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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | September 11, 2018


Scientists develop new drug treatment for TB
Scientists at The University of Manchester have developed the first non-antibiotic drug to successfully treat tuberculosis in animals.
Decoding robotic surgery skills
Researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC are looking to technology to help deconstruct expert surgeons' robotic surgery skills so they can create an objective, standardized way to train the next generation of surgeons.
Low fitness may indicate poor arterial health in adolescents
A recent Finnish study conducted at the University of Jyväskylä showed that adolescents with better aerobic fitness have more compliant arteries than their lower fit peers do.
Your genes determine how your heart rate responds to exercise
Your genes can determine how your heart rate and blood pressure respond to exercise -- and may act as an early warning of future problems with your heart or blood vessels -- according to new research published in The Journal of Physiology.
Inhaled version of blood pressure drug shows promise in treating anxiety, pain
An inhaled form of a high blood pressure medication has potential to treat certain types of anxiety as well as pain, according to a new study by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).
September/October 2018 Annals of Family Medicine tip sheet
Annals of Family Medicine is a peer-reviewed, indexed research journal that provides a cross-disciplinary forum for new, evidence-based information affecting the primary care disciplines.
Understanding 6th-century barbarian social organization & migration through paleogenomics
Applying a comprehensive analysis of genetic, historical, and archeological factors in two 6th-century barbarian cemeteries, researchers have gleaned new insights into a key era known as the Migration Period that laid the foundation for modern European society.
New genetic compound marker could help early diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer
A research team at the University of Turku in Finland discovered a link between the interplay of certain simultaneously occurring genetic changes in the HOXB13 and CIP2A genes, aggressiveness of prostate cancer, high risk of developing the disease, and poorer survival rates of patients.
Back pain is associated with mental health problems and risky behaviors in teenagers
A new study in the Journal of Public Health indicates that adolescents who experience back pain more frequently are also more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and report problems like anxiety and depression.
UK heart failure patients twice as likely to die as their Japanese counterparts
Patients with heart failure in the UK are twice as likely to die six months after a hospital admission for their condition as their Japanese counterparts, finds the first analysis of its kind published in the online journal Open Heart.
The Lancet: Dairy consumption linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease and mortality
A global study finds that diets that include whole-fat dairy were linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease, compared to those that didn't.
Montana State study gauges health of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
MSU professor Andrew Hansen and research scientist Linda Phillips released a study that quantified trends in the condition of 35 ecological 'vital signs' dealing with snow, rivers, forests, fire, wildlife and fish.
Beyond deep fakes: Transforming video content into another video's style, automatically
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have devised a way to automatically transform the content of one video into the style of another, making it possible to transfer the facial expressions of comedian John Oliver to those of a cartoon character, or to make a daffodil bloom in much the same way a hibiscus would.
Association of gestational diabetes, subsequent glucose metabolism disorders in mothers under new criteria
Newer criteria mean more women are diagnosed with gestational diabetes than before. This observational study assessed whether untreated gestational diabetes defined after the fact based on newer criteria was associated with long-term risk of glucose metabolism disorders among 4,700 mothers and overweight or obesity in their children 10 to 14 years after pregnancy.
New method of pinpointing cancer mutations could lead to more targeted treatments
A team of researchers has developed a new framework that can combine three existing methods of finding large mutations in cancer cells--called structural variants--into a single, more complete picture of cancer.
Coral bleaching increases disease risk in threatened species
Bleaching events caused by rising water temperatures could increase mortality among a coral species already threatened by disease, says new research by Mote Marine Laboratory and Penn State, US, published in eLife.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite stares Helene in the eye
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the eye of Hurricane Helene in the eastern Atlantic.
Scientists identified enzyme in milk production as target for novel breast cancer drugs
VCU Massey Cancer Center researchers have identified a protein involved in milk production that stimulates the growth and spread of breast cancer and could ultimately serve as a target for novel therapies to treat breast cancer.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy: How muscle cells journey to the dark side
Answers to treating muscular dystrophies could lie in better understanding muscle repair--which resembles a delicate cellular dance choreographed by special cells called fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs).
What catches our eye
Our unconscious gaze is controlled by an automatic selection process computed by a neural network in the brain.
High blood sugar during pregnancy ups risk of mother's type 2 diabetes, child's obesity
Mothers with elevated blood glucose during pregnancy -- even if not high enough to meet the traditional definition of gestational diabetes -- were significantly more likely to have developed type 2 diabetes a decade after pregnancy than their counterparts without high blood glucose.
NASA sees Hurricane Olivia moving toward Hawaii
NASA's Terra satellite provided an inside look at Hurricane Olivia as it continued to track toward Hawaii.
Regrowing dental tissue with stem cells from baby teeth
In a clinical trial led by Songtao Shi of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues in China, stem cells extracted from children's baby teeth were used to regrow the living tissue in teeth damaged by injury.
