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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | September 19, 2018


Creating 3D printed 'motion sculptures' from 2D videos
The new system uses an algorithm that can take D videos and turn them into 3D printed 'motion sculptures' that show how a human body moves through space.
Women who breastfeed for at least five months have more kids
Cornell University professor of sociology Vida Maralani found in new research that women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are more likely to have three of more children, and less likely to have only one child.
High gluten diet in pregnancy linked to increased risk of diabetes in children
A high gluten intake by mothers during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of their child developing type 1 diabetes, suggests a study published by The BMJ today.
Unprecedented ice loss in Russian ice cap
In the last few years, the Vavilov Ice Cap in the Russian High Arctic has dramatically accelerated, sliding as much as 82 feet a day in 2015, according to a new multi-national, multi-institute study led by CIRES Fellow Mike Willis, an assistant professor of Geology at CU Boulder.
Strategies to protect bone health in hematologic stem cell transplant recipients
A new review by the International Osteoporosis Foundation Working Group on Cancer and Bone Disease looks at the major factors affecting bone health in mematologic stem cell transplant recipients, and provides expert guidance for the monitoring, evaluation and treatment of bone loss in these patients.
UMN researchers discover influenza virus doesn't replicate equally in all cells
The seasonal flu is caused by different subtypes of Influenza A virus and typically leads to the death of half a million people each year.
Is the end of the recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) a good thing?
Recently, the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called for the eliminating involvement of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) in human gene therapy experiments, marking the end of an era of federal government oversight.
Firmware at the blink of an eye: Scientists develop new technology of alloy steel rolling
A research team from the NUST MISIS Department of Pressure Metal Treatment has developed a new technology which simplifies the process of hot rolling seamless pipes made of alloy and high-alloy steel.
Characterization of pregnancy microbiome reveals variations in bacterial diversity
In a study published today in Genome Research, researchers performed detailed whole-community sequencing on the microbial communities of three maternal body sites (vagina, gut, and oral cavity) over the course of pregnancy from the first trimester through delivery revealing variations in bacterial diversity.
Discovery could explain failed clinical trials for Alzheimer's, and provide a solution
Researchers at King's College London have discovered a vicious feedback loop underlying brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease which may explain why so many drug trials have failed.
Study examines how heartfelt guilt affects individuals
For thousands of years, people have closely associated moral cleanliness with acts of physical cleanliness.
Chinese-led team shows mass extinction happened in geological 'instant'
Scientists from China, the USA and Canada combined new high-resolution radiometric dating of seven closely spaced layers of volcanic material from South China's Penglaitan section with detailed biostratigraphy and geochemical analyses.
French 2017 presidential election: Social media, fake news, and political communities
CNRS and EHESS researchers analyzed nearly 60 million political tweets posted during the 2017 presidential election in France.
Journal of the American Medical Association shines spotlight on geroscience
Highlighting how geroscience paves the way for therapeutic interventions and extending healthspan at large, three articles co-authored by five AFAR experts will appear in the October 2, 2018 print edition of JAMA and are now available online.
Public Health England has failed to learn lessons over partnership with drinks industry
Public Health England (PHE) has failed to learn the lessons over its partnership with the drinks industry, warn public health experts in The BMJ today.
Obesity and vitamin D deficiency may indicate greater risk for breast cancer
Vitamin D is already well known for its benefits in building healthy bones.
Changes are needed to fund US water infrastructure
Water infrastructure in the western United States was funded in the early and mid-20th Century by federal financing through the Bureau of Reclamation, but such financing has declined in recent decades and there has been increased interest in alternative approaches to infrastructure funding.
Strength-based exercises could help child obesity fight, study finds
Encouraging young people to do strength-based exercises -- such as squats, push ups and lunges -- could play a key role in tackling child obesity, research suggests.
Simulations of every woman's breast tissue address delay on enhanced MRI cancer detection
Purdue University researchers have simulated how over 20 different breast tissue ratios respond to heat given off by MRIs at higher field strengths than available in hospitals today.
New micro-platform reveals cancer cells' natural behavior
A new cell culture platform allows researchers to observe never-before-seen behaviors of live cancer cells under the microscope, leading to explanations of long-known cancer characteristics.
Chitinase as 'burnt-bridge' Brownian monorail efficiently hydrolyzing recalcitrant biomass
Serratia marcescens Chitinase A (SmChiA) is a molecular motor efficiently hydrolyzing recalcitrant crystalline chitin by moving on the surface processively.
