Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 05, 2018
Purdue develops 'augmented reality' tools to help health care workers in war zones
Purdue University researchers have developed a unique approach using augmented reality tools to help less-experienced doctors in war zones, natural disasters and in rural areas perform complicated procedures.

For entomologists, a gender gap remains in academic, government employment
Despite a healthy pipeline of women graduating from entomology programs in the United States, insect science jobs in academia and government are disproportionately held by men, according to a new study in the Annals of the Entomological Society of America.

'Live fast, die young' lifestyle reflected in birds' feathers
Animals' lives follow a quicker tempo as they get farther from the equator -- birds at more northern latitudes mature faster, start reproducing younger, and live shorter lives, probably as a way of dealing with seasonal variation in resources.

New guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of perimenopausal depression
New ''Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of Perimenopausal Depression: Summary and Recommendations'' have been co-published in Journal of Women's Health and Menopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society.

Whole grains one of the most important food groups for preventing type 2 diabetes
It doesn't matter if it's rye, oats, or wheat. As long as it is whole grain, it can prevent type 2 diabetes.

New study introduces approach that can roughly double success rates of kidney transplants
A new study in the INFORMS journal Management Science shows how to improve the success rate of an innovative kidney matching process called kidney exchange.

Study: Ways to maximize nutrition and growth for the smallest preemies
To help clinicians maximize nutrition and growth in very low birth weight infants, researchers quantified the gains and losses of different nutrition delivery practices during the transition to enteral feeds.

Shorter life expectancy linked to 2016 presidential election outcome
A new study at Columbia found that changes in life expectancy may have influenced voting choices in the 2016 presidential election, with Republicans making gains in counties that had 2.5 times more deaths from suicide, alcohol, and overdose.

The Lancet Global Health: Improved access to care not sufficient to improve health, as epidemic of poor quality care revealed
Of the 8.6 million deaths from conditions treatable by health care, poor-quality care is responsible for an estimated 5 million deaths per year -- more than deaths due to insufficient access to care (3.6 million) .

Physics model acts as an 'EKG' for solar panel health
Purdue researchers created an algorithm using the physics of panel degradation that can analyze solar farm data from anywhere, essentially as a portable EKG for solar farms.

Transforming pregnancy research with a smartphone app
Scientists can use a smartphone-based research platform to recruit a large and diverse population of pregnant women to participate in a research study.

Hypertension drugs could prevent memory loss in lupus patients, study suggests
Researchers from the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have discovered that the activation of brain cells called microglia likely contributes to the memory loss and other cognitive impairments suffered by many patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Lymph node structural cells rein in human immune responses
New research published in PLOS Biology by Anne Fletcher and Konstantin Knoblich and colleagues, from Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI), has veered away from traditional immunology by turning the spotlight on the structural cells that build and support the immune-rich environment of lymph nodes.

Marmosets serve as an effective model for non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Small, New World monkeys called marmosets can mimic the sleep disturbances, changes in circadian rhythm, and cognitive impairment people with Parkinson's disease develop, according to a new study by scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute.

Rich inner lives: exploring the connection between cancer and the human microbiome
This cutting-edge Special Issue from ecancermedicalscience collects six original review articles that examine the complex relationship between microbes and cancer, from cause to treatment and beyond.

2D atomic crystals probe: how hot it is in a plasmonic 'hotspot'
A research group led by Shunping Zhang and Hongxing Xu at Wuhan University, China, has developed a quantitative SERS technique to probe the maximum plasmonic fields before effects such as electron tunneling become dominant.

Moving forward with mRNA medicines
In cells, ribosomes translate messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. And in the nascent field of mRNA therapeutics, researchers and investors are hoping to translate mRNA drugs from the lab to the medicine cabinet.

Scientists take to Twitter to study flying ants, starling murmurations and house spiders
Searching tweets for text or hashtags allowed researchers to gather information on popular ecological phenomena observed in the UK such as the emergence of flying ants and starling murmurations.

Getting your TV to understand you better
New research out of the University of Waterloo has found a way to improve the voice query understanding capabilities of home entertainment platforms.

Study: Walk more to reduce heart failure risk
In addition to reducing overall heart failure by 25 percent, increased physical activity benefited two heart failure subtypes defined by cardiac function: reduced ejection fraction, which typically has a worse prognosis, and preserved ejection fraction, which is more common in older adults, especially women and racial-ethnic minorities.

