Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 28, 2018
Study shows AI can deliver specialty-level diagnosis in primary care setting
A system designed by a University of Iowa ophthalmologist that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to detect diabetic retinopathy without a person interpreting the results earned Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorization in April, following a clinical trial in primary care offices.

Novel imaging biomarker to help predict coronary inflammation
Researchers at Cleveland Clinic, University of Oxford and University of Erlangen have identified a novel imaging biomarker, which has been found to be able to predict all-cause and cardiac mortality by measuring inflammation of fatty tissue surrounding the coronary arteries.

Combination approach shows promise for beating advanced melanoma
A UCLA-led study has found that a treatment that uses a bacteria-like agent in combination with an immunotherapy drug could help some people with advanced melanoma, an aggressive form of skin cancer, live longer.

Components of heart healthy diet may differ from what was previously thought
Munich, Germany -- Aug. 28, 2018: The foods that make up a heart healthy diet for people worldwide may differ from what was previously thought, according to late breaking results from the observational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018 and simultaneously published in the Lancet.

Few people at risk for heart disease understand food labels
An Irish survey of 200 men and women examines awareness, understanding, and use of food labels in preventing lifestyle-related disease in a primary care setting.

Up to 8 million deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries yearly due to poor-quality health care
Recent gains against the burden of illness, injury, and disability and commitment to universal health coverage (UHC) are insufficient to close the enormous gaps that remain between what is achievable in human health and where global health stands today, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Novel technique to treat endometrial cysts is safe and effective
A technique called catheter-based sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for endometrial cysts and could help preserve fertility in patients, according to a new study.

NASA sees formation of Eastern Pacific Tropical Depression 16E
NASA's Aqua satellite saw the sixteenth tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean come together on Aug.

Qual­ity re­gisters for sur­gery ex­clude many treat­ment-re­lated ad­verse events
According to a recent study, many extensive national registries are primarily based on data collected for administrative purposes, and often feature selective and incomplete reporting of treatment outcomes.

Getting to the roots of our ancient cousin's diet
Since the discovery of the fossil remains of Australopithecus africanus from Taung nearly a century ago, and subsequent discoveries of Paranthropus robustus, there have been disagreements about the diets of these two South African hominin species.

Optimal timing of invasive evaluation after heart attack examined in randomized trial
The optimal timing of invasive evaluation after a heart attack has been examined in a randomised trial.

Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided
Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided, according to a large study presented today at ESC Congress 2018.

Writing a 'thank you' note is more powerful than we realize, study shows
New research from the University of Texas at Austin proves writing letters of gratitude, like Jimmy Fallon's 'Thank You Notes,' is a pro-social experience people should commit to more often.

The more pesticides bees eat, the more they like them
Bumblebees acquire a taste for pesticide-laced food as they become more exposed to it, a behavior showing possible symptoms of addiction.

Training for parents referred to CPS improves toddler's physiological regulation
A parental training program for families referred to Child Protective Services improved toddlers' unconscious reactions to mildly stressful situations, as well as improving parents' behavior, according to a new study by researchers at UC Davis and the University of Washington.

Teenagers have a hard time reading one another's tones of voice
Newly published research in the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior shows that the ability to understand what someone is feeling based on their tone of voice can be challenging in mid-adolescence (between 13-15 year olds), particularly when it comes to tones of voice which express anger, meanness, disgust, or happiness.

Tackling the great paradox of biodiversity with game theory
One of the main puzzles of ecology research has been to explain how hundreds, often thousands, of different species coexist on a very limited number of different resources.

Tree swallow study: Stressful events have long-term health impacts
Little is known about how brief yet acute stressors -- such as war, natural disasters and terror attacks -- affect those exposed to them, though human experience suggests they have long-term impacts.

Study provides new insights for ways to use cell metabolism to treat cancer
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have discovered that cell metabolism plays an important role in the ability of cells to start a survival program called autophagy, an unwanted side effect of some anti-cancer drugs that helps some tumor cells dodge treatment and eventually regrow into new tumors.

Scientists find a new way to attack herpesviruses
A team of scientists led by Leor S. Weinberger, PhD, the William and Ute Bowes Distinguished Professor and director of the Gladstone-UCSF Center for Cell Circuitry, uncovered the mechanism that allows cytomegalovirus to replicate.

Post-workout muscle building and repair blunted in obese adults, study finds
Obesity is associated with a host of health problems, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

WSU Spokane researchers develop potential drugs to help curb smoking
Washington State University researchers have created more than a dozen candidate drugs with the potential to curb smokers' desire for nicotine by slowing how it is broken down in the body.

