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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | September 13, 2018


One in three college freshmen worldwide reports mental health disorder
As if college were not difficult enough, more than one-third of first-year university students in eight industrialized countries around the globe report symptoms consistent with a diagnosable mental health disorder, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Mixed chemicals in beauty products may harm women's hormones
A new study published in Environment International by George Mason University Assistant Professor of Global and Community Health Dr.
Certain environmental pollutants may contribute to poor kidney health
In an analysis of all relevant studies, exposure to environmental toxins called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances was linked to worse kidney function and other signs of kidney damage.
Tiny camera lens may help link quantum computers to network
An international team of researchers led by The Australian National University (ANU) has invented a tiny camera lens, which may lead to a device that links quantum computers to an optical fibre network.
Conservation dairy farming could help Pa. meet Chesapeake target
If the majority of dairy farms in Pennsylvania fully adopt conservation best-management practices, the state may be able to achieve its total maximum daily load water-quality target for the Chesapeake Bay, according to researchers.
Cancer drug and antidepressants provide clues for treating brain-eating amoeba infections
Researchers at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego have now identified three new molecular drug targets in Naegleria fowleri and a number of drugs that are able to inhibit the amoeba's growth in a laboratory dish.
Novel flying robot mimics rapid insect flight
A novel insect-inspired flying robot, developed by TU Delft researchers from the Micro Air Vehicle Laboratory (MAVLab), is presented in Science.
Heat-related deaths likely to increase significantly as global temperatures rise, warn researchers
The world needs to keep global temperatures in check by meeting the goals set out in the Paris Agreement, or more people could die because of extreme temperatures, say authors of a new study in the letters section of Springer's journal Climatic Change.
How bacteria play pass the parcel -- and help each other evade antibiotics
Bacteria are very sneaky in their efforts to develop resistance to antibiotics.
Trees reveal the evolution of environmental pollution
Chemical analysis of tipuana tree rings and bark by Brazilian researchers shows falling levels of heavy metal pollution in the air of São Paulo City, Southern Hemisphere's largest metropolis.
Testosterone replacement therapy may slow the progression of COPD
GALVESTON, Texas -- Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston found that testosterone replacement therapy may slow disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Scientists design new metabolic technology to open scientific data for everyone
XCMS-MRM and METLIN-MRM represent a cloud-based analysis platform that allows scientists to quantify molecules from biological samples and make their results publicly available.
New means to fight 'un-killable' bacteria in healthcare settings
Scientists at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) in Montreal have identified new means of fighting drug-tolerant bacteria, a growing global threat as menacing as drug-resistant microbes.
Lesbian, gay or bisexual youth are at increased risk of using multiple substances
Young people who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual are at increased risk of using substances such as alcohol, nicotine and marijuana, a new study from Oregon State University has found.
Gut microbes' role in mammals' evolution starts to become clearer
An international collaboration led by scientists has made a key advance toward understanding which of the trillions of gut microbes may play important roles in how humans and other mammals evolve.
Immune response mechanism described for fate determination of T cells
In a paper published in the journal Science, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers and colleagues at four other United States institutions have detailed a mechanism that sets the stage for the fate decision that gives rise to two major subsets of effector cells: T follicular helper cells and non-T follicular helper cells, known as Tfh and non-Tfh cells.
Obesity alters airway muscle function, increases Asthma risk
New research suggests that obesity changes how airway muscles function, increasing the risk of developing asthma.
Scientists use bear saliva to rapidly test for antibiotics
If you're looking into the mouth of a brown bear, which is among the world's top predators, your chances of survival probably aren't good.
FSU researchers: Most fire in Florida goes undetected
A new study indicates that common satellite imaging technologies have vastly underestimated the number of fires in Florida, detecting only 25 percent of burned area.
