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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | October 09, 2018


Asthma may contribute to childhood obesity epidemic
Toddlers with asthma are more likely to become obese children, according to the biggest study on the matter to date.
Clean Water Act dramatically cut pollution in US waterways
The 1972 Clean Water Act has driven significant improvements in US water quality, according to the first comprehensive study of water pollution over the past several decades, by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and Iowa State University.
Targeting abnormal signals suggests novel method to treat a rare childhood blood disease
Pediatric researchers studying the life-threatening blood disorder Fanconi anemia have devised a method to block the abnormal biological signals that drive the disease.
CDC researchers examine HIV-related stigma among US healthcare providers
A Systemic Review from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed studies of HIV-related stigma among healthcare provider and identified three main themes: attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; quality of patient care; and education and training.
Immigrant, refugee youth most likely to visit the ED with a new mental health problem
Refugee and immigrant youth in Ontario may face barriers to accessing mental health services through primary care, say the authors of a study of emergency department visits published in CMAJ.
Seizures begin with a muffle
Contrary to long-held assumptions, researchers find that some seizures start after a burst from neurons that inhibit brain activity.
Bug that causes stomach cancer could play a role in colorectal cancer
A bacterium known for causing stomach cancer might also increase the risk of certain colorectal cancers, particularly among African Americans, according to a study led by Duke Cancer Institute researchers.
In childbirth, when to begin pushing does not affect C-section rates
Obstetricians have differing opinions about when women should begin pushing during labor and whether the timing of pushing increases the likelihood of a cesarean section.
Thinking outside the box: Adults with ADHD not constrained in creativity
People often believe those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder face challenges that could hinder future employment, but a University of Michigan study found that adults with ADHD feel empowered doing creative tasks that could help them on the job.
Downward mobility link to violent crime and self-harm
The children of families who fall upon hard times are at significantly greater risk of being involved in violent crime and harming themselves as young adults, according to a major new study.
Researchers pinpoint ideal protein to help seniors rebuild lost muscle
While exercise buffs have long used protein supplements to gain muscle, new research from McMaster University suggests one protein source in particular, whey protein, is most effective for seniors struggling to rebuild muscle lost from inactivity associated with illness or long hospital stays.
Earlier treatment could help reverse autistic-like behavior in tuberous sclerosis
New research in a mouse model suggests that the drug rapamycin can reverse autism-like social deficits -- but only if given early.
15 emerging technologies that could reduce global catastrophic biological risks
Strategic investment in 15 promising technologies could help make the world better prepared and equipped to prevent future infectious disease outbreaks from becoming catastrophic events.
NASA's Aqua satellite sees Hurricane Michael strengthening
Hurricane Michael continued strengthening while moving north-northwestward over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico as NASA's Aqua satellite provided infrared and visible imagery of the storm.
Gene changes driving myopia reveal new focus for drug development
Myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness) develop through different molecular pathways, according to a new study publishing Oct.
Scoliosis linked to essential mineral
An inability to properly use the essential mineral manganese could be to blame for some cases of severe scoliosis, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Faith-based intervention successful at managing hypertension in black communities, new study finds
Lifestyle intervention delivered in churches by community-based health workers led to a significant reduction in blood pressure among African Americans compared to health education alone, according to a study led by researchers at NYU School of Medicine publishing online Oct.
New C-CHANGE guideline provides comprehensive recommendations to manage heart disease
The updated comprehensive C-CHANGE (Canadian Cardiovascular Harmonized National Guidelines Endeavour) guideline to manage cardiovascular disease will help primary care physicians across Canada provide better care for patients with, or who are at risk of, heart disease.
This bacterium gets paid in gold
UC Berkeley and Berkeley Lab scientists have placed light-absorbing gold nanoclusters inside a bacterium, creating a biohybrid system that produces a higher yield of chemical products, such as biofuels, than previously demonstrated.
New York City area wetlands may be unwitting generator of greenhouse gasses
A new study from researchers at The Graduate Center of The City University of New York suggests that New York City-area wetlands are capable of using CSO inputs in a manner that actually increases greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide and methane.
Increased cyto-adhesion of malaria parasites during fever uncovered
A research team from Singapore demonstrated how the cyto-adhesion of plasmodium-infected red blood cells is enhanced at febrile temperatures.