Current advice to limit dairy intake should be reconsidered
The consumption of dairy products has long been thought to increase the risk of death, because of dairy's relatively high levels of saturated fat.

Anxiety, depression, other mental distress may increase heart attack, stroke risk in adults over 45
Anxiety, depression and other mental distress was associated with an increased risk of heart attack and stroke among adults ages 45 or older, even after factoring for lifestyle behaviors and disease history.

Protein modifications pointing to cancer
Researchers from the University of Zurich can, for the first time, precisely characterize the protein modification ADP-ribosylation for all proteins in a tissue sample.

A non-canonical strategy may improve cancer radiotherapy
Interactions between radiation therapy and the immune system can improve cancer treatment.

Novel brain network linked to chronic pain in Parkinson's disease
Scientists have revealed a novel brain network that links pain in Parkinson's disease to a specific region of the brain.

A novel nanoactuator system has been developed
Researchers at University of Jyväskylä (Finland) and University of Tampere (Finland) together with BioNavis Ltd (Finland) have developed a novel nanoactuator system, where conformation of biomolecule can be tuned by electric field and probed using optical properties of gold nanoparticle.

HIV/AIDS research yields dividends across medical fields
Since the first cases of AIDS were reported in the United States 37 years ago, the National Institutes of Health has invested more than $69 billion in the understanding, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS.

Is it safe for women with heart disease to become pregnant?
Munich, Germany - 28 Aug 2018: Is it safe for women with heart disease to become pregnant?

Removable balloon is as good as permanent stent implant for opening small blocked arteries
Munich, Germany -- Aug. 28, 2018: A removable balloon is as good as a permanent stent implant for opening small blocked arteries, according to late breaking results from the BASKET-SMALL 2 trial presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2018 and simultaneously published in The Lancet.

Scientists in Fiji examine how forest conservation helps coral reefs
Researchers from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UH Mānoa), WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society), and other groups are discovering how forest conservation in Fiji can minimize the impact of human activities on coral reefs and their fish populations.

E. coli strain from retail poultry may cause urinary tract infections in people
A strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) found in retail chicken and turkey products may cause a wide range of infections in people, according to a study published today in the American Society for Microbiology's open access journal mBio.

Breakthrough sensor to help people with bipolar disorder monitor lithium levels
Patients living with bipolar disorder and depression will soon be able to use a unique wearable sensor to safely monitor their lithium drug levels.

Novel gene mutation found in lymphatic disorder
Pediatric researchers have identified a gene mutation that causes a serious lymphatic condition, and used that knowledge to restore normal lymphatic vessels in model animals.

In warming Arctic, major rivers show surprising changes in carbon chemistry
New research suggests that the same factors driving the Arctic's changing climate are fueling a geological response that could play a small part in counteracting those changes' malign effects.

Rethinking a healthy diet from a global perspective
Scientists of the Population Health Research Institute (PHRI) of McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences are using research from several large global studies to develop an updated, international approach of identifying a healthy diet.

Machine learning improves searches in world's largest biomedical literature database
Results sorted by relevance, instead of date, provide an improved experience for users of PubMed, the world's largest biomedical literature database, according to a study publishing Aug.

Treating inflammatory bowel disorder by delivering microRNAs
Osaka University researchers efficiently delivered miRNAs to immune response cells in inflamed intestinal tracts using a super carbonate apatite (sCA), which had been shown to be highly effective in the delivery of nucleic acids to solid tumors, demonstrating the efficacy of sCA in the prevention and treatment of colitis in mice.

Researchers develop 'cytological ruler' to build 3D map of human genome
It has been almost 20 years since the human genome was first sequenced, but researchers still know little about how the genome is folded up and organized within cells.

Cancer linked to poor prognosis in patients with broken heart syndrome
Cancer is linked to an increased risk of death and rehospitalization in patients with broken heart syndrome, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2018.

Gout drug reduces adverse events in patients with hyperuricaemia
Munich, Germany -- Aug. 28, 2018: Uric acid reduction with the gout treatment febuxostat reduces adverse events in elderly patients with hyperuricaemia, according to late breaking research presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018.

Leaf molecules as markers for mycorrhizal associations
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, discovered that certain leaf metabolites can be used as markers for mycorrhizal associations.

Bioengineers unveil surprising sensory and self-healing abilities of seashore creatures
Limpets sense damage to the structurally vital elements of their shells and self-heal in a way that is biologically similar to how broken bones mend in mammals.

