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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | August 21, 2018


Portable freshwater harvester could draw up to 10 gallons per hour from the air
For thousands of years, people in the Middle East and South America have extracted water from the air to help sustain their populations.
Simple leg exercises could reduce impact of sedentary lifestyle on heart and blood vessels
A sedentary lifestyle can cause an impairment of the transport of blood around the body, which increases the risk of disease in the heart and blood vessels.
Untreated genital warts may increase risk of HIV transmission
A new study has shown that genital warts may promote HIV sexual transmission and, in turn, their treatment and prevention could help decrease the spread of the disease.
Largest brain study of 62,454 scans identifies drivers of brain aging
In the largest known brain imaging study, scientists from Amen Clinics (Costa Mesa, CA), Google, John's Hopkins University, University of California, Los Angeles and the University of California, San Francisco evaluated 62,454 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scans of more than 30,000 individuals from 9 months old to 105 years of age to investigate factors that accelerate brain aging.
Water bottles, other recycled 3D printing materials could avoid military supply snags
Soldiers on the battlefield or at remote bases often have to wait weeks for vital replacement parts.
How do muscles know what time it is?
How do muscle cells prepare for the particular metabolic challenges of the day?
Quantum simulation reveals mobility edge in a low-dimensional disordered landscape
Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using an innovative quantum simulation technique have made one of the first observations of a mobility edge in a low-dimensional system.
Sharp increase in falls in women during midlife -- new international research
Falls are not just a problem of advanced age, according to researchers in Trinity College Dublin, who have identified a sharp increase in falls after the age of 40, particularly in women.
Genetic model offers elegant tool for testing Parkinson's disease therapies
For the past decade, Parkinson's disease researchers have relied on the experimental equivalent of using a sledgehammer to tune a guitar to test new therapies for the disease.
ASU partners with Mayo Clinic to move germ-killing clays closer to medical use
Researchers at Arizona State University and the Mayo Clinic have found that at least one type of blue clay may help fight disease-causing bacteria in wounds, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Improved thermal-shock resistance in industrial ceramics
Ceramic materials are used in nuclear, chemical and electrical power generation industries because of their ability to withstand extreme environments.
Annual pap test a 'thing of the past?'
The US Preventive Services Task Force has updated its 2012 recommendations for cervical cancer screening with one important addition.
Living close to urban green spaces is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer
The study also shows that residential proximity to agricultural areas is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
Study sheds light on how brain lets animals hunt for food by following smells
Most animals have a keen sense of smell, which assists them in everyday tasks.
New methods developed for designing dynamic object controllers
Today, the words 'uncertainty' and 'multiple criteria' characterize in the best possible manner the relevance and complexity of modern problems related to the control of various dynamic objects and processes.
Scientists at MDI Biological Laboratory identify new genetic regulators of regeneration
Scientists at the MDI Biological Laboratory and the University of Maine have discovered that genetic material in the cell that was previously thought to be 'junk' because of its apparent lack of function likely plays a part in regulating genetic circuits responsible for regeneration in highly regenerative animals.
Study shows diminished but 'robust' link between union decline, rise of inequality
Numerous studies have linked the decline of unions with the rise in wage inequality, but some prominent ones could not account for how individual worker characteristics might explain some of the connection.
Higher cost to Medicare for use of brand-name combo drugs instead of generic components
Brand-name combination drugs can be more expensive than the sum of their parts, especially when generic components are available.
Researchers shine a light on 150-year old mystery
The idea that light has momentum is not new, but the exact nature of how light interacts with matter has remained a mystery for close to 150 years.
Better genome editing
Reich Group researchers develop a more efficient and precise method of in-cell genome editing.
Enigmatic African fossils rewrite story of when lemurs got to Madagascar
Research reveals that a 20-million-year-old African fossil, long thought to be a bat, actually represents one of the earliest branches of the lemur family tree.
32-year Australian study reveals steep decline in student belief that God created humans
Australian university students give far more credit than the previous generation to the science of human evolution and far less to creationism or divine guidance, according to a landmark new study.
