in discovering the fusion process for humans, which remains a mystery.
NASA's GPM looks at John's rainfall rates in eastern Pacific Ocean
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core observatory satellite had an extremely good view of strengthening Tropical Storm John on August 6, 2018 and measured its rainfall rates.
Million fold increase in the power of waves near Jupiter's moon Ganymede
Chorus waves are electromagnetic waves. Converted to sound they sound like singing and chirping birds at dawn.
Baby sea snails ride waves into shallower waters, study suggests
The warming ocean may cause the larvae of bottom-dwelling snails to hatch earlier in the spring, when waves are larger, potentially impacting their ability to survive and serve as food for other sea creatures.
Rice University physicists find surprising distortions in high-temperature superconductors
Rice University physicists used simulations and neutron scattering experiments to show the presence of tiny lattice distortions near the optimal superconductivity of an iron pnictide compound.
Dartmouth lab identifies pulling and braking of 'ancient motor' in cell division
Study adds to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell reproduction and sheds light on a cellular-level mystery that has confounded researchers.
Globally, greater attention needed for seemingly 'minor' kidney damage
Rates of Acute Kidney Injury among Irish patients have more than doubled in the past 10 years, according to a new study led by researchers at the Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS), University of Limerick.
The Lancet Psychiatry: ADHD medications: Of all available drugs, methylphenidate should be first option for short-term treatment in children
Peer-reviewed / Meta-analysis / People Study includes 133 double-blind randomised controlled trials with data from more than 14,000 children and adolescents and 10,000 adults.
Army scientists create new technique for modeling turbulence in the atmosphere
Army researchers have designed a computer model that more effectively calculates the behavior of atmospheric turbulence in complex environments, including cities, forests, deserts and mountainous regions.
Aboard the ISS, researchers investigate complex dust behavior in plasmas
400 kilometers above Earth, researchers examined waves in complex plasma under microgravity conditions and found that the microparticles behaved in nonuniform ways in the presence of varying electrical fields.
UCLA bioengineers use magnetic force to manage pain
UCLA bioengineers have demonstrated that a gel-like material containing tiny magnetic particles could be used to manage chronic pain from disease or injury.
Corn variety gets nutrients from bacteria, potentially reducing need for fertilizer
Is it possible to grow cereal crops without having to rely on energy-requiring commercial fertilizers?
Link between appendicitis and allergies discovered
Children with allergies have a lower risk of developing complicated appendicitis, according to a new study from Lund University and Skåne University Hospital in Sweden.
Taking a pill can effectively treat brutal lung disease
Researchers report in Nature Communications they figured out why air sacs in the lungs clog up with a thick substance called surfactant in a brutal disease called Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP), and they show taking cholesterol-busting pills called statins can effectively treat the disease.
Forests crucial for limiting climate change to 1.5 degrees
Trying to tackle climate change by replacing forests with crops for bioenergy power stations that capture carbon dioxide (CO2) could instead increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, scientists say.
Soy diets might increase women's bone strength
Researchers from the University of Missouri now have discovered through a new animal study that soy protein found in food might counter the negative effects of menopause on bone and metabolic health.
Discovery of copper band shows Native Americans engaged in trade more extensively than thought
A research team including Matthew Sanger, assistant professor of anthropology at Binghamton University, State University at New York, has found a copper band that indicates ancient Native Americans engaged in extensive trade networks spanning far greater distances than what has been previously thought.
Rediscovering the sources of Egyptian metals
Two new studies, published in the Journal of Archaeological Science, offer the first comprehensive analytical datasets of Protodynastic to Old Kingdom Egyptian copper-based artifacts (c.
Mass timber: Thinking big about sustainable construction
The Longhouse, a prototype 'mass timber' building designed by an MIT class, demonstrates that even huge buildings can be built primarily with wood.
NASA watches as Tropical Storm Ileana weakens from two factors
Tropical Storm Ileana continued to move north along the coast of western Mexico on Aug.
Likelihood of dementia higher among black ethnic groups
Rates of dementia diagnosis are higher among black ethnic groups compared to white and Asian groups in the UK, a new UCL-led study has found.
How a computer learns to dribble: Practice, practice, practice
Basketball players need lots of practice before they master the dribble, and it turns out that's true for computer-animated players as well.
LSU Health research reveals new obesity prevention target
A team of LSU Health New Orleans researchers has found a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity among youth in Grenada compared to US adolescents.
Got the 'drunchies'? New study shows how heavy drinking affects diet
After seeing an ad in a campus newspaper promoting unhealthy late-night foods, researchers decided to look at a sample of college students to better understand how drinking affects what they eat.
