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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | September 17, 2018


Household cleaning products may contribute to kids' overweight by altering their gut microbiota
Commonly used household cleaners could be making children overweight by altering their gut microbiota, suggests a Canadian study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Is resveratrol an effective add-on to NSAIDS to treat knee osteoarthritis?
In what researchers state is the first pilot clinical trial to assess the effects of resveratrol on pain severity and levels of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis, the scientists compared treatment with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) combined with either resveratrol or placebo over 90 days.
Medicaid expansion boosted the financial health of low-income Michigan residents
Low-income Michigan residents who enrolled in a new state health insurance plan didn't just get coverage for their health needs -- many also got a boost in their financial health, according to a new study.
New evidence of a preventative therapy for gout
Solomon and colleagues found a significant reduction in risk of gout attacks among patients who received the drug that targets a key inflammatory molecule, suggesting a new target for therapeutic strategies to prevent gout attacks.
NASA sees Post-Tropical Cyclone Helene affecting Ireland, United Kingdom
Post-tropical cyclone Helene developed off the west coast of Africa and moved north then northeast where it is now raining on parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Condensation enhancement: Toward practical energy and water applications
Vapor-to-liquid condensation has been widely exploited in various energy-intensive industrial applications.
New blood test detects early stage pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer is currently very difficult to detect while it is still resectable.
One big reason why women drop out of doctoral STEM programs
Many women in doctoral degree programs in fields like engineering and physics are in a class of their own -- and that's not a good thing.
Knowing your neighbor cares about the environment encourages people to use less energy
Giving people information about how much gas or electricity their neighbors use encourages them to use less energy, research shows.
When is a star not a star?
The line that separates stars from brown dwarfs may soon be clearer thanks to new work led by Carnegie's Serge Dieterich.
Ceres takes life an ice volcano at a time
In new study by University of Arizona planetary scientists, observations prove that ice volcanoes on the dwarf planet Ceres generate enough material to fill one movie theater each year.
Study provides roadmap for measuring animal, plant traits to meet biodiversity goals
An international team of researchers has outlined a plan for how to measure changes in key traits of animals and plants and provide these data to policymakers to improve natural resource management and keep nations on track to meet global biodiversity and sustainability goals.
More women than men veterans with chronic pain use therapies like yoga and acupuncture
A major shift in practice by the VA means that therapies such as meditation and yoga are being offered to VA patients as non-drug approaches for pain management, says Elizabeth Evans of UMass Amherst, who studied their use by gender among veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Either too much or too little weight gain during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes in children aged 7 years
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that if a woman gains either too much or too little weight during pregnancy, there are adverse effects in children at 7 years of age.
Witnessing violence in high school as bad as being bullied
Over the long term, being a bystander of high-school violence can be as damaging to mental health as being directly bullied, a new study finds.
X-rays uncover a hidden property that leads to failure in a lithium-ion battery material
X-ray experiments at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have revealed that the pathways lithium ions take through a common battery material are more complex than previously thought.
More than half of parents of sleep-deprived teens blame electronics
Fifty-six percent of parents of teens who have sleep troubles believe the use of electronics is hurting their child's shut-eye.
Tiny moth from Asia spreading fast on Siberian elms in eastern North America
Since 2010, a tiny moth originating from East Asia has been spreading over eastern North America.
Understanding surface science to manufacture quality cosmetics
A team of researchers, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has identified variables that control the cavity-filling rates, required for liquids to penetrate into the cavities.
We are predisposed to forgive, new research suggests
When assessing the moral character of others, people cling to good impressions but readily adjust their opinions about those who have behaved badly, according to new research.
Small study evaluates use of medical scribes in primary care
Medical scribes transcribe information during clinical visits in real time into electronic health records (EHRs) under physician supervision.
Multi-joint, personalized soft exosuit breaks new ground
in a studies, Conor Walsh's team at the Wyss Institute presented their latest generation of a mobile multi-joint exosuit, which has been improved on all fronts and tested in the field through long marches over uneven terrain.
Scientists reveal way to map vast unknown territory of long non-coding RNA
Scientists from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have developed a powerful method for exploring the properties of mysterious molecules called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), some of which have big roles in cancer and other serious conditions.
CRISPR screen identifies gene that helps cells resist West Nile, Zika viruses
UT Southwestern researchers today report the first use of CRISPR genome-wide screening to identify a gene that helps cells resist flavivirus infection.
Transparent loudspeakers and MICs that let your skin play music
An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented an innovative wearable technology that will turn your skin into a loudspeaker.