New type 1 diabetes therapy shows promise for long-term reversal in both humans, dogs
A collagen formulation mixed with pancreatic cells, developed by Purdue University researchers in collaboration with the Indiana University School of Medicine, is the first minimally invasive therapy to successfully reverse Type 1 diabetes within 24 hours and maintain insulin independence for at least 90 days, a pre-clinical animal study shows.
NIST details steps to keep buildings functioning after natural hazards
After an earthquake, hurricane, tornado or other natural hazard, it's considered a win if no one gets hurt and buildings stay standing.
In the eastern US, adult trees adapt and acclimate to local climate
Trees growing in temperate forests in the eastern US show strong adaptation or acclimation to local climate.
Having optimal levels of cardiovascular health in older age associated with lower dementia risk
Having optimal levels in more measures of cardiovascular health (nonsmoking, weight, diet, physical activity, cholesterol, blood glucose and blood pressure) for older adults was associated with lower risk for dementia.
Cleveland Clinic researchers discover novel subtype of multiple sclerosis
Cleveland Clinic researchers have discovered a new subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS), providing a better understanding of the individualized nature of the disease.
A materials scientist's dream come true
Materials can deform plastically by atomic-scale line defects called dislocations.
More minorities labeled 'learning disabled' because of social inequities, study finds
A new Portland State University study suggests that the disproportionate placement of racial minorities into special education for learning disabilities is largely because of social inequities outside of schools rather than racially biased educators.
NASA stares major Hurricane Lane in the eye
While passing over the Central Pacific Ocean, NASA's Terra satellite stared Hurricane Lane in the eye.
New method may allow country-level real-time surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis
This week in PLOS Medicine, Karen Jacobson, from the Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, and colleagues, describe a new technique for linking samples submitted for tuberculosis testing to the individuals who provided the samples and the location from where they were submitted, in a way that can provide the continuous national surveillance necessary for eradicating tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Nanobot pumps destroy nerve agents
Once in the territory of science fiction, 'nanobots' are closer than ever to becoming a reality, with possible applications in medicine, manufacturing, robotics and fluidics.
Future information technologies: Nanoscale heat transport under the microscope
Researchers from Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and University of Potsdam has investigated heat transport in a model system comprising nanometre-thin metallic and magnetic layers.
Preparing for chemical attacks with improved computer models
Researchers from the University of Texas at San Antonio used computer models on the Stampede2 supercomputer to replicate the dispersal of gases from the April 4, 2017 chemical weapons attack in northwest Syria.
Southern California coast emerges as a toxic algae hot spot
The Southern California coast harbors some of the world's highest concentrations of an algal toxin perilous to wildlife and people.
A common ancestral gene causes body segmentation in spiders and insects
Scientists have pinpointed a key gene that controls segmentation during spider development, which reveals a further similarity to the control of segmentation in insects, a study in eLife reports.
Powerful molecules provide new findings about Huntington's disease
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a direct link between the protein aggregation in nerve cells that is typical for neurodegenerative diseases, and the regulation of gene expression in Huntington's disease.
Sequencing genomes of Nigerian women could help prevent many lethal breast cancers
A study that enrolled more than 2,000 Nigerian women found that disparities in breast cancer mortality disproportionately impact women of African ancestry.
How the United States landed in a debt 'danger zone'
The interaction of public and private debt in the United States reduced economic growth about 0.43 percentage points per year between 2009 and 2014, a new study suggests.
Researchers identify structural changes that occur in enveloped viruses before invading host
The critical, structural changes that enveloped viruses, such as HIV, Ebola and influenza, undergo before invading host cells have been revealed by scientists using nano-infrared spectroscopic imaging, according to a study led by Georgia State University and the University of Georgia.
Study identifies 'compulsivity circuit' in heavy alcohol drinkers
Heavy alcohol drinkers attempt to acquire alcohol despite the threat of a negative consequence more so than light drinkers, a study in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging has found, and this behavior is associated with unique activation of brain circuitry in heavy drinkers.
Structural fluctuation evaluation in substances from measurement data
Microstructure analysis of materials is a key technology for new material research.