Nerve pain in the legs? Medical marijuana may alter brain connections, bring relief
When medical marijuana is taken for chronic nerve pain, it may provide pain relief by reducing connections between the areas of the brain that process emotions and sensory signals, according to a study published in the Sept.

UHN study: CIHI model underestimates mortality risk for specialized cardiac centres
A study led by researchers at the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre (PMCC) at UHN suggests that the model used by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) significantly underestimates mortality in specialized heart surgery centres.

It is all about the distribution
Wind turbines could cover 40 percent of the current electricity consumption in Germany.

Does neuroscience hold the key to understanding the criminal mind?
A new study shows a difference between how risk is cognitively processed by self-reported law-abiding citizens and self-reported lawbreakers, allowing researchers to better view and understand the criminal mind.

Earliest Mediterranean cheese production revealed by pottery over 7,000 years old
Fatty acids detected on potsherds from Croatian archaeological sites contain evidence of the earliest known cheese production in the Mediterranean region, according to a study published Sept.

Heart disease common among firefighters who die of cardiac arrest
The majority of firefighters who died from cardiac arrest had autopsy confirmed evidence of coronary artery disease, or narrowing of the arteries, and structural abnormalities, including an enlarged heart and increased wall thickness of the primary chamber for pumping blood, or left ventricle.

When it rains, snake bites soar
Rattlesnakes and other venomous reptiles may bite more people during rainy years than in seasons wracked by drought, a new study shows.

Women lack access to private toilets around the world
One of the most pervasive and common forms of gender discrimination experienced daily by girls and women around the world is their inadequate access to private toilets.

Radio observations confirm superfast jet of material from neutron star merger
The supersharp radio 'vision' of a continent-wide collection of radio telescopes answered an outstanding question about the aftermath of a merger of two neutron stars.

Tuning radical reactivity for selective radical/radical cross-coupling
Radical/radical cross-coupling represents a straightforward way for the construction of new chemical bonds.

New CDC guidelines detail treatment of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury
New evidence-based guidelines, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with input from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and others put forward recommendations for a broad range of health care providers responsible for detection and management of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, most of which are concussions.

Beatboxers' and guitarists' brains react differently to hearing music
The brains of professional beatboxers and guitarists respond to music differently when compared to each other and non-musicians, finds a new UCL-led study published in Cerebral Cortex.

A 'homing system' targets therapeutic T-cells to brain cancer
A multi-institution international team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine has developed a new strategy to overcome one of the main obstacles in the treatment of brain cancer -- access to the tumor.

Experts advise against routine testing for prostate cancer
Routine testing for prostate cancer is not recommended for most men because the benefit is small and uncertain and there are clear harms, say a panel of international experts in The BMJ today.

Did death rate affect the 2016 US presidential elections?
A slightly different death rate in the swing states of Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin could have resulted in a different outcome to the 2016 US presidential elections.

First-ever guidelines for detecting, treating perimenopausal depression
A multi-institutional panel of clinicians and scientists convened by The North American Menopause Society and the National Network on Depression Centers Women and Mood Disorders Task Group, and endorsed by the International Menopause Society, have published the first-ever guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of perimenopausal depression simultaneously in the journal Menopause and the Journal of Women's Health.

Family tree of blood production reveals hundreds of thousands of stem cells
Adult humans have ten times more blood-creating stem cells in their bone marrow than previously thought, ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 stem cells.

Australian fur seal pup population is shrinking
A census of annual pup production by Australian fur seal populations revealed the first reduction since species-wide protection was implemented in 1975, according to a study published Sept.

Bees coordinate strategy for defending colony, study reveals
Stingless bees position hovering guards in an organized manner at nest entrance to detect and intercept intruders rapidly.

DNA of early medieval Alemannic warriors and their entourage decoded
In 1962, an Alemannic burial site containing human skeletal remains was discovered in Niederstotzingen (Baden-Württemberg, Germany).

Strands of hair from member of Franklin expedition provide new clues into mystery
A new analysis of human hair taken from the remains of one of the members of the Franklin expedition, is providing further evidence that lead poisoning was just one of many different factors contributing to the deaths of the crew, and not the primary cause, casting new doubt on the theory that has been the subject of debate amongst scientists and historians for decades.