Researchers find children experience concussion symptoms three times longer than adults
Parents should be aware that significant changes in concussion treatment have emerged in recent years.
Liver allocation system disadvantages children awaiting transplants
Children are at a considerable disadvantage when competing with adults for livers from deceased organ donors in the US allocation system for liver transplants.
Stress over fussy eating prompts parents to pressure or reward at mealtime
Although fussy eating is developmentally normal and transient phase for most children, the behavior can be stressful for parents.
Anesthesia drugs: Muscle relaxants increase risk of respiratory complications
Muscle relaxants are a necessary part of anesthesia during certain major operations.
Newly discovered enzyme is 'firing pin' for plant immunity
Just like humans, plants have an immune system that helps them fight off infections.
A novel approach of improving battery performance
A team of researchers affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology has introduced a novel technology that promises to significantly boost the performance of lithium metal batteries.
NASA data shows Florence brings torrential rains and record flooding to the Carolinas
NASA estimated the precipitation generated by Hurricane Florence from Sept.
Cannabis use in e-cigarettes by US youth
An analysis of survey data estimates nearly 1 in 11 US middle and high school students used cannabis in electronic-cigarettes in 2016.
Characterizing pig hippocampus could improve translational neuroscience
Researchers have taken further steps toward developing a superior animal model of neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury and epilepsy, according to a study of miniature pigs published in eNeuro.
Modeling crystal behavior: Towards answers in self-organization
The University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science researchers have created a model to explore the transition behavior of crystal lattices.
Significant disparities in college student mental health treatment across race/ethnicity
The first nationally representative study since the 1990s to examine mental health among college students of color, led by a Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researcher, shows significant disparities in treatment across race/ethnicity.
Soil holds the secret to mitigating climate change
New research from Michigan State University suggests that crop yields and the global food supply chain can be preserved by harnessing the critical, and often overlooked, partner in food supply -- soil.
New method more than doubles sugar production from plants
EPFL chemists have developed a method that can significantly increase the yield of sugars from plants, improving the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials.
Machine learning technique to predict human cell organization published in nature methods
Scientists at the Allen Institute have used machine learning to train computers to see parts of the cell the human eye cannot easily distinguish.
Epidural stimulation leads to recovery of cardiovascular function in spinal-cord-injured
Four research participants with chronic, complete cervical spinal cord injury, persistent low resting blood pressure and blood pressure decrease when sitting up experienced improvements in blood pressure and heart rate regulation during and after spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES).
Thinking beyond yourself can make you more open to healthy lifestyle choices
Many people feel threatened when reminded of their unhealthy behavior.
You can't tell whether an online restaurant review is fake -- but this AI can
Researchers find AI-generated reviews and comments pose a significant threat to consumers, but machine learning can help detect the fakes.
UA study: Sleep apnea, congenital heart disease may be deadly mix for hospitalized infants
Infants with congenital heart disease and central sleep apnea are four times more likely to die in the hospital, researchers find.
Study reveals the current rates of diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes in American adults
A new study from the University of Iowa finds that type 2 diabetes remains overwhelmingly the most common type of diabetes diagnosed in American adults who have the disease.
Clinical gene discovery program solves 30 medical mysteries
In a recent paper published in Genomic Medicine, the Brigham Genomic Medicine team describes its program, one the team hopes will serve as a model for other academic medical centers or institutions that are endeavoring to solve medical mysteries using genomic sequencing and the power of scientific crowdsourcing.
More ships and more clouds mean cooling in the arctic
UConn professor of geology Scott Stephenson and colleagues recently modeled the future of trans-Arctic shipping routes and found that increased emissions will spell a trend of slowed cooling in the region.
Magellanic Clouds duo may have been a trio
Two of the closest galaxies to the Milky Way--the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds--may have had a third companion, astronomers believe.
Fossils reveal diverse mesozoic pollinating lacewings
A research group led by professor WANG Bo from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology has provided new insight into the niche diversity, chemical communication, and defense mechanisms of Mesozoic pollinating insects.
Gene therapy via skin protects mice from lethal cocaine doses
A study in Nature Biomedical Engineering shows that skin stem cells, modified via CRISPR and transplanted back to donor mice, can protect addicted mice from cocaine-seeking and overdose.
Study IDs why some TB bacteria prove deadly
A new study has found that the same mutation that gives TB bacteria drug resistance also elicits a different -- and potentially weaker -- immune response.
Sperm quality study updates advice for couples trying to conceive
New clinical and molecular evidence shows sperm quality and reproductive outcomes are improved when semen is provided after just 1-3 hours of abstinence.