Wireless communication breaks through water-air barrier
In a novel system developed by MIT researchers, underwater sonar signals cause vibrations that can be decoded by an airborne receiver.
NASA captures monsoon rains bringing flooding to India
NASA provided estimates monsoon rainfall that affected India from Aug.
A new way to target high rates of obesity
A novel drug is being touted as a major step forward in the battle against Australia's escalating rates of obesity and associated metabolic diseases.
Species-rich forests better compensate environmental impacts
To offset CO2 emissions, China is reforesting. If a mixture of tree species instead of monocultures were planted, much more carbon could be stored.
I hear what you say! Or do I?
Children rely more on auditory information. This means they are less susceptible to illusions in which vision changes sound.
Gut bacteria provide key to making universal blood (video)
Blood banks around the world are continually in need of type O blood, which can be universally administered in an emergency.
Almost out of the air: an environmental friendly synthesis of betulin oxo-derivatives
TPU researchers develop completely new catalytic methods for synthesizing oxo-derivatives of betulin, which is an organic substance contained in the birch bark.
UC study: Exposure to tobacco smoke significantly impacts teen health
Secondhand smoke linked to poor health, higher absenteeism, increased likelihood to seek medical attention among adolescents
New research suggests evolution might favor 'survival of the laziest'
A new large-data study of bivalves and gastropods in the Atlantic Ocean suggests laziness might be a fruitful strategy for survival of individuals, species and even communities of species.
Stars memorize rebirth of our home galaxy
The Milky Way galaxy has died once before and we are now in what is considered its second life.
Predicting work status in patients with schizophrenia
Osaka University-led Japanese researchers clarified that intellectual deterioration (IQ decline) was related to work status in patients with schizophrenia.
Red or yellow? A simple paper test detects false or substandard antibiotics
A Colorado State University laboratory is putting chemistry to work on a simple, inexpensive way to identify falsified or substandard antibiotics, offering a practical solution to a very real problem.
Reliability, learnability and efficiency of two tools for cement crowns retrieval
This research work aims to help other researchers in the field to set up an experimental bench to assess the performance of different tools for the retrieval of cement crowns, in terms of reliability, learnability and efficiency.
Lower-risk malaria regions are breeding grounds for drug-resistant strains
New drug-resistant strains of the parasite that causes malaria tend to evolve in regions with lower malaria risk; in areas with high transmission rates, they get outcompeted by the more common, drug-sensitive strains inside the human host.
Ecosystems are getting greener in the Arctic
Researchers from Berkeley Lab have developed a new benchmark model that estimates changes in the proportion of the Earth's surface where plant growth will no longer be limited by cold temperatures over the 21st century.
Orphaned elephants have a tougher social life
Young female orphan elephants have a tougher social life than non-orphans, a new study suggests, adding to a growing body of evidence of how the impacts of poaching cascade through elephant societies.
Research informs new national cervical cancer screening recommendation
A comprehensive analysis of eight clinical trials and four cohort studies on cervical cancer screening by researchers from UC Davis and Kaiser Permanente Northwest has found that while Pap smears are still highly effective for detecting pre-cancerous cells and cancer, testing for the virus that causes these cancers also is an excellent screening tool.
Irony is the new black
New research from the University of Arizona finds that consuming brands ironically is a way to secretly signal our identity or beliefs to people who know us.
First in-depth profile of CAR T-cell signals suggests how to improve immunotherapy
CAR T-cell therapy, which reprograms immune cells to fight cancer, has shown great promise in people with some blood cancers who have not responded to other treatments.
Carers of terminally ill up to 7 times more likely to have mental health problems
Carers for people with cancer are between five and seven times more likely to have mental health problems than the general population, according to a landmark new study.
Bringing salvaged wooden ships and artifacts back to life with 'smart' nanotech
When a shipwreck is brought up from the sea depths, the wood quickly starts deteriorating.
Getting in Shape
They are especially good photocatalysts for the production of hydrogen by splitting water with solar energy: covalent organic frameworks based on triazines.