Regular, low-intensity exercise reduces severity of stroke
In an editorial in this week's Neurology, Nicole Spartano, Ph.D., research assistant professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), agrees that a recent study (Reinholdsson et. al.), which proposes that individuals who reported being physically active (defined as either two hours of moderate intensity or four hours of light activity per week) before their stroke had milder symptoms.
Two quantum dots are better than one: Using one dot to sense changes in another
Osaka University researchers developed the first device that can detect single-electron events in a self-assembled quantum dot in real time.
What treatable traits predict future asthma attacks?
Investigators have assessed the prevalence of treatable traits in severe asthma and have determined which specific traits are predictive of future asthma attacks.
Analysis finds HPV vaccine safe
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause certain cancers in women and men, but HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing infection with oncogenic HPV types.
UA study reveals Arizona EMTs face 39-percent greater risk of suicide
UA medical student creates resiliency website for emergency workers and develops partnership with forest firefighters to measure its effectiveness.
Cardiovascular-related deaths higher for US Hispanics who live in counties with higher Hispanic populations
US Hispanics who live in areas heavily populated by Hispanics face more cardiovascular death than those who live in more diverse counties.
Super cheap earth element to advance new battery tech to the industry
Worldwide efforts to make sodium-ion batteries just as functional as lithium-ion batteries have long since controlled sodium's tendency to explode, but not yet resolved how to prevent sodium-ions from 'getting lost' during the first few times a battery charges and discharges.
Light provides spin
Physicists at FAU have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current.
Three major cartels exposed for large shipments of illegal ivory
By genetically matching elephant tusks from large ivory seizures and comparing this information to details including the ivory's shipping port of export, researchers have exposed the three major exporters illegally smuggling the greatest amount of ivory out of Africa.
New research helps to instill persistence in children
Encouraging children 'to help,' rather than asking them to 'be helpers,' can instill persistence as they work to fulfill daily tasks that are difficult to complete, finds a new psychology study.
Zombie cells found in brains of mice prior to cognitive loss
Zombie cells are the ones that can't die but are equally unable to perform the functions of a normal cell.
More doctor visits lead to less suicide attempts for fibromyalgia patients
Fibromyalgia patients who regularly visit their physicians are much less likely to attempt suicide than those who do not, according to a new Vanderbilt University Medical Center study published in Arthritis Care & Research.
Physicists train robotic gliders to soar like birds
Scientists know that upward currents of warm air assist birds in flight.
Newborn opioid withdrawal requires a 'cascade of care,' study suggests
Effective management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) -- withdrawal symptoms occurring in infants exposed to opioids in utero -- requires a coordinated 'cascade of care' from prevention through long-term follow-up, reports a study in Advances in Neonatal Care, official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses.
Moderate warming could melt East Antarctic Ice Sheet
Parts of the world's largest ice sheet would melt if Antarctic warming of just 2°C is sustained for millennia, according to international research.
DNA tests of illegal ivory link multiple ivory shipments to same dealers
In a paper published Sept. 19 in the journal Science Advances, an international team led by scientists at the University of Washington reports that DNA test results of large ivory seizures made by law enforcement have linked multiple ivory shipments over the three-year period, when this trafficking reached its peak, to the same network of dealers operating out of a handful of African ports.
if pigeons were brilliant, would they flock?
UC Davis researcher looked at how people behave in simple reasoning games and found that people are usually driven to 'flock,' or behave similarly to others in a given situation.
Fly mating choices may help explain variation across species
Scientists at the University of Stirling have shed new light on the impact of sexual selection on species diversity after studying the mating rituals of dance flies.
Where you live might influence how you measure up against your peers
Social psychologists uncover important mechanisms of social comparison, showing that it depends on specific, universal social settings and situations.
New insight into aging
Researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital (The Neuro) of McGill University examined the effects of aging on neuroplasticity in the primary auditory cortex, the part of the brain that processes auditory information.
Chemists produce and test novel solid oxide electrolysis cell
Researchers from Ekaterinburg, Russia, have developed and tested a new solid oxide electrolysis cell.
From crystals to climate: 'Gold standard' timeline links flood basalts to climate change
Princeton geologists used tiny zircon crystals found in volcanic ash to rewrite the timeline for the eruptions of the Columbia River flood basalts, a series of massive lava flows that coincided with an ancient global warming period 16 million years ago.
Overweight and obesity linked to higher risk of urinary incontinence for women
Being overweight or obese is linked with an increased risk of developing urinary incontinence for young to mid-aged women, according to an Obesity Reviews analysis of all relevant published studies.