Six countries in the Americas account for half of all firearm deaths
A new study reveals more than a quarter-million people died from firearm-related injuries in 2016, with half of those deaths occurring in only six countries in the Americas: Brazil, the United States, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala.

Blood pressure drug slows aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome
Munich, Germany -- Aug. 28, 2018: Treatment with a drug to lower blood pressure slows enlargement (dilatation) of the aorta in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome, according to late breaking results from the AIMS trial presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018.

The math of malaria
A new mathematical model for malaria shows how competition between parasite strains within a human host reduces the odds of drug resistance developing in a high-transmission setting.

Emergency resuscitation device increases cardiac arrest survival rate, study reports
When paramedics resuscitated cardiac arrest patients with a new type of breathing tube, their patients were more likely to survive, according to a University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston-led study in today's JAMA.

Remote islands harbour higher numbers of non-native species
The effects of island remoteness from the mainland on the number of species found on islands differs strongly for non-native compared to native species.

Scientists pinpoint the key mechanism foe amplification of global warming
Over the past century, the Earth has experienced a steady rise in the global-mean surface temperature, which is thought to be driven by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

Purdue researchers developing novel biomedical imaging system
Purdue University researchers are developing a novel biomedical imaging system that combines optical and ultrasound technology to improve diagnosis of life-threatening diseases.

New sensor could help doctors monitor patient progress from a distance
A self-powered sensor developed at the University of Waterloo could allow doctors to remotely monitor the recovery of surgical patients.

Diagnosis is not best predictor of avoidable hospitalizations of nursing home residents
Care of long-term nursing home patients can be fragmented by hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, which are especially burdensome for frail older adults.

Research brief: Researchers 3D print prototype for 'bionic eye'
A team of researchers at the University of Minnesota have, for the first time, fully 3D printed an array of light receptors on a hemispherical surface.

Carbon in color: First-ever colored thin films of nanotubes created
A method developed at Aalto University, Finland, can produce large quantities of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes in select shades of the rainbow.

Migrating monarchs facing increased parasite risks
During their annual migration to wintering sites in Mexico, monarch butterflies encounter dangers ranging from cars and trucks to storms, droughts and predators.

Come together: New laser technique binds aluminum with plastic in injection molding
Designing lightweight materials -- a goal in the automotive and airline industries -- requires carefully joining together different types of materials like metals and polymers, and these additional steps drive up manufacturing costs.

New cancer treatment uses enzymes to boost immune system and fight back
UT Engineers developed an enzyme therapy that stimulates a human immune system abnormally suppressed by cancer cells, unleashing the body's power to fight back against the disease.

126 patient and provider groups to CMS: Proposed E/M service cuts will hurt sickest patients
A broad coalition of 126 patient and provider groups -- led by leading national organizations including the American College of Rheumatology -- today sent a letter to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) urging the agency not to move forward with a proposal that would significantly reduce Medicare reimbursements for evaluation and management (E/M) services provided by specialist.

Wilder wildfires ahead?
Research at UCSB and NCAR reveals the connection between climate change, El Niño and the possibility for more extreme wildfires.

New phase proposed in the relationship between figs and wasps
A Brazilian researcher describes 129 species of fig tree parasites which compete and even prey upon the fig wasps during the many phases of the fig-wasp mutualism that helped to shape both plant and its pollinator.

Scientists sweep cellular neighborhoods where Zika hides out
Researchers report a comprehensive analysis of interactions between Zika virus proteins and native human proteins.

The 'invisible hand' doesn't control markets
New socioeconomic research from Michigan State University found a market disruptor has turned the 'invisible hand' theory on its head.

The link between obesity, the brain, and genetics
Clinicians should consider how the way we think can make us vulnerable to obesity, and how obesity is genetically intertwined with brain structure and mental performance, according to new research.

Take a vacation -- it could prolong your life
Taking vacations could prolong life. That's the finding of a 40-year study presented today at ESC Congress and accepted for publication in The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging.

Does chemotherapy harm ability to function for older women with breast cancer?
This study, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, investigates the effects of breast cancer and its treatments on older women's abilities to function.

All that is gold is not biochemically stable
Environmental nanoparticle researchers discover that gold isn't always the shining example of a biologically stable material that it's assumed to be.

Invisible needles
An international research group of scientists from Politecnico di Torino (Italy) and NUST MISIS (Russia) has developed a model of a new metamaterial, which will improve the accuracy of nano-sensors in optics and biomedicine by cloaking them from external radiation.