New school of thought: In-class physical exercise won't disrupt learning, teaching
As childhood obesity rates rise and physical education offerings dwindle, elementary schools keep searching for ways to incorporate the federally mandated half-hour of physical activity into the school day.
Silicone breast implants linked to increased risk of some rare harms
Women receiving silicone breast implants may be at increased risk of several rare adverse outcomes compared to the general population, reports a study in Annals of Surgery.
World's first passive anti-frosting surface fights ice with ice
Researchers see immediate applications for the technology in the HVAC industry.
Aspirin found not to prolong healthy aging
Taking a low-dose aspirin daily does not prolong healthy living in older adults, according to findings from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial published online Sept.
Counting (on) sheep? Promising gene therapy for visually impaired sheep now safe for human trials
A promising gene therapy for visually impaired sheep is now safe for human trials.
Scientists determine four personality types based on new data
Northwestern University researchers have sifted through data from more than 1.5 million questionnaire respondents and found at least four distinct clusters of personality types exist: average, reserved, self-centered and role model.
Tropics are widening as predicted by climate models, research finds
Scientists have observed for years that the Earth's tropics are widening in connection with complex changes in climate and weather patterns.
Enlarged genotype-phenotype correlation for a deletion in neurofibromatosis type 1
International collaborative research led by Ludwine Messiaen, Ph.D., shows that while a three-base pair, in-frame deletion called p.Met992del in the NF1 gene has a mild phenotype for people with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1, or NF1, the mutation does cause complications.
Blood test could aid cattle health and productivity, study suggests
A simple blood test could be used in the future to predict the health and productivity of dairy cows, research by experts at the University's Roslin Institute and Scotland's Rural College shows.
Large-scale shift causing lower-oxygen water to invade Canada's Gulf of St. Lawrence
Rapid deoxygenation in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence is caused by shifts in two of the ocean's most powerful currents: the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current.
Study of 1 million people leads to world's biggest advance in blood pressure genetics
Over 500 new gene regions that influence people's blood pressure have been discovered in the largest global genetic study of blood pressure to date, led by Queen Mary University of London and Imperial College London.
NASA finds Tropical Depression Joyce continues to lose it
Visible and infrared satellite imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite revealed Tropical Storm Joyce continues to become more disorganized.
NASA's TESS shares first science image in hunt to find new worlds
NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, which began science operations in July, has released its first full frame image using all four of its cameras.
New insights into DNA phase separation
A recent study, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has presented the notion of 'DNA Phase Separation', which suggests that the DNA within the nucleus may trigger phase separation, like oil in water.
COPD patients suffer fewer respiratory problems if treated with targeted lung denervation
First results from a clinical trial of a procedure to open obstructed airways in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown that it significantly reduces problems associated with the disease and is safe.
Novel carbon source sustains deep-sea microorganism communities
A carbon source stemming from daily fish migrations is implicated in the global carbon cycle.
Nanoparticle therapeutic restores function of tumor suppressor in prostate cancer
Leveraging advances in mRNA and nanotechnology, investigators demonstrate that tumor suppressor PTEN can be restored in preclinical models of prostate cancer.
Warnings were up for Hong Kong for Typhoon Mangkhut after landfall
On Sunday, Sept. 16, 2018, Typhoon Mangkhut had made landfall in southern China and Hurricane signal #10 was still in force.
A protective shield for sensitive enzymes in biofuel cells
Researchers have developed a new mechanism to protect enzymes from oxygen as biocatalysts in fuel cells.
UCLA researchers develop mechanism for characterizing function of rare tumor cells
UCLA researchers have created a quick and effective mechanism to measure how these circulating tumor cells perform functions that drive cancer.
How dragonfly wings get their patterns
Researchers from Harvard University have developed a model that can recreate, with only a few parameters, the wing patterns of a large group of insects, shedding light on how these complex patterns form.
Turmoil behind primate power struggles often overlooked by researchers
Anyone who peruses relationship settings on social media knows that our interactions with other humans can be intricate, but a new study in Nature: Scientific Reports suggests that researchers may be overlooking some of these same complexities in the social relations of our closest primate relatives, such as chimpanzees and macaques.
Catastrophic construction: Storms can build reef islands in atoll regions
Tropical storms, with waves reaching up to 10-meters-high, can wallop coral reef islands.
The surprising environment of an enigmatic neutron star
An unusual infrared emission detected by the Hubble Space Telescope from a nearby neutron star could indicate that the pulsar has features never before seen.