UTA researcher creates hydrogels capable of complex movement
Kyungsuk Yum, an assistant professor in UTA's Materials Science and Engineering Department, and his doctoral student, Amirali Nojoomi, have developed a process by which 2-D hydrogels can be programmed to expand and shrink in a space- and time-controlled way that applies force to their surfaces, enabling the formation of complex 3-D shapes and motions.
WSU Researchers see new plastics causing reproductive woes of old plastics
Washington State University researchers have found that plastic products meant to replace the chemical bisphenol A, or BPA, are also causing genetic abnormalities in mice.
ACA expansion did not improve access to complex surgeries for low-income/minority patients
Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act does not appear to have reduced disparities in the use of regionalized surgical care among vulnerable persons.
Out of control means off the menu
Fishing pressure on threatened shark populations has increased dramatically in recent years and it is urgent that consumers reject shark fin products altogether -- a study in Marine Policy by researchers from the Swire Institute of Marine Science (SWIMS), School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong (HKU), the Sea Around Us initiative at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and WildAid Hong Kong reveals.
Open insulin, 'DIY bio' and the future of pharma
The development, manufacture and sale of pharmaceutical drugs in the United States is a complex landscape of intellectual property and federal regulation.
Computer avatars play a part in dementia detection
A joint group of researchers from Osaka University and Nara Institute of Science and Technology demonstrated that it was possible to detect dementia from conversations in human-agent interaction.
UMass Amherst ecologists, team report sighting rare wild goat species in Afghanistan
Based on field surveys in northern Afghanistan, Zalmai Moheb, an ecologist with the Wildlife Conservation Society's Afghanistan Program and a doctoral candidate in environmental conservation at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with others, report this week that they have for the first time documented by direct observation the presence of two rare Asian wild goat species in the country.
A potential new way to treat some of the most common blinding diseases
Many eye diseases exhibit increased permeability of blood vessels in the macular portion of the retina leading to abnormal fluid accumulation and vision loss.
Disrupting genetic processes reverses aging in human cells
Research has shed new light on genetic processes that may one day lead to the development of therapies that can slow, or even reverse, how our cells age.
Anti-inflammatory diet linked to reduced risk of early death
Adhering to an anti-inflammatory diet was associated with lower risks of dying from any cause, dying from cardiovascular causes, and dying from cancer in a recent Journal of Internal Medicine study.
A very special protein synthesis machinery
Sleeping sickness-causing parasites contain an unusual protein synthesis machinery. A team of researchers from ETH Zurich and the University of Berne resolved its very special structure for the first time.
Junior investigators successfully compete for extra NIH grants
More than half of early-career scientists who received their first research project (R01) grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are successful in obtaining subsequent funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), according to a study published September 12 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Patricia Haggerty and Matthew Fenton of NIAID, an NIH institute.
The art of storytelling: researchers explore why we relate to characters
For thousands of years, humans have relied on storytelling to engage, to share emotions and to relate personal experiences.
Appetite for shark fin soup drives massive shark population decline
Populations of some shark species such as hammerhead and oceanic whitetip have declined by over 90 percent in recent years largely because of wealthy consumers' growing appetite for fin soup.
Study: Kidney stones have distinct geological histories
A geologist, a microscopist and a doctor walk into a lab and, with their colleagues, make a discovery that overturns centuries of thought about the nature and composition of kidney stones.
Famous theory of the living Earth upgraded to 'Gaia 2.0'
A time-honored theory into why conditions on Earth have remained stable enough for life to evolve over billions of years has been given a new, innovative twist.
The irresistible CCL17
The chemotactic protein CCL17 attracts immune cells to where they are currently needed.
Bacteria passed on in the womb is linked to premature birth and breathing difficulties
Babies born very prematurely are more likely to harbor Ureaplasma bacteria, according to new research to be presented on Sunday at the European Respiratory Society International Congress.
The Lancet Psychiatry: ADHD medication use is increasing but some patients in some countries are still not receiving the treatment they need
Despite increases in medication use for ADHD between 2001 and 2015, prescription rates are still far below diagnosis rates in most countries, suggesting some patients may not be receiving the treatment they need.