Effects of deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
Researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have studied motor and cognitive effects of deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

NASA finds little improvement in Miriam's structure
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Miriam Aug.

If military robot falls, it can get itself up
Scientists at the US Army Research Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed software to ensure that if a robot falls, it can get itself back up, meaning future military robots will be less reliant on their soldier handlers.

Electric polarization in the macroscopic world and electrons moving at atomic scales
Femtosecond x-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms.

FeCo-selenide -- Next-generation material in energy storage devices?
In a paper in the forthcoming issue of NANO, a team of researchers have fabricated an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) based on FeCo-selenide nanosheet arrays as positive electrode and Fe2O3 nanorod arrays as negative electrode.

Three factors that predict life-threatening respiratory disease in burn patients
For the first time, researchers have devised a model to predict burn patients who are most likely to develop life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

CU researchers identify potential target for treating pain during surgery
A research team lead by faculty of the University of Colorado School of Medicine have published a study that improves the understanding of the pain-sensing neurons that respond to tissue injury during surgery.

How eggplants became Asian -- genomes and elephants tell the story
The evolutionary context of the eggplant was until recently very poorly known.

New compact hyperspectral system captures 5-D images
Researchers have developed a compact imaging system that can measure the shape and light-reflection properties of objects with high speed and accuracy.

Counting on NASA's ICESat-2
NASA is about to launch the agency's most advanced laser instrument of its kind into space.

Discovery on East Asian monsoon dynamics
Dr. Richard Cheung and Dr. Moriaki Yasuhara from the University of Hong Kong and their collaborators identified four pervasive East Asian summer monsoon strengthening events at 1250, 1450, 1550, and 1900 CE and found that oceanic and continental settings could partially explain spatial differences in Asian summer monsoon trends at decadal to centennial scale.

Temperature model predicts regional and seasonal virus transmission by mosquitoes
Scientists have built a model that predicts how temperature affects the spread of Ross River virus, a common mosquito-borne virus in Australia.

Immune system prioritizes distinct immune responses in infants with flu
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists detail how the immune system strives to protect the lungs of the youngest flu patients.

Differences between combined, isolated use of cannabis, nicotine on brain networks
Researchers at the Center for BrainHealth® at the University of Texas at Dallas investigated the effects on the brain of concurrent cannabis and nicotine use, versus the use of solely cannabis and solely nicotine.

New treatment can halve hospital stays for some patients with heart infection
A new treatment can halve hospital stays for some patients with a heart infection (endocarditis), according to late breaking results of the POET trial presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018 and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

First randomised trial tests criteria used to diagnose heart attack
Munich, Germany -- Aug. 28, 2018: Results of the first randomised trial testing the criteria used to diagnose heart attack are presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018 and published in The Lancet.

Genes that regulate how much we dream
Sleep is known to allow animals to re-energize themselves and consolidate memories.

Oral anticoagulants plus antiplatelets associated with poor outcome in atrial fibrillation
Combined oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy is associated with a worse prognosis than anticoagulation alone in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients without a clear indication for antiplatelets, according to late breaking results from the GARFIELD-AF registry presented today at ESC Congress 2018.

NASA looks at fluctuating strength of Tropical Storm Lane
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over tropical cyclone Lane on Aug.

Mapping out cancer's movements
Cancer researchers struggle to identify tumor cells that are interspersed within nonmalignant tissues because tumor cells exploit the tissue environment and monopolize available resources to continue growing.

Discovery on past deep-water dynamics in the western tropical Pacific
Researchers from The University of Hong Kong discovered the effects of deep-sea water contribution in the western tropical Pacific.

Higgs particle's favorite 'daughter' comes home
In a finding that caps years of exploration into the tiny particle known as the Higgs boson, researchers have traced the fifth and most prominent way that the particle decays into other particles.

Disentangling the relationships between cultural traits and other variables
A team of researchers led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and Australian National University analyzed how to avoid misinterpreting correlations in cross-cultural studies, published in Royal Society Open Science.

Amazonian rainfall increases in wet season
Amazonian precipitation in wet season is foun to have largely increased during the past three decades (1979-2015).

INSiGHT identifies unique retinal regulatory genes
A new platform called INSiGHT enables researchers to uncover new retinal regulatory genes.

An ocean apart, carnivorous pitcher plants create similar communities
Asian pitchers transplanted to Massachusetts bogs can mimic the living communities of natives so well that the pitcher plant mosquito -- a specialized insect that evolved to complete its life cycle exclusively in North American pitchers -- lays eggs in the impostors, new research shows.