Urban Inuit communities suffer from poor health and limited access to healthcare
Cases of cancer and hypertension are much higher among Inuit living in and around Ottawa than for the general population of Canada's capital city.
New biomarker for Alzheimer's disease found thanks to the CRISPR technique
The scientists have found a deficiency in the protein STIM1 in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Micro-/nano architectures in MOF membrane accelerate oil-water separation
Oil pollutions have been generated by the petroleum, steel, and textile industries and the frequent oil spills during oil transportation and have been becoming critical global environmental and economic.
Crowd-sourced data wins protection for endangered tricolored blackbird
Cornell University Lab of Ornithology fellow Orin Robinson used eBird data to convince California to list the Tricolored Blackbird as endangered.
Air pollution may be linked to heightened mouth cancer risk
High levels of air pollutants, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and to a lesser extent, ozone, may be linked to a heightened risk of developing mouth cancer, suggests the first study of its kind, published online in the Journal of Investigative Medicine.
Seed oils are best for LDL cholesterol
Using a statistical technique called network meta-analysis, researchers have combined the results of dozens of studies of dietary oils to identify those with the best effect on patients' LDL cholesterol and other blood lipids.
Never forget a face? Research suggests people know an average of 5,000 faces
A research team, from the University of York, tested study participants on how many faces they could recall from their personal lives and the media, as well as the number of famous faces they recognised.
The many structures of the light-active biomolecules
How the light-sensitive part of the biomolecule phytochrome changes from a light-adapted state to a dark-adapted state has been investigated by researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum and Philipps-Universität Marburg.
Neuron death in ALS more complex than previously thought
Brown University researchers have discovered that two different kinds of motor neurons that die in people with ALS may die in different ways -- an important insight for understanding the disease and, eventually, finding a cure.
Faith-based approach to changing lifestyle lowers blood pressure
A church-based program to encourage a healthy lifestyle reduced systolic blood pressure more than an educational program alone in blacks with uncontrolled high blood pressure.
To crash or swerve? Study reveals which actions taken by self-driving cars are morally defensible
A new study, 'How should autonomous cars drive? A preference for defaults in moral judgments under risk and uncertainty,' published in Risk Analysis: An International Journal addressed this challenge by asking the public what they believed would be the most morally and ethically sound behavior for an autonomous vehicle (AV) faced with an oncoming collision.
Army researchers' technique locates robots, soldiers in GPS-challenged areas
Army scientists have developed a novel algorithm that enables localization of humans and robots in areas where GPS is unavailable.
World's largest sleep study shows too much shut-eye can be bad for your brain
Preliminary results from the world's largest sleep study have shown that people who sleep on average between 7 to 8 hours per night performed better cognitively than those who slept less, or more, than this amount.
Wind holds key to climate change turnaround
Research co-led by a University of Delaware professor could help bring about the kind of far-reaching changes deemed necessary in the UN's dire new climate change report.
Trust in non-conventional therapies by cancer patients not matching awareness about risks
Sarcoma patients show great openness to the use of complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) for supportive care, but they are poorly informed about safety issues and risk of interactions with anti-cancer drugs, a study to be presented at ESMO 2018 reported.
Aluminum on the way to titanium strength
NUST MISIS scientists have proposed a technology that can double the strength of composites obtained by 3D printing from aluminum powder, and advance the characteristics of these products to the quality of titanium alloys: titanium's strength is about six times higher than that of aluminum, but the density of titanium is 1.7 times higher.
New NIST method measures 3D polymer processing precisely
Recipes for three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, of parts have required as much guesswork as science.
Know your enemy
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a growing global health crisis.
Inflammation in the womb may explain why some babies are more prone to sepsis after birth
Each year 15 million infants are born preterm and face high risks of short- and long-term complications, including sepsis, severe inflammation of the gut, and neurodevelopmental disorders.
HKBU scholar discovers strong evidence for links between drying climate and human evolution
Professor Richard Bernhart Owen of the HKBU Department of Geography has analysed African lake sedimentary cores and established connections between a drying climate and technological and evolutionary changes in early humans.
Unseen infections harming world's children, research reveals
Children around the world are suffering from unnoticed infections that are stunting their growth and mental development, new research from an international coalition of scientists reveals.
New composite materials prolong the service life of spare parts for equipment and vehicles
Studies have shown that hybrid powder materials based on natural layered silicates developed by the chemists of the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS) decrease the friction ratio in metals sevenfold.