NASA sees Tropical Depression Paul's strength sapped
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Tropical Depression Paul and found its center pushed away from strongest storms.
A new study examines use of twitter to spread or debunk conspiracy theories
Researchers investigating the use of Twitter to propagate or debunk conspiracy theories related to the 2015-2016 Zika virus outbreak analyzed the content of more than 25,000 Tweets and the characteristics of the social networks used to disseminate them.
Widely used youth behavior treatment may be ineffective -- study
A long-established treatment used around the world to help troubled young people and their families tackle behavioral problems may not be as effective as its practitioners claim -- a new study reveals.
Evaluating the contribution of black carbon to climate change
Collaboration between Nagoya University and Cornell University develops improved model to assess the ability of black carbon to warm the Earth's atmosphere.
Adolescents whose religious mothers die are likely to be less religious as young adults
Bereaved children whose late mothers were very religious are likely to be less religious after their mother dies than youths who did not suffer a maternal loss.
New study finds unexpected link between immune cells and male/ female differences
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have made a surprising discovery: during fetal development, a particular immune cell seems to play a key role in determining the male or female characteristics of the brain.
VTCRI research team identifies a potential strategy in fight against brain cancer
Scientists with the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute say a gene involved in the body's circadian rhythms is a potential target for therapies to help patients with a deadly form of brain cancer known as glioblastoma.
'Cloud computing' takes on new meaning for scientists
Clouds may be wispy puffs of water vapor drifting through the sky, but they're heavy lifting computationally for scientists wanting to factor them into climate simulations.
Finding Nemo's genes
An international team of researchers has mapped Nemo's genome, providing the research community with an invaluable resource to decode the response of fish to environmental changes, including climate change.
Stress linked to more advanced disease in some leukemia patients
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who feel more stress also have more cancer cells in their blood and elevated levels of three other markers of more advanced disease.
Sarcolipin tricks muscle cells into using more energy, burning fat
Ever wonder why you burn fat and heat up when you exercise or shiver?
Overlapping copy number variations underlie autism and schizophrenia in Japanese patients
Common genetic variants may underlie autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia across human populations, according to a study appearing Sept.
Magnetization in small components can now be filmed in the laboratory
In the future, today's electronic storage technology may be superseded by devices based on tiny magnetic structures.
Study reveals which transgender teens have highest suicide risk
Existing research has shown that transgender teens are at greater risk for attempting suicide that other teens.
New bacterial strain named after Cornish discovery
A new bacterial strain will be named after Cornwall following its identification from a skin infection.
Barriers and opportunities in renewable biofuels production
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have identified two main challenges for renewable biofuel production from cheap sources.
'Evil' proteins a force for good in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer
University of Arizona Cancer Center researchers clarify questions surrounding estrogen's role in breast cancer, which could lead to more precise treatments for ER-positive breast cancers.
Critically ill patients supported by respirators in ICUs may develop weakness from drug treatment, not illness
At least 25 percent of critically ill patients who receive mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) develop muscular weakness severe enough to impair their quality of life.
It pays to be nice to your employees, new study shows
New research from Binghamton University, State University at New York finds that showing compassion to subordinates almost always pays off, especially when combined with the enforcement of clear goals and benchmarks.
A model to predict and quantify racism, sexism, and other unequal treatment
A new paper published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences cuts to the heart of messy social interactions with a set of computational models to quantify and predict unequal treatment.
Molecules imagined using next-generation artificial intelligence validated experimentally
Insilico Medicine presented an original deep neural network architecture, Entangled Conditional Adversarial Autoencoder (ECAAE), which generates molecular structures based on various properties such as activity against a specific protein, solubility, and ease of synthesis.
NASA satellite finds Hurricane Florence undergoing eyewall replacement
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at powerful Hurricane Florence early on Sept.
Natural mechanism could lower emissions from tropical peatlands
Scientists have long feared that as Earth warms, tropical peatlands -- which store up to 10 percent of the planet's soil carbon -- could dry out, decay and release vast pools of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, accelerating climate change.
Intense, recent physical activity linked to healthy metabolic profiles in adolescents
More time spent intensely active, to a greater extent than less time spent sedentary, correlates with a healthier metabolic profile in adolescence, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine.
Towards a better understanding of how colon cancer develops and progresses
Researchers from the University of Luxembourg have discovered a molecular mechanism that is responsible for the spread of cancer cells in the body and the development of metastases in patients with colon cancer.
Changes in mitochondrial DNA control how nuclear DNA mutations are expressed in cardiomyopathy
Differences in the DNA within the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells, can determine the severity and progression of heart disease caused by a nuclear DNA mutation.
Artificial anti-oxidant may be the next go-to supplement
Naturally-derived anti-oxidants have become the 'it' health ingredient to look for in food.
