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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | August 17, 2018


Better access to quality cancer care may reduce rural and urban disparities
When enrolled in a cancer clinical trial, the differences in survival rates between rural and urban patients are significantly reduced, SWOG study results show.
Patients, doctors dissatisfied by Electronic Health Records
Electronic Health Records are intended to streamline and improve access to information -- and have been shown to improve quality of care -- but a new study shows they also leave both doctors and patients unsatisfied, even after full implementation.
More efficient security for cloud-based machine learning
A novel encryption method devised by MIT researchers secures data used in online neural networks, without dramatically slowing their runtimes.
First science with ALMA's highest-frequency capabilities
A team of scientists using the highest-frequency capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has uncovered jets of warm water vapor streaming away from a newly forming star.
A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional 'protein knockdown' in vertebrates
The research groups led by Dr. Jörg Mansfeld of the Biotechnology Center of the TU Dresden (BIOTEC) and Dr.
For children with complex medical situations, a new roadmap for improving health
A team of UCLA researchers has developed a set of health outcome measures for children with medical complexity, using a software program that aggregates the latest research and expertise about how to treat their conditions.
UVA multidisciplinary engineering team designs technology for smart materials
With inspiration from squid ring teeth, a multidisciplinary team led by UVA engineers has invented a novel way to manufacture smart materials, including fabrics, that can regulate their own thermal properties.
Prescriptions for opioid use disorder treatment, opioid pain relievers after ACA Medicaid expansion
Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with an overall increase in people filling prescriptions for buprenorphine with naloxone, which is a treatment for opioid use disorder, as well as an increase in people filling prescriptions for opioid pain relievers (OPRs) paid for by Medicaid in a data analysis from five states.
Novel nanoparticle-based approach detects and treats oral plaque without drugs
When the good and bad bacteria in our mouth become imbalanced, the bad bacteria form a biofilm (aka plaque), which can cause cavities, and if left untreated over time, can lead to cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases like diabetes and bacterial pneumonia.
Like shark attack and the lottery, unconscious bias influences cancer screening
Study shows that doctors with personal experience of cancer are more likely to act against established guidelines to recommend that low-risk women receive ovarian cancer screening.
Students more likely to eat school breakfast when given extra time, new study finds
Using food weighting stations, the researchers collected information on the number of students who ate a school breakfast, how much they ate, and their exact nutritional intake.
Three factors could explain physician burnout
In just three years, physician burnout increased from 45.5 percent to 54.4 percent, according to a paper authored by doctors at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.
Making aquafeed more sustainable: Scientists develop feeds using a marine microalga co-product
Dartmouth scientists have created a more sustainable feed for aquaculture by using a marine microalga co-product as a feed ingredient.
Researchers find pathways that uncover insight into development of lung cancer
Lung cancer results from effects of smoking along with multiple genetic components.
Color effects from transparent 3D printed nanostructures
Structural coloration means that the microstructure of an object causes various colors to appear.
Acid coastal seas off US putting common fish species at risk
Scientists have shown that coastal waters and river estuaries can exhibit unique vulnerabilities to acidification than offshore waters.
URI chemistry professor develops contaminant detection technique for heparin
In 2008, a contaminant eluded the quality safeguards in the pharmaceutical industry and infiltrated a large portion of the supply of the popular blood thinner heparin, sickening hundreds and killing about 100 in the US.
Intensifying Hurricane Lane examined by GPM satellite
Heavy rainfall and towering cloud heights were the findings when Hurricane Lane was scanned by the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core observatory satellite on Aug.
URI scientist: Long-legged lizards better adapted for hurricane survival
Jason Kolbe has been thinking about hurricanes and lizards for many years.
Coal miners at growing risk of developing debilitating, deadly lung fibrosis
The number of cases of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) among US coal miners has risen during the past two decades, even as the number of coal miners has declined, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
Scientists identify enzyme that could help accelerate biofuel production
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have honed in on an enzyme belonging to the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family as a promising target for increasing biofuel production from the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.
Progress toward personalized medicine
A few little cells that are different from the rest can have a big effect.
Perinatal hypoxia associated with long-term cerebellar learning deficits and Purkinje cell misfiring
The type of hypoxia that occurs with preterm birth is associated with locomotor miscoordination and long-term cerebellar learning deficits but can be partially alleviated with an off-the-shelf medicine, according to a study using a preclinical model.
Robots as tools and partners in rehabilitation
Why trust should play a crucial part in the development of intelligent machines for medical therapies.
HIV and a tale of a few cities
In a pair of new modeling studies, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with international colleagues, examined how policy reform in terms of drug decriminalization (in Mexico) and access to drug treatment (in Russia) might affect two regions hard hit by the HIV pandemic: Tijuana, Mexico and the Russian cities of Omsk and Ekaterinburg.
Unexpected future boost of methane possible from arctic permafrost
New NASA-funded research has discovered that Arctic permafrost's expected gradual thawing and the associated release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere may actually be sped up by instances of a relatively little known process called abrupt thawing.