Ovary removal may increase risk of chronic kidney disease
Premenopausal women who have their ovaries surgically removed face an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease, according to a Mayo Clinic study published on Wednesday, Sept.
Time to ban the sale of energy drinks to children, says senior doctor
It's time to bring in laws to ban the sale of caffeinated energy drinks to children and young people in England to tackle the twin epidemics of obesity and mental health problems, argues Professor Russell Viner, President of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health in The BMJ today.
Oldest-known aquatic reptiles probably spent time on land
A comprehensive analysis of Mesosaurus fossils shows that bones from adults share similarities with land-dwelling animals -- suggesting older Mesosaurus were semi-aquatic, whereas the juveniles spent their time in the water.
Outside competition breeds more trust among coworkers: Study
Working in a competitive industry fosters a greater level of trust amongst workers, finds a new study from the University of British Columbia, Princeton University and Aix-Marseille University, published today in Science: Advances.
People who walk just 35 minutes a day may have less severe strokes
People who participate in light to moderate physical activity, such as walking at least four hours a week or swimming two to three hours a week, may have less severe strokes than people who are physically inactive, according to a study published in the Sept.
How long does a quantum jump take?
Quantum jumps are usually regarded to be instantaneous. However, new measurement methods are so precise that it has now become possible to observe such a process and to measure its duration precisely -- for example the famous 'photoelectric effect', first described by Albert Einstein.
Snooker in the live cell
The spatial and temporal dynamics of proteins or organelles plays a crucial role in controlling various cellular processes and in development of diseases.
Aging Europe
Demographers from the Higher School of Economics and the University of Southern Denmark have created a detailed color map of population ageing in European countries; a collection of demographic stories, it uses color coding to indicate the varying stages of population aging across Europe.
Scientists crack genetic code of cane toad
A group of scientists from UNSW Sydney, the University of Sydney, Deakin University, Portugal and Brazil have unlocked the DNA of the cane toad, a poisonous amphibian that is a threat to many native Australian species.
Scientists examine variations in a cell's protein factory
A group led by Leor S. Weinberger, PhD, director of the Center for Cell Circuitry at the Gladstone Institutes, are studying the factors within a cell that can influence noise.
Commercially relevant bismuth-based thin film processing
Osaka University researchers prepared 2D layered, visible-light-absorbing bismuth sulfide semiconductors using a two-step process.
'Hoppy' beer without exploding bottles and too much alcohol
The forgotten art of ''dry-hopping'' beer to enhance flavor is back in vogue.
Nucleation a boon to sustainable nanomanufacturing
Young-Shin Jun, professor of energy, environmental & chemical engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science, and Quingun Li, a former doctoral student in her lab, are the first to measure the activation energy and kinetic factors of calcium carbonate's nucleation.
Can video game exercises help chronic low back pain?
New research from University of Sydney has found home-based video-game exercises can reduce chronic low back pain in older people by 27 percent, which is comparable to benefits gained under programs supervised by a physiotherapist.
When a chemical tag makes the difference in cell fate and gene expression
Scientists at the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona, Spain, have uncovered the role of special chemical 'tags' in controlling vital genes involved in early mammalian development, publishing their findings in the journal Nature Genetics.
Viral RNA sensing
Even tiny amounts of viruses can have disastrous consequences. RNA identification can reveal the type of virus present.
Private banks do too little to communicate their sustainable investment products
More and more private banks are offering sustainable investment options to wealthy clients.
Sustained levels of moderate warming could melt the East Antarctic Ice Sheet
Imperial experts have predicted that sustained Antarctic warming of just 2°C could melt the largest ice sheet on earth.
Workshy bosses breed contempt and abuse in the workforce, research shows
Workshy bosses can promote a contemptuous attitude amongst their staff -- leading to anger, frustration and abuse in the work place, new research has shown.
Gaia detects a shake in the Milky Way
A team led by researchers from the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB, UB-IEEC) and the University of Groningen has found, through the analysis of Gaia data, substructures which were unknown so far in the Milky Way.
Discomfort or death? New study maps hot spots of child mortality from diarrhea in Africa
New high-resolution maps pinpoint areas across Africa with concentrations of child deaths from diarrhea and show uneven progress over 15 years to mitigate the problem.
UT engineers develop first method for controlling nanomotors
Engineers at UT Austin develop world's first method for controlling the motion of nanomotors with simple visible light as the stimulus.
New method improves temperature imaging accuracy in fat-containing tissues
A research team led by Prof. ZHENG Hairong from the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology developed a ''dual-step iterative temperature estimation (DITE)'' method for fat-referenced PRFS temperature imaging in fat-containing tissues.