RUDN biochemists found out how ROS affect cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells
A team of sciences from RUDN Institute of Medicine found out how reactive oxygen species affect the resistance of ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy on the example of cisplatin -- an antitumor drug used to treat this type of malignant growth.
New study finds HIV outbreak in Indiana could have been prevented
An HIV outbreak among people who inject drugs in Indiana from 2011 to 2015 could have been avoided if the state's top health and elected officials had acted sooner on warnings, a new study by the Yale School of Public Health finds.
BUFFALO charges towards the earliest galaxies
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has started a new mission to shed light on the evolution of the earliest galaxies in the Universe.
Sig­nal­ing path­way altered in can­cer con­trols nor­mal kid­ney de­vel­op­ment
Recent research finds that MAPK pathway, which is typically altered in many cancers, is required for regulation of normal renal differentiation during embryogenesis.
Malicious brain cell identified
Astrocytes important role in brain function suggests they are also involved in disease.
Diagnosing and treating resistant hypertension
Resistant blood pressure affects 12 percent to 15 percent of people currently being treated for high blood pressure.
Study sheds light on why the US and China don't see eye-to-eye on e-commerce
New research from Singapore Management University has found that the US is more concerned with digital barriers like internet censorship and cross-border data flow, while China cares more about traditional trade barriers like tariffs.
Caspase-2 enzyme inhibitor shows promise for ameliorating fatty liver disease
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered using mice and human clinical specimens that caspase-2, a protein-cleaving enzyme, is a critical driver of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a chronic and aggressive liver condition.
When a tree lost is, or isn't, permanent deforestation: Mapping global forest loss
Despite numerous efforts by international governments, corporations and conservationists to reduce it, the overall rate of a permanent type of forest loss known as commodity-driven forest loss has not changed since 2001, a new map-based study reports.
Helping computers fill in the gaps between video frames
In a paper being presented at this week's European Conference on Computer Vision, MIT researchers describe an add-on module that helps artificial intelligence systems called convolutional neural networks, or CNNs, to fill in the gaps between video frames to greatly improve the network's activity recognition.
Russian and German physicists developed a mathematical model of trapped atoms and ions
Physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero.
NASA sees Tropical Depression Olivia's strength waning
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at a weakening and now tropical depression Olivia in the Central Pacific Ocean.
New genetics tool helps answer evolutionary questions
Developing cutting-edge statistical tools that can handle these massive new datasets is a piece of the research puzzle, and new research from Michigan State University has just added a new tool for the modern genomic toolbox.
BPA replacements in plastics cause reproductive problems in lab mice
Twenty years ago, researchers made the accidental discovery that BPA had leached out of plastic cages used to house female mice in the lab, causing an increase in chromosomally abnormal eggs.
The next phase: Using neural networks to identify gas-phase molecules
Argonne scientists have developed a neural network that can identify the structure of molecules in the gas phase, offering a novel technique for national security and pharmaceutical applications.
New knowledge on the condition of cull sows prior to transportation to the abattoir
Researchers from Aarhus University are among the first to study the condition of cull sows on the day of transportation to slaughter.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds wind shear pushing on Tropical Storm Isaac's center
Wind shear seems to be affecting several storms in the Atlantic Ocean today, Sept.
What are eye crusties made of? (video)
The substance that builds up in the corners of your eyes as you sleep has a variety of colloquial names: eye crusties, sleep, eye dust.
Calorie counts on restaurant menus have customers ordering less
In a new study, Cornell University researchers conducted a randomized experiment and found that diners at full service restaurants whose menus listed calories ordered meals with 3 percent fewer calories - about 45 calories less - than those who had menus without calorie information.
Prostate cancer care for older men estimated to cost Medicare $1.2 billion
Researchers examined the costs associated with screening for prostate cancer, including treatment, for three years after diagnosis.