Moderate drinking associated with lower risk of heart disease but consistency matters
Unstable drinking patterns over time may be associated with a higher risk of heart disease, whereas consistent moderate drinking within recommended health guidelines may have a cardioprotective effect, according to a study published in the open access journal BMC Medicine that examined data on 35,132 individuals.
Plant protein complex plays large role in important growth and development process
Little-studied plant cellular protein complex plays critical and surprising role in plant growth and development process.
Dehydration alters human brain shape and activity, slackens task performance
Sweating up a storm gardening? This is what your brain might be doing: Reasonably customary dehydration led to shape changes inside the brains of test persons in a new study.
Antipsychotic use in older adults after heart surgery
In a new study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, researchers looked into the use of antipsychotic medications in older adults following heart surgery.
Baylor study: When 'religiosity' competes with materialism, charitable giving takes a hit
Religious people tend to be more charitable than their nonreligious counterparts, but they'll think twice about opening their wallets if it prolongs their next big purchase, according to new research from Baylor University's Hankamer School of Business.
Standard hypothyroidism treatment falling short
A research team headed by Elizabeth McAninch, MD, a assistant professor in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, found higher cholesterol levels in the blood of hypothyroid patients treated with appropriate doses of levothyroxine (LT4) -- a synthetic version of the human thyroid hormone that is the standard treatment for hypothyroidism -- than in healthy control subjects.
Clay to fight bacteria in wounds: An old practice may be a new solution
The use of mud or wet clay as a topical skin treatment or a poultice is a common practice in some cultures and the concept of using mud as medicine goes back to earliest times.
Depressed patients see quality of life improve with nerve stimulation
A national study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
AMP addresses clinical relevance of DNA variants in chronic myeloid neoplasms
AMP published consensus, evidence-based recommendations to aid clinical laboratory professionals with the management of most Chronic Myeloid Neoplasms (CMNs) and development of high-throughput pan-myeloid sequencing testing panels.
Vulnerable youth stress the importance of influential adults in their school lives
Kids who faced daunting barriers to success in the classroom had a clear message for University at Buffalo researchers who asked them as young adults to look back on their experiences with maltreatment, homelessness and their time in school: Adults can do better.
How the brain suppresses the act of revenge
Researchers from UNIGE have developed an economic game in which a participant is confronted with the fair behaviour of one player and the unfair provocations of another player.
FDA research informs smokeless tobacco prevention messaging for at-risk youth
Recent findings from formative research conducted with rural, non-Hispanic White males aged 12-17 years informed the development of health messaging for the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) first nationwide smokeless tobacco (SLT) public education campaign.
Researchers target protein that protects bacteria's DNA 'recipes'
In a new study, University of Rochester biologists describe some of the unique characteristics of the protein Dps, which protects bacteria like E. coli and makes it so resilient.
USPSTF recommendation statement on screening for cervical cancer
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has updated its recommendations regarding screening for cervical cancer, with the recommendations and type of screening method varying depending on the woman's age and other factors.
This tiny particle might change millions of lives
Researchers at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, along with colleagues from the Keck School of Medicine at USC, have engineered peptide nanoparticles to outsmart the biological system and target the kidney cells.
Researchers unravel the path of electrical discharges on phenomenally small scales
Innovations on the microscale depend on understanding the behavior of electricity on the smallest of length scales.
Two consumer baby monitors show worrisome results in measuring vital signs
Researchers who tested two commercially available baby monitors are raising serious concerns about the accuracy of these products, which are marketed to parents, but are not regulated by the US Food & Drug Administration.
New Antarctic rift data has implications for volcanic evolution -- Ben-Gurion U.
New marine geophysical data recorded during two excursions on a French icebreaker enabled Drs.
CEOs paid less than peers more likely to engage in layoffs, research finds
CEOs who are paid less than their peers are four times more likely to engage in layoffs, according to research led by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.
NASA sees the spiraling in Typhoon Cimaron
Bands of thunderstorms were spiraling into the center in Typhoon Cimaron when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead on Aug.
Scientists discover first direct evidence of surface exposed water ice on the Moon
A team of scientists led by researchers from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) found the first direct evidence for the surface exposed water ice in permanently shaded regions (PSRs) of the Moon.