Study examines foraging of mountain gorillas for sodium-rich foods
A new Biotropica study examines mountain gorillas in Rwanda and their foraging for sodium-rich food in both national park areas and lands managed by local communities.
College students have unequal access to reliable technology, study finds
Smartphones and laptops seem ubiquitous at US universities, but there is still a 'digital divide,' with some students less likely than others to have consistent access to reliable technology, according to a study co-authored by an Indiana University sociologist.
Amino acid deficiency connected to new viral disease
In their study of hospital patients infected with SFTS (severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome) virus, Xiao-Kun Li and colleagues show that lower levels of the amino acid arginine are associated with low blood platelet count and immune suppression among the patients.
New method enables accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease can be difficult, as several other conditions can cause similar symptoms.
Team of researchers determines absolute duration of photoelectric effect for the first time
It provides the basis for solar energy and global communications: the photoelectric effect.
Newly identified African bird species already in trouble
Central Africa's Albertine Rift region is a biodiversity hotspot consisting of a system of highlands that spans six countries.
Young children's oral bacteria may predict obesity
Weight gain during early childhood is related to the composition of oral bacteria of two-year-old children, suggesting this understudied aspect of a children's collection of microorganisms could serve as an early indicator for childhood obesity.
A little labeling goes a long way
New research from Northwestern University reveals that infants can use even a few labeled examples to spark the acquisition of object categories.
Diverse forests are stronger against drought
In a paper published in Nature, researchers including University of Utah biologist William Anderegg report that forests with trees that employ a high diversity of traits related to water use suffer less of an impact from drought.
Researchers develop microbubble scrubber to destroy dangerous biofilms
Stiff microbial films often coat medical devices, household items and infrastructure such as the inside of water supply pipes, and can lead to dangerous infections.
Flood frequency of the world's largest river has increased fivefold
A recent study of more than 100 years of river level records from the Amazon shows a significant increase in frequency and severity of floods.
Research examines mechanisms behind cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain.
New nanoparticle superstructures made from pyramid-shaped building blocks
In research that may help bridge the divide between the nano and the macro, Brown University chemists have used pyramid-shaped nanoparticles to create what might be the most complex macroscale superstructure ever assembled.
Premature brains develop differently in boys and girls
Brains of baby boys born prematurely are affected differently and more severely than premature infant girls' brains.
People can handle the truth (more than you think)
New research from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business explores the consequences of honesty in everyday life and determines that people can often afford to be more honest than they think.
Chemicals linked to endocrine disorder in older pet cats
New research suggests that there may be a link between higher levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the environment and higher levels of hyperthyroidism in pet cats as they age.
New fungus found to cause cankers and declines in pistachio trees in Sicily, Italy
Since 2010, pistachio farmers from Sicily have been reporting a disease on the trees, characterised by cankers and declines, sometimes leading to the collapse of entire plants.
New research identifies abundant endangered fish below waterfall in San Juan River
A new study published in the journal River Research and Applications provides insight into the magnitude of the effect this waterfall has on endangered fishes in the San Juan River.
Arthritis and depression often occur together in older adults
Arthritis is common in individuals with varying degrees of depression, according to a new International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry study.
Heartbeat paces learning
The processing of external information varies during the phases of the cardiac cycle, shows a new study from the University of Jyväskylä.
CTLA4 targeted therapy plus PD-1 targeted therapy could benefit women with ovarian cancer
An analysis of the NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-GY003 suggests that adding ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets the protein receptor CTLA-4, to a regimen with the checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab could improve the proportion with tumor response and progression-free survival hazard rates for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
Anti-cancer drugs may hold key to overcoming antimalarial drug resistance
Scientists have found a way to boost the efficacy of the antimalarial drug artemesinin with the help of chemotherapy medicines.
Plant growth-promoting bacteria enhance plant salinity tolerance
Soil salinity is a serious problem in crop production, but the work of scientists helps to relieve it.
Green tea compound helps siRNA slip inside cells
Drinking green tea has been linked to health benefits ranging from cardiovascular disease prevention to weight loss.
When refugees are barred from working, long-term integration suffers
Many European countries prevent asylum seekers from working for a certain waiting period after arrival.
Mineral weathering from thawing permafrost can release substantial CO2
The amount of carbon dioxide released from thawing permafrost might be greater than previously thought, according to a new study by University of Alberta ecologists.