Enhancing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy using treatment combination
A combination of a novel inhibitor of the protein CK2 (Casein kinase 2) and an immune checkpoint inhibitor has dramatically greater antitumor activity than either inhibitor alone, according to research from The Wistar Institute that was published online in Cancer Research.

A step ahead in pharmaceutical research
Researchers of the University of Würzburg have developed a method that makes it possible to measure the activation of receptors in a very short time.

Tau interferes with nuclear transport in Alzheimer's disease
Researchers have long known that tau, a protein that accumulates in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a major component of AD's hallmark neurofibrillary tangles.

Genetic control of human thymic function: A needle in an haystack
A study conducted by a group of researchers from Paris Diderot University, INSERM and the Institut Pasteur reveals the existence of a genetic factor influencing the function of the human thymus.

People who embrace traditional masculinity beliefs less likely to report rape
Even in cases where a rape has clearly taken place, traditional beliefs and assumptions about masculinity can cause both witnesses and victims to be uncertain about reporting it, according to new research conducted at Binghamton University, State University at New York.

Marriage protects against malnutrition in old age
More and more elderly people are suffering from malnutrition. People who are unmarried, separated or divorced are most often affected, whilst men and women who are either married or widowed tend to take better care of themselves.

Machine learning predicts metabolism, helping drug developers and brewers
Machine learning algorithms that can predict yeast metabolism from its protein content have been developed by scientists at the Francis Crick Institute.

Army, UPENN uncover ways to better predict viral information
Neuroscientists at the University of Pennsylvania and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have forecasted what content will get passed along repeatedly.

Chilean scientists discover crucial event right before the death of a star
Researchers using the DECam at the National Science Foundation's Blanco Telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile detected a brightness prior to the shock breakout of a supernova that was not predicted in models.

Alzheimer's-associated tau protein disrupts molecular transport within neurons
A multi-institutional study led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine has found how the abnormal form of tau that accumulates in the neurofibrillary tangles that characterize Alzheimer's disease can disrupt the normal function of brain cells.

Genes are key to academic success, study shows
Parents always worry about whether their children will do well in school, but their kids probably were born with much of what they will need to succeed.

Excessive airway nerves tied to more severe asthma symptoms, study finds
A new study implicates remodeling of nerves in the airways as a key contributor to heightened sensitivity and airway constriction in patients with asthma.

Losing just six hours of sleep could increase diabetes risk, study finds
Losing a single night's sleep may affect the liver's ability to produce glucose and process insulin, increasing the risk of metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) and type 2 diabetes.

The alchemy of healing: Researchers turn open wounds into skin
Scientists at the Salk Institute have developed a technique to directly convert the cells in an open wound into new skin cells.

NASA finds strong rain potential in Tropical Storm Gordon
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Gulf of Mexico and collected temperature information on Tropical Storm Gordon's clouds as it moved toward landfall and after landfall.

Immune system emerges as potential partner in opioid cravings fight
New research shows there's promise in specific immune system peptides -- amino acid compounds that signal cells how to function.

Researchers find disrupted functional connectivity in cerebellum of adults with HF-ASD
A new study using an unbiased, whole-brain data-driven approach to assess the resting-state functional connectome in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) found two clusters of abnormal connectivity in the cerebellum.

'Reality' driver's ed increases teens' awareness of outcomes of risky driving
Teens who took a supplemental drivers' ed program -- including tours of emergency rooms, ICUs and a morgue -- showed more awareness of the consequences of risky driving and of how they can avoid dangers, a Baylor University study found.

Signs of bac­teria already in the bovine fetus
Contrary to earlier assumptions, the intestines of newborn calves are not sterile, but contain DNA from various bacteria.

Corporate social responsibility efforts can backfire for new brands
Corporate social responsibility efforts may not always have the brand-building effects that companies want.

Researchers date 'hibernating' HIV strains, advancing BC's leadership in HIV cure research
Researchers have developed a novel way for dating 'hibernating' HIV strains, in an advancement for HIV cure research.

DNA-based method detects trace amounts of peanut in foods
For people with severe peanut allergies, eating even miniscule amounts of the legume can trigger anaphylaxis --- a life-threatening condition characterized by dizziness, breathing difficulties and, sometimes, loss of consciousness.

A nursing perspective on the opioid crisis
Addictions nursing specialists have a unique role to play in caring for patients, families, and communities affected by the crisis.