Individual, societal changes needed to combat obesity
Fighting the obesity epidemic in the US will require changes at both the individual and societal level, according to a review paper published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Undiagnosed STIs can increase negative PMS symptoms
Women that have undiagnosed sexually transmitted infections may be at greater risk of experiencing negative premenstrual symptoms (PMS), according to new Oxford University research.
Resynchronizing neurons to erase schizophrenia
Today, a decisive step in understanding schizophrenia has been taken.
Exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the womb linked to poorer lung function in childhood
Babies exposed to higher levels of organochlorine compounds in the womb go on to have worse lung function in childhood, according to new research presented today (Tuesday) at the European Respiratory Society International Congress.
Micronizing ocean plastics threaten sea turtle populations, ocean life cycle
Ingestion of degrading ocean plastics likely poses a substantial risk to the survival of post-hatchling sea turtles because the particles can lead to blockages and nutritional deficiencies, according to new research.
3D electron microscopy uncovers the complex guts of desalination membranes
Careful sample preparation, electron tomography and quantitative analysis of 3D models provides unique insights into the inner structure of reverse osmosis membranes widely used for salt water desalination wastewater recycling and home use, according to a team of chemical engineers.
The gene code of growing limbs
Scientists from EPFL and the University of Geneva have discovered a 'code' of architect genes that are expressed in specific combinations during the development of hands and fingers.
How plants harness microbes to get nutrients
A Rutgers-led team has discovered how plants harness microbes in soil to get nutrients, a process that could be exploited to boost crop growth, fight weeds and slash the use of polluting fertilizers and herbicides.
Earth's oldest animals formed complex ecological communities
Ediacara biota were forming complex communities tens of millions of years before the Cambrian explosion.
E. coli's adaptation to extreme temperatures helps explain resistance to certain drugs
A new study suggests that defenses against extreme temperatures give E. coli bacteria an advantage in fending off certain drugs.
New world record magnetic field
Scientists at the University of Tokyo have recorded the largest magnetic field ever generated indoors -- a whopping 1,200 tesla, as measured in the standard units of magnetic field strength.
Targeting this key bacterial molecule could reduce the need for antibiotics
Stanford scientists have shown that cellulose serves a mortar-like role to enhance the adhesion of bacteria to bladder cells, causing urinary tract infections.
Artificial intelligence can determine lung cancer type
A new computer program can analyze images of patients' lung tumors, specify cancer types, and even identify altered genes driving abnormal cell growth, a new study shows.
New understanding of light allows researchers to see around corners
Covert sensing of objects around a corner may soon become a reality.
Genetic mutations thwart scientific efforts to fully predict our future
The effects of genetic mutations are strongly influenced by pre-existing genetic differences among individuals and the environment, a study finds.
NASA catches Tropical Cyclone 01s's last breath in southern Indian Ocean
The first tropical cyclone of the Southern Indian Ocean season, 01S, formed on Sept.
After 150 years, a breakthrough in understanding the conversion of CO2 to electrofuels
Using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Columbia Engineers are first to observe how CO2 is activated at the electrode-electrolyte interface; their finding shifts the catalyst design from trial-and-error paradigm to a rational approach and could lead to alternative, cheaper, and safer renewable energy storage
RUDN University mathematicians proposed to improve cellular network coverage by using UAVs
RUDN University mathematicians simulated the work of a cellular network.
New discovery of a photobase so strong, it merits moniker of 'super'
A new discovery of a light-induced super photobase at Michigan State University is revealing some of photosynthesis' desirable traits.
Despite changes to US kidney allocation system, inequality persists
The new system did not minimize pre-transplant dialysis exposure for patients who were not waitlisted preemptively.
Shifting focus from life extension to 'healthspan' extension
The Journal of the American Medical Association published an article by University of Illinois at Chicago epidemiologist S.
Pre-activating cath labs prior to STEMI arrival speeds treatment, reduces risk
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients have a higher chance of survival if emergency medical service (EMS) teams notify the cardiac catherization lab at the hospital where the patient will be transported in advance of the patient's arrival, according to a study published today in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions.
Four-year study: Pioneering contact lens approach slows myopia progression in children
New four-year study data shows the significant impact of a pioneering contact lens management approach to slowing the progression of myopia (nearsightedness) in children, including those whose treatment begins later.
Injuries associated with infant walkers still sending children to the emergency department
Although infant walkers provide no benefit to children and pose a significant injury risk, many are still being used in US homes.
More than 4 billion birds stream overhead during fall migration
Using cloud computing and data from 143 weather radar stations across the continental United States, Cornell Lab of Ornithology researchers can now estimate how many birds migrate through the US and the toll that winter and these nocturnal journeys take.