Scientists go 'back to the future,' create flies with ancient genes to study evolution
Scientists at New York University and the University of Chicago have created fruit flies carrying reconstructed ancient genes to reveal how ancient mutations drove major evolutionary changes in embryonic development--the impact of which we see today.
Can the timing of pushing during delivery affect outcomes?
The best time to push during the second stage of labor (when the cervix is completely dilated through delivery) is unknown and it's unclear whether the timing affects rates of natural delivery or possible complications.
Anti-psychotic drug could treat aggressive breast cancer
A commonly-used anti-psychotic drug could also be effective against triple negative breast cancer, the form of the disease that is most difficult to treat, new research has found.
Protein has unique effects in neural connections related to information processing
The protein SAP102, which is implicated in intellectual disability, appears to play a key and potentially unique role in regulating the form of postsynaptic AMPAR receptor currents in the brain, a new study finds.
A NASA infrared view at Arabian Sea's Tropical Cyclone Luban
NASA's Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Cyclone Luban with infrared light to determine if the storm was intensifying or weakening.
Charting genetic differences in breast can improve care for underserved populations
A new study comparing DNA and RNA data from Nigerian breast cancer patients to patients in a United States database found that aggressive molecular features were far more prevalent in tumors from Nigerian women than in black or white American women.
A pheromone-sensing gene that predates land-dwelling vertebrates
Scientists at Tokyo Tech have discovered a gene that appears to play a vital role in pheromone sensing.
Electrons go with the flow
You turn on a switch and the light switches on because electricity 'flows'.
NASA checks out Hurricane Sergio's cloud temperature
NASA's Aqua satellite peered into Hurricane Sergio with infrared light to determine if the storm was intensifying or weakening.
OU Researcher determines catalytic active sites using carbon nanotubes
Catalytic research led by University of Oklahoma researcher Steven Crossley has developed a new and more definitive way to determine the active site in a complex catalyst.
Chewing gum may be effective for delivering vitamins
Nearly 15 percent of all chewing gum varieties sold promise to provide health-enhancing supplements to users, so Penn State researchers studied whether two vitamin-supplemented products were effective at delivering vitamins to the body.
Intense microwave pulse ionizes its own channel through plasma
More than 30 years ago, researchers theoretically predicted the ionization-induced channeling of an intense microwave beam propagating through a neutral gas (>103 Pa) -- and now it's finally been observed experimentally.
Hook injury caused by catch-and-release hampers feeding performance in fish
Published today in The Journal of Experimental Biology, a UC Riverside-led research team shows that mouth injuries caused by hook removal after catch-and-release fishing hamper the ability of fish to capture prey.
Crosstalk between fallopian tube, ovary may drive the spread of ovarian cancer
New research shows that cancer cells in the fallopian tube affect normal chemical signaling between reproductive tissues and stimulate the release of norepinephrine from the ovary, causing cancer cells to migrate.
Abrikosov vortices help scientists explain inconsistencies in 'dirty' superconductors theory
International team of physicists explained anomalous low temperature behavior of 'dirty' superconductors.
NASA sees the development of Eastern Atlantic Tropical Storm Nadine
As Hurricane Michael barrels toward the U.S. states along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and Tropical Storm Leslie lingers in the Central Atlantic, Tropical Storm Nadine has formed off the west coast of Africa in the far eastern Atlantic.
Planned intermittent fasting may help reverse type 2 diabetes, suggest doctors
Planned intermittent fasting may help to reverse type 2 diabetes, suggest doctors writing in the journal BMJ Case Reports after three patients in their care, who did this, were able to cut out the need for insulin treatment altogether.
Gene mutation points to new way to fight diabetes, obesity, heart disease
Researchers say they have discovered a gene mutation that slows the metabolism of sugar in the gut, giving people who have the mutation a distinct advantage over those who do not.
Army research lights the way for new materials
Army researchers are using metallic alloys to lighten the load and enhance the power of Soldier devices used on the battlefield.
Trapping toxic compounds with 'molecular baskets'
Researchers have developed designer molecules that may one day be able to seek out and trap deadly nerve agents and other toxic compounds in the environment -- and possibly in humans.
Cleaning, but safely! Cocoons protect sensitive ant brood during toxic disinfection
Ants are neat: when they move into a new nest box, they spend the first days cleaning it thoroughly.