Potential indicator for the early detection of dementias
Researchers at the University of Basel have discovered a factor that could support the early detection of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
Scientists design new MRI coil for preclinical studies
Researchers from ITMO University developed and tested an MRI coil providing high-resolution imaging of the whole body of a mouse.
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health: Catch-up HPV vaccine effective for women aged up to 20 years, US study suggests
US study confirms effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in women aged up to 20 years who receive all three doses, but more research is needed in women aged 21-26 years.
Corals are becoming more tolerant of rising ocean temperatures
Scientists replicate landmark study to determine changes in coral sea temperature tolerance over time.
Mojave Desert birds crashed over the last century due to climate change
More than 100 years ago, UC Berkeley biologists conducted a thorough survey of birds in the Mojave Desert.
The value of seagrass in securing a sustainable planet
Researchers believe that improving knowledge of how seagrasses are important for biodiversity, fisheries and our global carbon cycle in turn needs to be reflected with greater protection for these sensitive habitats.
Discovery of a new tumor suppressor previously thought to be an oncogene
A gene that has for decades been considered a tumor promoter, the PLK1 gene, can also perform the exact opposite function: halting the development of cancer.
Renovations lead to big improvement at Nuclear Astrophysics lab
The nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, a challenge for nuclear astrophysicists trying to study these reactions; the chances of re-creating such a spark are unfathomably low.
Study finds behavioral changes insufficient at preventing early childhood obesity
Young children and their families in poor communities were able to make some achievable and sustainable behavioral changes during the longest and largest obesity prevention intervention, but, in the end, the results were insufficient to prevent early childhood obesity.
A scientific dating game: biologists play RNA-protein matchmakers
Virtually all functions in our bodies require precise interactions between radically different types of molecules.
Those fragrances you enjoy? Dinosaurs liked them first
The compounds behind the perfumes and colognes you enjoy have been eliciting olfactory excitement since dinosaurs walked the Earth amid the first appearance of flowering plants, new research reveals.
Strictly regulate sale of semi-automatics, accessories, and ammo, urge US trauma doctors
The sale of semi-automatic magazine-fed rifles, their booster accessories, and high volume ammunition, should be strictly regulated, to halt the 'senseless' firearms violence that plagues the United States, say trauma surgeons in their manifesto for curbing gun injury, published online in the journal Trauma Surgery & Acute Care Open.
USPSTF recommendation statement on screening for atrial fibrillation with electrocardiography
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient regarding screening for atrial fibrillation, the most common type of irregular heartbeat, with electrocardiography (ECG), a noninvasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart.
Effect on weight gain in young children in 2 randomized clinical trials
Two randomized clinical trials on the prevention of obesity in young children had differing results; one trial didn't change body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories over three years among low-income children at risk for obesity and another trial showed some modest results.
Benzodiazepine and related drug prescriptions have increased among young people in Sweden
The prevalence rate of prescriptions for benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs (BZD) -- medications used to treat anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric conditions -- increased by 22 percent between 2006 and 2013 among individuals aged 0-24 years in Sweden, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine.
Responsive parenting intervention results in lower BMIs through age three
An intervention designed to promote healthy growth, which taught first-time moms how to respond with age-appropriate responses to their babies' needs, resulted in children having lower body mass indexes (BMIs) when they were three years old.
Hector weakens but remains Category 4 Hurricane
Hurricane Hector has weakened slightly but still remains a robust Category Four storm at present.
Largest haul of extrasolar planets for Japan
Forty-four planets in solar systems beyond our own have been unveiled in one go, dwarfing the usual number of confirmations from extrasolar surveys, which is typically a dozen or less.
Koala virus could explain why humans have 'junk' DNA
A koala virus could help researchers explain millions of years of accumulated 'junk' DNA in the human genome.
Observing the mechanism of metastasis for the first time
The exact mechanisms for how broken cellular function appears in cells far removed from a cancer's primary tumor remain an area of ongoing research.
How to trigger innate fear response?
There are two types of fear: learned versus innate. The latter is known to be induced without any prior experience and is thus naturally encoded in the brain.
Research Brief: UMN Medical School researchers study how cues drive our behavior
Recent research published in Nature Neuroscience by University of Minnesota Medical School neuroscientist Benjamin Saunders, PhD, uses a Pavlovian model of conditioning to see if turning on a light -- a simple cue -- just before dopamine neurons were activated could motivate action.