NASA's GPM analyzes Atlantic Tropical Storm Ernesto's rainfall
NASA found light to moderate rainfall occurring in Tropical Storm Ernesto as it continued on an eastern trek toward Ireland and the United Kingdom.
AI could make dodgy lip sync dubbing a thing of the past
Researchers have developed a system using artificial intelligence that can edit the facial expressions of actors to accurately match dubbed voices, saving time and reducing costs for the film industry.
To find and disarm: Scientists develop platform to kill cancer cells
The new treatment will serve as both diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors.
Water-worlds are common: Exoplanets may contain vast amounts of water
Scientists have shown that water is likely to be a major component of those exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) which are between two to four times the size of Earth.
Scientists find titanium dioxide from sunscreen is polluting beaches
Scientists have found that sunscreen from bathers releases significant quantities of polluting TiO2 (titanium dioxide) into the sea.
Experiences at first sexual encounter impact risk of HIV and violence for women in Kenya
Adolescent girls and young women in Mombasa, Kenya are more likely to experience higher risks of HIV and gender-based violence when they are involved with sex work venues or have sexual experiences at a young age, suggests a study co-led by St.
Historically black schools pay more to issue bonds, researchers find
After examining the underwriting fees -- the fees that underwriters charge a school to bring a bond offering to investors -- Paul Gao and his co-authors found that HBCU issuance costs were about 20 percent higher than for non-HBCUs.
Ants, acorns and climate change
The relatively swift adaptability of tiny, acorn-dwelling ants to warmer environments could help scientists predict how other species might evolve in the crucible of global climate change, according to Case Western Reserve biologists.
NASA analyzes Typhoon Soulik's water vapor
NASA's Terra satellite looked at water vapor and cloud top temperatures when it passed over the recently strengthened Typhoon Soulik in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Researchers develop irregular-shaped laser to tackle laser instability
An international research team of scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Yale University and Imperial College London has designed a new way to build high-powered lasers that could result in stable beams, overcoming a long-standing limitation in conventional lasers.
Exploring the relationship between fever and cancer incidence
In ''Toward Antitumor Immunity and Febrile Infections: Gamma/Delta (γδ) T Cells Hypothesis'' published in The Quarterly Review of Biology, Wieslaw Kozak, Tomasz Jedrzejewski, Malgorzata Pawlikowska, Jakub Piotrowski, and Sylwia Wrotek propose a mechanistic hypothesis that focuses on the potential impact infectious fever has on a particular subset of T cells, known as gamma/delta (gd) T cells.
Automated detection of focal epileptic seizures in a sentinel area of the human brain
In a first-in-humans pilot study, researchers have identified a sentinel area of the brain that may give an early warning before clinical seizure manifestations from focal epilepsy appear.
Study confirms truth behind 'Darwin's moth'
Scientists have revisited -- and confirmed -- one of the most famous textbook examples of evolution in action.
Scientists deploy damage assessment tool in Laos relief efforts
The July 23 failure of the Xepian-Xe Nam Noy hydropower dam unleashed more than 130 billion gallons of water on rural villages in southern Laos, in Southeast Asia, devastating thousands of houses and businesses and displacing more than 6,000 people.
As body mass index increases, blood pressure may as well
Body mass index is positively associated with blood pressure, according to the ongoing study of 1.7 million Chinese men and women being conducted by researchers at the Yale Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE) and in China.
Texas A&M team develops new way to grow blood vessels
Formation of new blood vessels, a process also known as angiogenesis, is one of the major clinical challenges in wound healing and tissue implants.
Scientists examine the relative impact of proximity to seed sources
A new research study published in the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management tackles an important, unresolved question in the biology of invasive plants.
Particulate pollution's impact varies greatly depending on where it originated
Aerosols are tiny particles that are spewed into the atmosphere by human activities, including burning coal and wood.
Energy-efficient spin current can be controlled by magnetic field and temperature
Up to now, electronic computer components have been run on electricity, generating unwanted heat.
A valley so low: Electrons congregate in ways that could be useful to 'valleytronics'
A team led by researchers at Princeton University have made a finding that could help usher in new area of technology called 'valleytronics.' The study found that electrons in bismuth crystals prefer to collect in one valley rather than being distributed equally across valleys, setting up a type of electricity known as ferroelectricity.
NASA finds Tropical Storm Bebinca moving over Laos, Thailand
NASA's Aqua satellite found strong storms circling the center of Tropical Storm Bebinca as it moved over northern Laos and into Thailand on Aug.
CityU develops the world's first-ever 4D printing for ceramics
A ground-breaking advancement in materials research by successfully developing the world's first-ever 4D printing for ceramics, which are mechanically robust and can have complex shapes.
Stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital are less likely to be readmitted
Stroke patients appear to receive better care at teaching hospitals with less of a chance of landing back in a hospital during the early stages of recovery, according to new research from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
16 going on 66: Will you be the same person 50 years from now?
From 16 to 66 your personality will change and over time you will generally become more emotionally stable.
Drug and alcohol use by pregnant women: the evolution of state policies
Policymakers and public health experts have long recognized the harm that can come to fetuses if women use drugs during pregnancy.

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