Drug for pancreatic cancer developed by college of pharmacy researchers
University of Houston researchers have developed a new medicine that can inhibit two of the major pathways of pancreatic cancer.
Industry-certified masks offer better protection from volcanic ash exposure
Industry-certified particle masks are most effective at protecting people from volcanic ash, whilst commonly used surgical masks offer less protection.
Prenatal exposure to cannabis impacts sociability of male offspring only
Taking cannabinoids during pregnancy can cause behavioural and neuronal deficits in adult male offspring, while females remain unaffected, says new research published in eLife.
1 percent of children aged 9-10 self-identify as gay, transgender
As the majority of studies indicate that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) self-identification generally occurs during the mid-adolescent years, the study provides unprecedented insight into early identity development.
Engrafted stem cell-derived lung organoids that model human lung development
Researchers have now grown lung organoids from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that, after implantation in mice, can develop mature alveolar type 1 (AT1) and AT2 cells and architecture approximating that of human lungs.
Unusual biosynthetic pathway offers a key to future natural product discovery
Researchers at the University of Illinois and Harvard University elucidate a mechanism of nitrogen-nitrogen bond formation shared by two pharmaceutically promising compounds.
Treating sleep apnea greatly improves stroke patients' neurological & functional recovery
A large, randomized controlled trial has found that commencing treatment for sleep apnea as soon as possible after a stroke or a mini-stroke improves speech impairment and other neurological symptoms as well as walking and other physical functioning.
10-year study of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections in the US
A 10-year investigation evaluating data from four surveillance systems captured information on the geographic distribution of outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections in the US, who is at greatest risk, the rate of antimicrobial resistance of Newport infections, and how often antimicrobial resistance may be linked to an environmental cause of infection.
New colour-generation mechanism discovered in 'rainbow' weevil
Researchers from Yale-NUS College and the University of Fribourg in Switzerland have discovered a novel color-generation mechanism in nature, which if harnessed, has the potential to create cosmetics and paints with purer and more vivid hues, screen displays that project the same true image when viewed from any angle, and even reduce the signal loss in optical fibers.
DNA test for predicing risk of leukemia relapse
The DNA-based test paves the way for precision medicine by giving leukemia patients personal disease prognosis based on mutation frequency in their cancer cells.
New nanoparticles wait to release drugs, target infection
Current WSU research shows stimuli-responsive nanoparticles can specifically target infections to simultaneously prevent the spread of bacteria and reduce the inflammation it causes.
New research unravels the mysteries of deep soil carbon
Huge amounts of carbon are stored in deep soil. Scientists uncover the conditions that will cause that carbon to stay underground or be emitted into the atmosphere as climate-destabilizing carbon dioxide.
Miniaturized HTS assay identifies selective modulators of GPR119 to treat type 2 diabetes
A novel high throughput screening (HTS) assay compatible with an ion channel biosensor component was used successfully to identify selective and active small molecule modulators of G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119), a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders.
Fighting the cold virus and other threats, body makes trade-off, says study
A Yale research team has revealed how cells in different parts of the human airway vary in their response to the common cold virus.
Folding poisons
Researchers show how toxins of the bacterium Clostridium difficile get into cells in the gut.
Individuals with criminal records may stay in their jobs longer
In sales and customer service positions, employees with criminal records may stay in their jobs longer and be less likely to leave, according to a study published in the IZA Journal of Labor Policy.
Tropical Storm Barijat appears disorganized to NASA-NOAA satellite
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the small Tropical Storm Barijat as it continued moving west toward southern China.
NASA finds wind shear pushing on Tropical Storm Isaac's center
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Tropical Storm Isaac that revealed its circulation center was displaced from the bulk of clouds and precipitation.
New insight on rotavirus mechanics could lead to improved treatments
Researchers have provided new insight on the mechanics of a virus that causes severe diarrhea and sickness in young children, according to a report published in eLife.
Illinois engineers protect artifacts by graphene gilding
Gilding is the process of coating intricate artifacts with precious metals.
Virus may help combat fire ants, but caution is needed
A specific virus changes dietary behavior of fire ants, leading researchers to rethink control methods for the invasive species.
Carbon nanodots do an ultrafine job with in vitro lung tissue
Epidemiological studies have established a strong correlation between inhaling ultrafine particles from incomplete combustion and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
Snapshots of the future: Tool learns to predict user's gaze in headcam footage
University of Tokyo researchers have developed a computational tool that can learn from headcam footage of complex tasks to predict where the user's future gaze will be focused.
NASA-NOAA satellite tracking Super Typhoon Mangkhut
Typhoon Mangkhut had already strengthened into a Super Typhoon when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite grabbed a visible image of the storm in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Sept.
Majority of women receive breast cancer diagnosis over the phone
A new study from the University of Missouri School of Medicine reveals an increasing number of women are learning about their breast cancer diagnosis over the phone.