A new frame for the sky
The sky gets a new reference frame. On Aug. 30 the International Astronomical Union adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame 3 (ICRF-3) during their general assembly in Vienna, Austria.
NASA sees Hurricane Helene decoupled by wind shear
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Helene as it continued tracking toward the Azores Islands in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean.
Designer enzyme conquers sulfite reduction, a bottleneck in environmental cleanup
Researchers have cleared one hurdle toward environmental cleanup of certain contaminants with a newly designed synthetic enzyme that reduces the compound sulfite to sulfide -- a notoriously complex multistep chemical reaction that has eluded chemists for years.
Regret is a gambler's curse, neuroscientists say
The brain's orbitofrontal cortex deals with social interactions, including regret, and has been much studied with fMRI and EEG.
Aerial survey reveals great diversity & abundance in NE Canyons Marine National Monument
Airborne marine biologists were amazed by the sheer abundance and diversity of large marine wildlife in their recent aerial survey of the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument, the only marine national monument on the East Coast, about 150 southeast of Cape Cod.
'I have a sense that it's probably quite bad ... but because I don't see it, I don't know'
Lad culture in English universities is often perceived by university staff as involving 'extreme' behaviour and as being carried out by only a handful of 'bad apples' rather than as a widespread culture that fosters gender-based harassment and violence.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds Barijat crossing Gulf of Tonkin
Tropical Cyclone Barijat appeared disorganized on satellite imagery as it moved across the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea.
Suspending young students risks future success in school
Some kindergartners and first-graders suspended from school can find it challenging to reverse the negative trajectory in their academic life, says a University of Michigan researcher.
Warm with a chance of birds: Forecasting avian migrations
During peak passage, when air temperatures warm in early May, more than 500 million migratory birds take flight each night, a new study finds.
One foot in the grave for pheasants that favor a side
Pheasants that more strongly favored one foot over the other die younger than those that don't, new research suggests.
Researchers managed to prevent the disappearing of quantum information
The properties of quantum mechanics can be utilized, for example, in technology and encrypting messages, but the disadvantage is the occasional disappearing of information.
NASA finds subtropical storm Joyce disorganized, wandering
Subtropical Storm Joyce seemed dazed by its own formation, wandering in the north central Atlantic Ocean and disorganized.
Emotionally stable people spend more during the holidays, according to new study
Comparing the spending habits and personality traits of over 2,100 people over the Christmas season, personality psychology researchers found significant relationships between spending amounts over the holiday season and specific personality traits.
Clinical early warning scores: New clinical tools in evolution
Doctors and nurses are always grateful when they are given advance notice that a patient is about to seriously deteriorate (or 'crash,' to use today's clinical vernacular).
VLBA measures asteroid's characteristics
Astronomers took advantage of a celestial alignment to make a novel and creative radio observation yielding information about the size, shape, and orbit of an asteroid.
People show confirmation bias even about which way dots are moving
People have a tendency to interpret new information in a way that supports their pre-existing beliefs, a phenomenon known as confirmation bias.
High-resolution genomic map gives scientists unprecedented view of brain development
The research will not only aid basic understanding of brain development, but also provide a foundation for understanding the cellular origins of brain disorders caused by errors in development.
Hemidystrophic thorax mimicking scoliosis
Pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, Poland syndrome, sunken chest deformity, barrel chest deformity, body builder deformity, and long upper chest wall are chest wall deformities that are documented in the medical literature.
Is exposure to lead, cadmium associated with reduced ability to see contrast?
Contrast sensitivity is a measure of how well someone sees an image against a background.
Creating a continental bird migration forecast
September is the peak of autumn bird migration, and billions of birds are winging their way south in dramatic pulses.
NASA satellite analyzes powerful super Typhoon Mangkhut
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at powerful Super Typhoon Mangkhut early on Sept.