Study: Difficult people have most to gain from practicing compassion
The most disagreeable individuals, who are also the least likely to be kind, can benefit most from behaving more compassionately, a York University study has found.
Going viral: Investors pay more attention to social media stocks
What is the value of a social media firm? Paying attention to what investors tune into keeps a finger on the pulse of market fluctuations.
'Robotic Skins' turn everyday objects into robots
When you think of robotics, you likely think of something rigid, heavy, and built for a specific purpose.
MS researchers find well-being differs with age in multiple sclerosis
The oldest group reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms and the highest levels of Physical QOL.
Lighting it up: A new non-toxic, cheap, and stable blue photoluminescent material
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have designed a novel photoluminescent material that is cheap to fabricate, does not use toxic starting materials, and is very stable, enhancing our understanding of the quantic nature of photoluminescence.
Cell mechanism regulating protein synthesis in stress conditions discovered
Researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and the Medical Research Council Cambridge (UK), for the first time describe the mechanism used by cells to optimise the production of proteins in stressful situations by altering tRNA abundance.
Origami inspires highly efficient solar steam generator
Water covers most of the globe, yet many regions still suffer from a lack of clean drinking water.
Searching for new bridge forms that can span further
Newly identified bridge forms could enable significantly longer bridge spans to be achieved in the future, potentially making a crossing over the Strait of Gibraltar, from the Iberian Peninsula to Morocco, feasible.
Getting help with parenting makes a difference -- at any age
New Oxford University study finds that parenting interventions for helping children with behaviour problems are just as effective in school age, as in younger children.
Fiber optic sensor measures tiny magnetic fields
Researchers have developed a light-based technique for measuring very weak magnetic fields, such as those produced when neurons fire in the brain.
Interfacial engineering core@shell nanoparticles for active and selective direct H2O2 generation
A class of supported Pd@NiO-x core@shell catalysts have been constructed as highly efficient catalysts toward direct H2O2 generation.
Syracuse study reveals cannabinoid drugs make pain feel 'less unpleasant, more tolerable'
Researchers have determined that cannabinoid drugs do not appear to reduce the intensity of experimental pain, but, instead, may make pain feel less unpleasant and more tolerable.
Seeing pesticides spread through insect bodies
Osaka University-led team provides insights into the distribution of pesticides within insects using a newly developed method of insect sample preparation.
Wave-particle interactions allow collision-free energy transfer in space plasma
A team including researchers from Nagoya University finds evidence of collisionless energy transfer occurring in the plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.
Improving 'silvopastures' for bird conservation
The adoption of 'silvopastures' -- incorporating trees into pastureland -- can provide habitat for forest bird species and improve connectivity in landscapes fragmented by agriculture.
Flu season forecasts could be more accurate with access to health care companies' data
New research shows that data routinely collected by health care companies -- if made available to researchers and public health agencies -- could enable more accurate forecasts of when the next flu season will peak, how long it will last and how many people will get sick.
Magnetic field milestone
Physicists from the Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo have generated the strongest controllable magnetic field ever produced.
A new carbon material with Na storage capacity over 400mAh/g
Developing the high-capacity carbon anode materials can further improve the energy density of sodium-ion batteries (NIBs).
New insights into the way the brain combines memories to solve problems
Humans can creatively combine their memories to solve problems and draw new insights, a process that depends on episodic memory.
'The Peace of Westphalia also had its dark side'
The 52nd German Historians' Convention (Deutscher Historikertag) is to reevaluate the peace agreement 370 years ago - ''It was only with the Peace of Westphalia that the politics of colonization became possible'' - ''Its global historical dimensions have long been overlooked'' - Two years after Steinmeier's speech, the Historians' Convention will also conduct an interim review of the debate ''Peace of Westphalia as a model for the Middle East?''
What your cell phone camera tells you about your brain
Your brain is structured to make the best possible decision given its limited resources, according to new research that unites cognitive science and information theory -- the branch of mathematics that underlies modern communications technology.
Anti-inflammatory protein promotes healthy gut bacteria to curb obesity
Scientists from the UNC School of Medicine discovered that the anti-inflammatory protein NLRP12 normally helps protect mice against obesity and insulin resistance when they are fed a high-fat diet.
Co-evolution between a 'parasite gene' and its host
A Danish research team has delineated a complex symbiosis between a 'parasitic' noncoding RNA gene and its protein coding 'host' gene in human cells.
Out of office: New Baylor study examines relationship between stress and remote work
Many US employees believe working from home -- or at least away from the office -- can bring freedom and stress-free job satisfaction.

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