RUDN University physicists gave a more accurate solution of the quantum three-body problem
RUDN University researchers have developed a mathematical method that allowed to solve the quantum Coulomb three body problem for bound states with high accuracy.
New guideline recommends weight loss strategies for sleep apnea patients
A new guideline focused on the role of weight management in treating adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been published online by the American Thoracic Society in the Sept.
Lupus discovery could help manage disease in African patients
New discoveries about the most common form of the autoimmune disease lupus could improve diagnosis and treatment of the condition in black Africans.
Circuit found for brain's statistical inference about motion
A team of Duke University neuroscientists has found the neural wiring underlying predictive eye-tracking of movements and watched in monkeys as the circuit is set to predict a given speed.
New light on the controversial question of species abundance and population density
Inspired by the negative results in the recently published largest-scale analysis of the relation between population density and positions in geographic ranges and environmental niches, a team of US and Mexican scientists identified several issues in the methodology used, able to turn the tables in the ongoing debate.
Paris climate targets could be exceeded sooner than expected
A new study has for the first time comprehensively accounted for permafrost carbon release when estimating emission budgets for climate targets.
Hubble uncovers never-before-seen features around a neutron star
An unusual infrared light emission from a nearby neutron star detected by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope could indicate new features never before seen.
Organic ferromagnetism: Trapping spins in the glassy state of an organic network structure
A team of researchers, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) presents alternative approaches for versatile future applications of plastic magnets.
Compact fiber laser may enable wearable tech and better endoscopes
By creating a new twist on fiber optic sensors, researchers in China have developed a smart, flexible photoacoustic imaging technique that may have potential applications in wearable devices, instrumentation and medical diagnostics.
Particles surf their own waves, reveal how microbes and cells move through human body
Surf's up for microbes swimming beside red blood cells. New calculations and experiments model for the first time how spherical particles submerged in gooey liquid travel along a flexible rubber sheet; comparable conditions are common in the human body, such as blood cells flowing through a capillary or the journeys of self-propelled microbes.
Opioid users could benefit from meth-relapse prevention strategy, study finds
New research raises the possibility that a wider group of people battling substance use disorders may benefit from a Scripps Research-developed relapse-prevention compound than previously thought.
Updated Estimates of frequency of adverse childhood experiences
A new survey study suggests childhood adversity is common across sociodemographic groups but that some people are at higher risk of having experienced childhood adversity.
Scientists locate parent lightning strokes of sprites
A research team from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the location results for the parent lightning strokes of more than 30 red sprites observed over an asymmetric mesoscale convective system (MCS) on July 30, 2015 in Shandong Province, China.
UVA identifies brain's lymphatic vessels as new avenue to treat multiple sclerosis
The vessels appear to carry previously unknown messages from the brain to the immune system that ultimately cause the disease symptoms.
Tiny fossils reveal how shrinking was essential for successful evolution
A new study published today in Nature shows that getting smaller was a key factor contributing to the exceptional evolution of mammals over the last 200 million years.
Gunshot victims require much more blood and are more likely to die than other trauma patients
In a new analysis of data submitted to Maryland's state trauma registry from 2005 to 2017, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers found that gunshot victims are approximately five times more likely to require blood transfusions, they require 10 times more blood units and are 14 times more likely to die than people seriously injured by motor vehicles, non-gun assaults, falls or stabs.
Do rock climbers seek out high-risk climbs?
The sport of rock climbing is gaining international attention, having been approved for inclusion in the 2020 Olympic Games.
Keep cool: Researchers develop magnetic cooling cycle
A novel technology could provide a solution for cooling processes: refrigeration using magnetic materials in magnetic fields.
Neuroscience of envy: Activated brain region when others are rewarded revealed
National Institute for Physiological Sciences researchers showed that part of the macaque brain alters the sense of value felt upon receiving a reward in a manner dependent on the receipt of rewards by one's peers.
How the brain bounces back
When recovering from a brain injury, getting back in the swing of things may be more effective than a prolonged period of rest, according to a new Columbia study in mice.
Oregon chemists create circular fluorescent dyes for biological imaging
University of Oregon chemists have created a new class of fluorescent dyes that function in water and emit colors based solely on the diameter of circular nanotubes made of carbon and hydrogen.
Artificial neural network now capable of finding medication complaints in social networks
'Cannot get asleep all night', 'a little giddy' and other complaints in social networks can now be translated into formal medical terms, such as insomnia or vertigo.

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