Researchers develop 3D printed objects that can track and store how they are used
Engineers at the University of Washington have developed 3D printed devices that can track and store their own use -- without using batteries or electronics.
Ultrafast optical fiber-based electron gun to reveal atomic motions
A new method will enable researchers to directly observe and capture atomic motions at surfaces and interfaces in real time.
'Man', 'woman' and 'other': QUT research explores gender diversity
An increasing number of people no longer identify as either a 'man' or 'woman' but instead choose other gender options.
NASA gets tropical storm Leslie by the tail
What appears to be a long tail in satellite imagery of Tropical Storm Leslie is in fact clouds associated with a nearby elongated area of low pressure, or a trough.
Newly discovered moth named Icarus sports a flame-shaped mark and prefers high elevations
New species of owlet moth recently discovered to inhabit high-elevation mountains in western North America was named after the Greek mythological character Icarus.
Statistical method recreates the history of a long-abandoned village
Archaeologists now have new tools for studying the development of medieval villages and the transformation of the historical landscapes surrounding them.
AI tool automatically reveals how to write apps that drain less battery
Purdue University researchers have created a new tool, called 'DiffProf,' that uses artificial intelligence to automatically decide for the developer if a feature should be improved to drain less battery and how to make that improvement.
Future breast imaging and biopsy are not eliminated after mastectomy
A new study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has determined that having a mastectomy does not completely eliminate the need for further breast imaging studies.
A RUDN chemist created nanoreactors to synthesize organic substances under visible light
A RUDN chemist developed a new type of photocatalysts -- nanostructures from titanium dioxide.
Leveraging restaurant menus to combat obesity
Findings from a new study suggest that calorie labeling information on menus might be more effective in motivating consumers to order healthier options if the information is placed to the left of the menu item.
Delayed pushing appears to have no effect on chances for spontaneous vaginal delivery
Delaying pushing during the second stage of labor -- when the cervix is fully dilated at 10 centimeters -- is a common practice at many US hospitals, but it may have no effect on whether pregnant women deliver spontaneously (without a cesarean section or other intervention), according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Affable apes live longer, study shows
Male chimps that are less aggressive and form strong social bonds tend to live longer, research suggests.
Oldest fossil of a flying squirrel sheds new light on its evolutionary tree
The oldest flying squirrel fossil ever found has unearthed new insight on the origin and evolution of these airborne animals.
'Sentinels of the sea' at risk from changing climate
Climate change's effect on coastal ecosystems is very likely to increase mortality risks of adult oyster populations in the next 20 years.
New options for breast cancer drug development found in estrogen receptors
Many breast cancer drugs block estrogen receptors inside cancer cells.
More young people are choosing not to drink alcohol
Young people in England aren't just drinking less alcohol -- a new study published in BMC Public Health shows that more of them are never taking up alcohol at all, and that the increase is widespread among young people.
Synergy in two-dimensional materials, membranes research clear in professor's new work
Piran Kidambi's team applied the overlap in research on two-dimensional materials and membranes to address some of the most critical challenges in membrane research.
First automated malnutrition screen implemented for hospitalized children
A team of clinicians, dietitians and researchers has created an innovative automated program to screen for malnutrition in hospitalized children, providing daily alerts to healthcare providers so they can quickly intervene with appropriate treatment.
IIASA contributes to IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 degrees C
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published its Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 degrees C, a new assessment on minimizing global warming, and multiple IIASA researchers were involved in its production.
Micropeptide restores heart function in mice
Researchers have discovered a micropeptide molecule that can restore normal heart function in mice, according to a study in eLife.
Carotid artery MRI improves risk assessment for cardiovascular disease
MRI measurements of wall thickness in the carotid arteries improve cardiovascular disease risk assessment, according to a new study.
Retention in HIV care drops after release from incarceration
Fewer than half of people with HIV are retained in care three years after release from incarceration, according to a study in the US published Oct.
A genome under influence
References form the basis of our comprehension of the world: they enable us to measure the height of our children or the efficiency of a drug.
'10,000 Immunomes' database opens a window on healthy immunity
Scientists at UC San Francisco have painstakingly assembled a searchable database of normal human immunity that researchers can now use as an instant comparison group in studies of the immune system and immune dysfunction.
Mouse study shows how binge drinking and stress affect males, females differently
A VA and Oregon Health & Sciences University team found that a history of binge drinking made male and female mice react differently to traumatic stress.