MIT Energy Initiative study reports on the future of nuclear energy
In new MIT report, study authors analyze the reasons for the current global stall of nuclear energy capacity and discuss measures that could be taken to arrest and reverse that trend.

'Chromosomal catastrophes' in colorectal cancer
'Chromosomal catastrophes' have been found to occur along the evolutionary timeline of colorectal cancer development, according to new research led by Queen Mary University of London.

Sexual violence haunts women with vivid memories decades later
Women who are sexually assaulted experience more vivid memories than women coping with the aftermath of other traumatic, life-altering events not associated with sexual violence even decades later.

Rice U. lab probes molecular limit of plasmonics
Researchers at Rice University's Laboratory for Nanophotonics are probing the physical limits of excited electronic states called plasmons by studying them in organic molecules with fewer than 50 atoms.

Syracuse researchers shine light on ancient global warming
The team's research is the first to address the effects of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) -- a relatively brief period of global climate change, spanning 200,000 years -- on marine invertebrates, including snails, clams and other mollusks.

Focus on aging eyes: Poll finds primary care providers play key role in eye care after 50
A new poll suggests that primary care providers could play an important role in promoting vision care for adults age 50 and older, especially for those most in need of eye exams, and those most sensitive to the cost.

A location system to drive future wireless innovation
There are many barriers to innovation in wireless communications. Inadequate documentation; uncooperative chipset manufacturers; widely varying hardware and software specifications; steep learning curves in the experimentation phase and difficulties in prototyping are among the biggest issues that hamper development.

PGDx machine learning approach outperforms existing mutation detection methods in study
Personal Genome Diagnostics, Inc. (PGDx), a leader in cancer genomics, today announced that its machine learning based technology, CerebroTM, outperformed existing methods to identify tumor-specific, or somatic mutations, enabling more accurate NGS clinical test results.

BRICS countries catching up with EU and US in publication activity, according to Scopus
Experts from the Higher Schoolf of Ecohomics reviewed the BRICS countries' research landscape using the 2000-2015 data from the Scopus citation database and found academic activity in BRICS to be growing at a fast pace and catching up with that of the EU countries and the US.

Scientists identify weak point in deadly eye melanoma
A natural plant compound exploits a newly identified Achilles' heel in a cancer of the eye, uveal melanoma.

NASA finds a weaker Hurricane Olivia
Infrared data from NASA's Terra satellite revealed that the area of coldest cloud topped thunderstorms has dropped from the previous day, indicating weaker uplift and less-strong storms

Research suggests increased cortical activation in cannabis users' brains in resting state
Recent research from the Center for BrainHealth® at The University of Texas at Dallas shows that cannabis users experience increased cortical activation during the brain's resting state when compared with nonusers.

New research shows what influences the types of apps you use
Researchers from Ireland, Finland and the UK have just published a research paper that gives an insight into global populations with the type of apps they use.

New nuclear medicine imaging method shows strong potential for cancer imaging
A new nuclear medicine imaging method could help diagnose widespread tumors, such as breast, colon, pancreas, lung and head and neck cancer better than current methods, with less inconvenience to patients and with equal or improved accuracy.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite sees Norman rapidly intensifying
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP analyzed Hurricane Norman in the Central Pacific Ocean as it was rapidly intensifying into a major hurricane.

Revealed: Genetic secrets of high-ranked warriors at a medieval German burial site
Researchers studying human remains of high-ranked warriors recovered from an Early Medieval Germanic cemetery have finally gleaned insight into these individuals' sex and kinship relationships.

Adolescents seeking abortions without parental consent face numerous hurdles
Adolescents under the age of 18 seeking abortions without a parent's consent often undergo a series of humiliating, burdensome and unpredictable hurdles as they try to navigate the legal system, according to a new study led by Kate Coleman-Minahan of the University of Colorado College of Nursing.

Researchers discover new source of formic acid over Pacific, Indian oceans
Insights from experiments at Sandia National Laboratories designed to push chemical systems far from equilibrium allowed an international group of researchers to discover a new major source of formic acid over the Pacific and Indian oceans.

Study does not support widespread use of statins in healthy older people to prevent heart disease
Statins are not associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease (conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels) or death in healthy people aged over 75, finds a study published by The BMJ today.

Simple nerve stimulation may improve sexual response in women
Electrodes aren't the first thing most people think of when it comes to achieving sexual arousal.