Research devises protocol for measuring distances within biomolecules
A team of 27 labs across the world -- including Hugo Sanabria's 'Single Molecule Biophysics' lab at Clemson University -- came together to devise a standard protocol for measuring distances in biomolecules.
For the first time, a neural link between altruism and empathy toward strangers
Using fMRI scans of a brain region called the anterior insula, University of Pennsylvania and Georgetown University researchers discovered that people who donated a kidney to an anonymous recipient were more sensitive to a stranger's fear and pain.
How bad bacteria gain an edge in the gut
The bacterium Clostridium difficile, which is responsible for the majority of antibiotic-associated diarrhea outbreaks worldwide, produces a unique compound called p-cresol to gain a competitive advantage over natural protective gut bacteria.
Variation in cancer-causing KRAS mutations greater than thought
The effects of KRAS mutations underlying many different types of cancer are more diverse than previously thought, according to a new study led by the University of Eastern Finland.
A single gene mutation may have helped humans become optimal long-distance runners
Two to three million years ago, the functional loss of a single gene triggered a series of changes in what would eventually become the modern human species.
Beetle adapts chemical mimicry to parasitize different bee species
A beetle that tricks bees into carrying it into their nests where it can live off their pollen, nectar and eggs adapts its deceptions to local hosts.
Total of 21 new parasitoid wasps following the first ever revision of their genus
As many as 21 species of parasitoid wasps are described as new to science, following the first ever revision of their genus since its establishment back in 1893.
Wetlands are key for accurate greenhouse gas measurements in the Arctic
The Arctic is rapidly warming, with stronger effects than observed elsewhere in the world.
Newborns with congenital heart disease have enlarged kidneys
The hearts and brains of babies born with congenital heart disease are not the only organs affected by this common medical condition.
Wealthy countries less concerned about energy security, study suggests
People in wealthy countries are less concerned about the reliability, vulnerability and affordability of their energy supplies, a new study has shown.
Pain response in babies' brains controlled in 'similar way to adults'
Researchers from the Department of Paediatrics and Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging at the University of Oxford, UK, have identified the neural network that helps control babies' brain activity in response to pain in a similar way to adults.
UCalgary researchers discover critical differences in the clots that cause a stroke
There are two main treatments for stroke caused by a clot in a blood vessel in the brain.
Business genius can be taught, study says
How did Steve Jobs do it? What about Whole Foods Market and Starbucks?
Bioinformaticians examine new genes the moment they are born
Accumulating evidence suggests that new genes can arise spontaneously from previously non-coding DNA instead of through the gradual mutation of established genes.
UBC breakthrough opens door to $100 ultrasound machine
Engineers at the University of British Columbia have developed a new ultrasound transducer, or probe, that could dramatically lower the cost of ultrasound scanners to as little as $100.
North-South chronic 'pain divide' evident in England
England has a North-South 'pain divide', with a clear geographical split in the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and the use of potentially addictive opioids for symptom relief, reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Predictability of the EAP teleconnection pattern can improve climate services over East Asia
A group of scientists from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the UK Met Office Hadley Center, investigated the absence of the East Asia-Pacific pattern in the extratropics using state-of-the-art coupled seasonal forecast systems.
Immunology
Mononuclear phagocytes can both promote and inhibit inflammation. A Team from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich has now shown that individual phagocytes in the central nervous system can play both roles, sequentially adopting different phenotypes with distinct functions.
Separating the sound from the noise in hot plasma fusion
For fusion power plants to be effective, scientists must find a way to trigger the low-to-high confinement transition, associated with zonal flows of plasma.
Delayed childbearing is a growing source of multiple births, study shows
Assisted reproductive technologies are not the sole cause of multiple births -- naturally occurring multiple births due to women choosing to have children later in life is responsible for a growing percentage of multiples.
New tool to detect fatty liver disease before liver damage
A new test may soon be available to predict advanced fibrosis in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Study finds air purifiers may benefit fetal growth
A new study led by SFU health sciences researchers Prabjit Barn and Ryan Allen reveals fetal growth may improve if pregnant women use portable air purifiers inside their homes.
Lethality of active shooter incidents with vs. without semiautomatic rifles
Semiautomatic rifles, which have been used in some of the largest shootings by individuals in U.S. history, were banned in 1994 under the federal assault weapons ban, but that expired in 2004.
A trick of the light
Argonne researchers are using nanoparticles to make photodetectors better able to handle the ultraviolet radiation produced in high-energy physics experiments.
Research Brief: Immediately limiting nicotine in all cigarettes could reduce smoking
A new study conducted by the University of Minnesota and eight additional institutions recently published in the JAMA addresses whether a gradual reduction or a targeted immediate reduction in nicotine in cigarettes is the best approach.

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