Ability to taste RNA speeds the growth and increases survival of fruit fly larvae
Fruit fly larvae can taste ribonucleosides, the building blocks of gene transcripts, according to a new study publishing on Aug.
Capturing elephants from the wild shortens their lives
Humans have captured wild Asian elephants for different purposes for more than 3,000 years.
'Rape kit' evidence released to police in less than third of cases
Even when sexual assault evidence kits, known as a 'rape kit' are available in hospitals, less than a third of those assaulted go through with the full procedure and release the forensic evidence to the police, reveals research published online in Emergency Medicine Journal.
Upgrade for virtual brain cell
Simulated neuron gives strong predictions for future research.
Double time limit for embryo research say ethics experts
In countries which already permit embryo research, there are no 'compelling moral arguments' why the time limit for experimentation should not be doubled say ethics experts.
Research identifies new treatment targets in breast cancer
Scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U), in collaboration with the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, have generated the first single cell resolution atlas of genes that control the formation of breast tissue.
Altered images: New research shows that what we see is distorted by what we expect to see
New research led by the University of Plymouth shows that humans 'see' the actions of others not quite as they really are, but slightly distorted by their expectations.
Indian-Americans have fewer sudden infant deaths, Rutgers study finds
Indian-Americans have the highest percentage of sleeping with their babies among ethnic groups in New Jersey but the lowest rate of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID), a Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences study shows.
Lost Norse of Greenland fueled the medieval ivory trade, ancient walrus DNA suggests
New DNA analysis reveals that, before their mysterious disappearance, the Norse colonies of Greenland had a 'near monopoly' on Europe's walrus ivory supply.
Key aspects of human cell aging reversed by new compounds
Key aspects of the aging of human cells can be reversed by new compounds developed at the University of Exeter, research shows.
Seeing the light: Scientists unlock seed germination process
Scientists have identified a key gene that helps seeds decide whether to germinate.
The sun should not set twice before hip fracture repair
Optimal timing to reduce mortality after hip surgery in medically stable older patients is on the day of admission or the following day, according to a large study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Iron-silica particles unlock part of the mystery of Earth's oxygenation
The oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere was thanks, in part, to iron and silica particles in ancient seawater, according to a new study by geomicrobiologists at the University of Alberta.
Household phenomenon observed by Leonardo da Vinci finally explained by Cambridge research
Since the 1820s scientists have believed that hydraulic jumps occur partly as a result of the gravitational pull.
Top-performing soil microbes could be key to sustainable agriculture
In a study published today in New Phytologist, UCR's Joel Sachs has advanced our understanding of how plant genetics and environmental factors affect microbial soil populations in the field.
Naltrexone helps HIV positive individuals reduce heavy alcohol use
Extended-release naltrexone -- an injection that decreases heavy drinking in the general population when taken in conjunction with counseling -- appears to help HIV-positive individuals reduce their number of heavy drinking days too, say Yale researchers.
Scientists determine the structure of a lipid that keeps our tears clear
In this month's issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, researchers report the structure of a key long-chain lipid in the tear film lipid layer, which prevents tears from drying out.
New method helps determine effectiveness of interventions in reducing spread of HIV
Using genetic sequencing to understand the evolutionary relationships among pathogens, an international team of researchers has developed a new method to determine how effective interventions are against the spread of infectious diseases like HIV.
Unwise opioids for wisdom teeth: Study shows link to long-term use in teens and young adults
Getting wisdom teeth removed may be a rite of passage for many teens and young adults, but the opioid painkiller prescriptions that many receive could set them on a path to long-term opioid use, a new study finds.
Genetic 'toolkit' helps periwinkles gain advantage on the seashore
Periwinkles, struggling to survive the seashore battleground, have developed a genetic 'toolkit' to help them adapt to different environments, a new study shows.
Tropical birds benefit from more forest by rivers in oil palm areas
Protected riverbank habitats within areas of oil palm cultivation can play a key role in reducing the negative impacts on tropical bird numbers but need to be increased in size, new research from the University of Kent has shown.
Predicting genomic instability that can lead to disease
A novel computational tool predicts genomic instability that can lead to disease.
Genetic factors contributing to 'strabismus' -- or misaligned eyes
Researchers at the National Institute of Genetics in Japan discovered a key gene for generating eye movements.
Families with college kids more likely to lose their home during recessions
In times of economic difficulties, having to pay a child through college could be a major reason for a family to lose their home.
Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes: Hope for inhibitors against amyloid plaques
Effective therapeutics to counteract the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes are not yet available.

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