Picture this: Camera with no lens
University of Utah electrical and computer engineers have discovered a way to create an optics-less camera in which a regular pane of glass or any see-through window can become the lens.
Illinois study pioneers humane feline research facility
Studying the effects of contraceptive medications on feral cat populations is difficult, but relying on standard laboratory settings is unrealistic.
Fake news detector algorithm works better than a human
An algorithm-based system that identifies telltale linguistic cues in fake news stories could provide news aggregator and social media sites like Google News with a new weapon in the fight against misinformation.
Less drain on freshwater supplies with seawater fuel discovery
Researchers have found that seawater can replace freshwater to produce the sustainable fuel Bioethanol, reducing the need to drain precious resources.
Identifying drug-resistant hotspots can provide roadmap to reduce tuberculosis in South Africa
Researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC) have created a near real-time surveillance method to identify communities experiencing a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa using routinely collected laboratory data.
Simple test could identify bladder cancer patients who won't respond to immunotherapy
Patients who are unlikely to benefit from a commonly used immunotherapy for bladder cancer could be identified by a simple blood test, according to researchers at Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS).
'It's all in the eyes': The role of the amygdala in the experience and perception of fear
A Massachusetts General Hospital investigator reviews the evolving understanding of the role of the brain structure called the amygdala.
Large study finds HPV vaccination does not negatively impact fertility in adolescents
Adolescents who receive recommended vaccinations, including for human papillomavirus, have no increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency, also known as premature menopause, according to a Kaiser Permanente study published today in Pediatrics.
A switch to turn fragrances on and off
Salk Institute and Purdue University scientists have discovered the switch in plants that turns off production of terpenoids -- carbon-rich compounds that play roles in plant physiology and are used by humans in everything from fragrances and flavorings to biofuels and pharmaceuticals.
CasPER -- a new method for diversification of enzymes
Scientists have invented a new method that allows for flexible engineering of essential and nonessential enzymes without additional engineering.
Switching DNA and RNA on and off
DNA and RNA are naturally polarised molecules. Scientists believe that these molecules have an in-built polarity that can be reoriented or reversed fully or in part under an electric field.
Education program successful at reducing forced sex in South African adolescents
A 12-hour theory-based, culturally adapted educational program presented in sixth-grade classrooms in South Africa significantly reduced the chances that the students would force sex on someone else, an effect that held true over the four years the students were followed.
Certain antibiotic-resistant infections on the rise, new research shows
Nearly six percent of urinary tract infections analyzed by a California emergency department were caused by drug-resistant bacteria in a one-year study period, according to new research in Annals of Emergency Medicine.
New wave of complex street drugs puzzles emergency doctors
At a time when drug overdoses are becoming more prevalent and lethal, a new report provides a snapshot of regional illicit drug use and, for the first time, highlights the complexity of detecting and treating patients at hospital emergency departments for a severe drug-related event.
Study shows children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis can be treated
The results of a large, international systematic review published in the journal PLOS Medicine show that tuberculosis treatment is successful in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
Exodus of Saudi medical trainees reveals vulnerability of Canadian health care
The sudden loss of Saudi medical trainees who must leave Canada in the next two weeks will negatively affect patient care, which should serve as a wake-up call to governments to increase the number of funded residency and fellowship positions for Canadian medical students, argues Dr.
NASA sees a 50 mile wide eye in Typhoon Soulik
NASA's Aqua satellite provided forecasters with a look at Typhoon Soulik's cloud top temperatures and 50 nautical-mile wide eye as it passed overhead on Aug.
Ultrasound could improve early detection of vascular diseases
University of Leicester animal study could help to assess disease progression and alleviate symptoms in humans.
Millennials with type 2 diabetes more likely to face difficulties with social interactions
'State of Type 2 Diabetes,' from Healthline Media, examines the current population of people living with T2D across generations and gender, investigates the emotional challenges of the condition, and explores their most pressing concerns, day-to-day experiences, and feelings.
Stressed, toxic, zombie cells seen for 1st time in Alzheimer's
Tau protein accumulation is common across 20 human brain diseases.

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