Bright and quick: Paper-based method for detecting medically relevant metabolites
Measuring concentrations of medically relevant metabolites in the blood may have just gotten easier -- requiring mere minutes and just microliters of blood -- thanks to an approach involving a bioengineered protein that lights up, and a digital camera.
Leptospirosis strains identified in Uruguay cattle
Leptospirosis infections, caused by Leptospira bacteria, occur in people and animals around the world, but different strains of the bacteria may vary in their ability to cause disease and to jump between species.
The walking dead: Fossils on the move can distort patterns of mass extinctions
Using the fossil record to accurately estimate the timing and pace of past mass extinctions is no easy task, and a new study highlights how fossil evidence can produce a misleading picture if not interpreted with care.
NASA gets inside look at large and powerful Hurricane Florence    
NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at the large and powerful Hurricane Florence early on Sept.
How the immune system protects against Zika-induced neurological symptoms
A type of immune cell that produces a protein called CD4 plays an important role in protecting mice infected with the Zika virus against severe neurological disease, according to a study published Sept.
Blazes of light reveal how plants signal danger long distances
In more than a dozen videos, University of Wisconsin-Madison Professor of Botany Simon Gilroy and his lab reveal how glutamate, an abundant neurotransmitter in animals, activates a wave of calcium when a plant is wounded -- the best look yet at the communication systems within plants that are normally hidden from view.
Newspaper reporting of NHS Cancer Drugs Fund misleading
An analysis of UK newspaper reporting of the NHS Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) between 2010 and 2015 shows that despite some critical analysis, the mostly positive stories are likely to have contributed to the CDF's continuation, despite mounting evidence of its ineffectiveness.
Laser sintering optimized for printed electronics
Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper.
Largest study of 'post-treatment controllers' reveals clues about HIV remission
Most HIV patients need to take daily anti-retroviral therapy -- if they suspend treatment, HIV will rebound within 3-4 weeks.
Eyes have a natural version of night vision
To see under starlight and moonlight, the retina of the eye changes both the software and hardware of its light-sensing cells to create a kind of night vision.
Dietary fiber reduces brain inflammation during aging
As mammals age, immune cells in the brain known as microglia become chronically inflamed.
Enhanced 3D imaging poised to advance treatments for brain diseases
Researchers have developed a combination of commercially available hardware and open-source software, named PySight, which improves rapid 2D and 3D imaging of the brain and other tissues.
Flappy robot mimics the aerial acrobatics of agile flying insects
An agile flapping-wing robot designed to better illuminate the full range of movement associated with free flight reveals new insights into how flying insects like the fruit fly perform rapid banked turns, often used for escaping predators.
Study shows toxic effects of oil dispersant on oysters following deepwater horizon spill
Oysters likely suffered toxic effects from the oil dispersant Corexit® 9500 when it was used to clean up the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, said Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at the University of Connecticut.
How a virus destabilizes the genome
New insights into how Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces genome instability and promotes cell proliferation could lead to the development of novel antiviral therapies for KSHV-associated cancers, according to a study published Sept.
Study details incidence & timing of immunotherapy-related fatalities
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center researchers have answered questions about the incidence and timing of rare but sometimes fatal reactions to the most widely prescribed class of immunotherapies.
New devices based on rust could reduce excess heat in computers
Scientists have succeeded in observing the first long-distance transfer of information in a magnetic group of materials known as antiferromagnets.
How skin begins: New research could improve skin grafts, and more
University of Colorado Boulder researchers have discovered a key mechanism by which skin begins to develop in embryos.
BPA exposure in US-approved levels may alter insulin response in non-diabetic adults
In a first study of its kind study, researchers have found that a common chemical consumers are exposed to several times a day may be altering insulin release.
Social class determines how the unemployed talk about food insecurity
'Cherry Blossom,' a 39-year-old woman worked as a hotel breakfast bar hostess around the start of the 'Great Recession.' She lost her job, and three years later she was being interviewed to assess her struggles with her unemployment.

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