New research could reduce primate electrocutions and help conservation strategies
New research has mapped and analysed the incidence of primate electrocutions in Diani, Kenya to identify hotspot areas that should be prioritised to reduce the risk of electric shock.

Could a demon help to create a quantum computer?
Physicists employ a version of Maxwell's demon to reduce entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms, a process that could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers.

Heat transfer surprise could lead to thermal transistors
As much as 100 times more heat than predicted by the standard radiation theory can flow between two nanoscale objects, even at bigger-than-nanoscale distances, researchers at the University of Michigan and the College of William and Mary have reported in the journal Nature.

One million artists can't be wrong about cultural evolution
Scientists researching the origins and evolution of graphic codes have turned to the popular web platform Reddit to explore how culture evolves.

'See through,' high-resolution EEG recording array gives a better glimpse of the brain
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are commonly used to measure brain activity, but they cannot differentiate the activity of different types of brain cells.

Chinese fossils reveal middle-late Triassic insect radiation
Scientists from China and the UK reported two Middle-Late Triassic entomofaunas, providing not only the earliest records of several modern insect elements, but also new insights into the early evolution of freshwater ecosystems.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite sees Florence strengthening into a major hurricane
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP passed over strengthening Hurricane Florence in the Atlantic Ocean and observed powerful thunderstorms within a more organized storm.

Disparities in geographic distribution of dermatologists
Disparities exist in the geographic distribution of dermatologists across the United States in this study of county-level data from 1995 to 2013.

Turtle shells served as symbolic musical instruments for indigenous cultures
Researchers delved into how turtle shells served as symbolic musical instruments for indigenous cultures in the southeastern US.

Pay of NHS doctors varies by ethnic group
Data published by The BMJ today reveal some differences in median basic pay between white and black and minority ethnic (BME) hospital doctors employed by the NHS in England.

Burly bird gets the worm
The pecking order of garden birds is determined by their size and weight, new research shows.

Careful -- You are made of glass
Researcher Otger Campas and his group uncover how tissues and organs are sculpted during embryogenesis

Yale researchers 'teleport' a quantum gate
Yale University researchers have demonstrated one of the key steps in building the architecture for modular quantum computers: the 'teleportation' of a quantum gate between two qubits, on demand.

UTSA chemists make historic fluorine discovery
This is the first time that scientists have demonstrated the cleavage (breakage) of a carbon-fluorine bond through oxidation in proteins.

Evidence of 7,200-year-old cheese making found on the Dalmatian Coast
Analysis of fatty residue in pottery from the Dalmatian Coast of Croatia revealed evidence of fermented dairy products -- soft cheeses and yogurts -- from about 7,200 years ago, according to an international team of researchers.

Total ankle arthroplasty offers patients greater range of motion and less pain
New research reveals patients with end-stage ankle arthritis can expect enhanced quality of life within six months of surgical reconstruction.

Graphic images on cigarette warnings stick with smokers
If you want smokers to remember cigarette-warning labels, include a graphic image of the results of long-term smoking, a new study suggests.

A new exoplanet is discovered by an international team led by a young Canadian student
Using data from NASA's Kepler Space Telescope, an international team led by a young Canadian master's student at Université de Montreal has discovered a new exoplanet twice the size of the Earth.

Perceiving support -- not receiving it -- helps people cope with worry and waiting
In her most recent study, 'worry and waiting' researcher Kate Sweeny finds a connection between the perception that your romantic partner cares, and a reduction in stress during challenging waiting periods.

A pill for delivering biomedical micromotors
Using tiny micromotors to diagnose and treat disease in the human body could soon be a reality.

Endocrine disruptors found in bottlenose dolphins
Evidence of exposure to phthalates, chemical compounds used in hundreds of consumer products, has been found in resident bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida.

Brief sleep intervention works long-term to prevent child obesity -- Otago discovers
When it comes to obesity prevention, sleep is not usually something that springs to mind, but a University of Otago research team has found we should not underestimate its importance.

Scientists develop new way to identify telltale markers for breast cancer tumors
USC scientists developed a better way to identify markers for breast cancer tumors, a breakthrough that could lead to better treatment for millions of women.

Researchers find unexpected planetary dependence in one - 10 percent of melonoma diagnoses
In a paper to be published in the September 2018 issue of Biophysical Reviews and Letters, researchers have discovered that there is a correlation and possible cause and effect between otherwise invisible dark matter particles and melanoma, a type of skin cancer.
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