Targeted drugs for advanced cancer move from specialist units to community setting
Nearly 1 in 4 patients with advanced cancer, treated at Comprehensive Cancer Care Network (NCCN) centres in the US, are receiving innovative drugs matched to DNA mutations in their tumours.
CDC-led study reports prevalence of out-of-pocket payments for screening mammograms
More than 20 percent of women aged 50-64 years and those aged 65-74 years with Medicare coverage reported paying out-of-pocket costs for their most recent screening mammogram, according to a study led by researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Researchers discover new type of stellar collision
What did the French monk and astronomer Père Dom Anthelme see when he described a star that burst into view in June 1670, just below the head of the constellation Cygnus, the swan?
Rapid, widespread changes may be coming to Antarctica's Dry Valleys, study finds
Antarctica's sandy polar desert, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, has undergone changes over the past decade and the recent discovery of thawing permafrost, thinning glaciers and melting ground ice by a Portland State University-led research team are signs that rapid and widespread change could be on the horizon.
Precise electron spin control yields faster memory storage
Enhancing the speed and reducing the size of data storage devices requires gaining control over the force making electrons spins.
Study uncovers 'sextortion' prevalence in teens
Sextortion, the threatened distribution of explicit, intimate and embarrassing sexual images without consent, is the fastest-growing cyberthreat to children.
Polar bears gorged on whales to survive past warm periods; won't suffice as climate warms
A new study led by the University of Washington found that while dead whales are valuable sources of fat and protein for some polar bears, this resource will likely not be enough to sustain most bear populations in the future when the Arctic becomes ice-free in summers.
NASA investigated rainfall in Hurricane Michael as it was developing
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite analyzed rainfall and structure of an intensifying low pressure area in the western Caribbean Sea on Oct.
A new path to solving a longstanding fusion challenge
A design developed at MIT suggests a solution to a longstanding problem for next-generation fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat they generate.
Study firms up diet and depression link
In an unusual experiment, James Cook University researchers in Australia have found that among Torres Strait Islander people the amount of fish and processed food eaten is related to depression.
Memory 'brainwaves' look the same in sleep and wakefulness
Identical brain mechanisms are responsible for triggering memory in both sleep and wakefulness, new research at the University of Birmingham has shown.
The stuff that planets are made of
UZH researchers have analyzed the composition and structure of faraway exoplanets using statistical tools.
Maximizing the carbon and biodiversity benefits of restoration along rivers and streams
Restoring forests has become a world-wide strategy for simultaneously addressing the challenges of climate change and biodiversity conservation.
Confronting climate change in the age of denial: a special collection launched in PLOS Biology
People are hard-wired to respond to stories, but climate-denial narratives can be just as compelling as those that convey the facts about global warming.
Freeloaders beware: Incentives to foster cooperation are just around the corner
In our society, there are always a certain percentage of people who adopt a freeloader attitude.
Timing of third-trimester maternal Tdap immunization associated with levels of whooping cough antibodies in newborns
Risk of whooping cough (pertussis) is highest in infants too young to have completed their primary immunization series (6 months old or younger) and they are at highest risk of developing life-threatening complications.
Becoming promiscuous to ensure reproduction
Females of a socially monogamous passerine, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor), become more promiscuous after hatchings fail in the first breeding attempt -- apparently attempting to ensure successful reproduction.
Louisiana amphibian shows unique resistance to global disease
Amphibian populations around the world are declining due to a skin disease caused by fungus.
Metal leads to the desired configuration
Scientists at the University of Basel have found a way to change the spatial arrangement of bipyridine molecules on a surface.
The order of response options on online questionnaires impacts respondents' choice
The Order of Response Options on Online Questionnaires Impacts Respondents' Choice.
Scientists mimic the earliest stages of human development
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have modeled the first step in human development in a laboratory with the goal of better understanding how organs form.
Puppy killing disease rampant in Australia
A University of Sydney study has found that canine parvovirus (CPV), a highly contagious and deadly disease that tragically kills puppies, is more prevalent than previously thought with 20,000 cases found in Australia each year, and nearly half of these cases result in death.
Icy moon of Jupiter, Ganymede, shows evidence of past strike-slip faulting
A recently published study led by researchers at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology reveals Ganymede, an icy moon of Jupiter, appears to have undergone complex periods of geologic activity, specifically strike-slip tectonism, as is seen in Earth's San Andreas fault.

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