Misfolded proteins serve as 'inherited memory' of toxic insults
Protein aggregates have a bad reputation in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but in bacteria, inheritance of aggregates by daughter cells may help protect against the same toxic stresses that triggered them in parental cells, according to a new study publishing in PLOS Biology, by Sander Govers, Abram Aertsen, and colleagues at KU Leuven, Belgium.

Study finds how NF-2 gene mutations make cells hyper-responsive to growth factor signaling
A team of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center researchers has determined one way that mutations in a gene involved in a rare, hereditary cancer syndrome lead to out-of-control cellular proliferation.

Three previously unknown ancient primates identified
Biological anthropologists from The University of Texas at Austin have described three new species of fossil primates that were previously unknown to science.

More patients survive sudden cardiac arrest with new EMS technique that uses a breathing tube
A new study showed that a change in the type of breathing tube paramedics use to resuscitate patients with sudden cardiac arrest can significantly improve the odds of survival and save thousands of lives.

New approach makes sprayed droplets hit and stick to their targets
MIT engineers led by Kripa Varanasi have devised a new way to make sprayed droplets hit and stick to their targets.

Smoking and drinking can damage arteries 'very early in life'
The arteries of teenagers who drink alcohol and smoke, even very occasionally, are already beginning to stiffen by age 17, according to UCL research.

The Lancet: Papers at European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress
The following papers will be presented at the ESC congress in Munich, and published simultaneously in The Lancet journal.

Chest pain drug falls short in preventing first episode of ventricular arrhythmia or death
A trial of more than 1,000 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators found that the drug ranolazine (used to treat chest pain; brand name Ranexa®) was safe but didn't decrease the likelihood of the first occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias or death in this high-risk population.

Better understanding of potential regeneration after brain/spinal cord injury
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine have uncovered new information on the pathways involved in neuronal regeneration, hopefully bringing the medical community one step closer to managing brain and spinal cord injuries.

Study helps children hit the right note in supporting autistic peers
Collaborative music lessons in schools improve the attitudes of pupils towards their peers with autism, a new study in the journal Autism reports.

Researchers find elusive source of most abundant immune cell
Discovery of human neutrophil progenitor opens the door for new therapeutic targets and could serve as an important biomarker for early cancer detection.

GW report delivers recommendations aimed at preparing Puerto Rico for hurricane season
In an independent report published today, researchers at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health estimated there were 2,975 excess deaths in Puerto Rico due to Hurricane Maria from September 2017 through the end of February 2018.

Scientists develop alternative treatment for peripheral artery disease
Cristina Sabliov, LSU Biological and Agricultural Engineering professor, and Tammy Dugas, professor in the LSU School of Veterinary Medicine's Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, have joined forces to fight peripheral artery disease, or PAD, an ailment affecting 8 million Americans.

Stellar 'swarms' help astronomers understand the evolution of stars
New work from Carnegie's Jonathan Gagné and the American Museum of Natural History's Jacqueline Faherty identified nearly a thousand potential members and 31 confirmed members of stellar associations--stars of similar ages and compositions that are drifting together through space--in our own corner of the Milky Way.

Crowdsourced multimedia campaign to boost HIV testing in China
A crowdsourced intervention led to an increase in the number of gay men who got tested for HIV in eight cities in China, researchers led by Joseph Tucker from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, USA, report this week in PLOS Medicine.

Crowdsourcing campaigns increase HIV testing among at-risk men in China
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have found that crowdsourced campaigns can motivated men at-risk of HIV infection in China to get tested.

Researchers uncover the science behind blowing bubbles
What exactly happens when you blow on a soap film to make a bubble?

Parasites discovered in fossil fly pupae
Parasitic wasps existed as early as several million years ago.

Cochrane review looks at accuracy of Xpert for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB
In one-fifth of people with active tuberculosis (TB), the site of disease is outside the lungs (extrapulmonary TB).

All wired up: New molecular wires for single-molecule electronic devices
Scientists at Tokyo Tech designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires.

Multiple facets of biodiversity reduce variability of grassland biomass production
A new study shows that plant evolutionary history plays a critical role in regulating year-to-year variation of biomass production in grasslands.

Clinical trials needed to study cannabinoid use in Canadian children
Canadian parents use unregulated cannabinoids for seizure control in children with neurologic conditions like epilepsy, and clinical trials are needed to inform doctors and parents on prescribing, according to a commentary in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Close ties with fathers help daughters overcome loneliness
Fathers play a key role in helping their young daughters overcome loneliness, a new study has found. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to