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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 11, 2018


Hearing and visual aids linked to slower age-related memory loss
Hearing aids and cataract surgery are strongly linked to a slower rate of age-related cognitive decline, according to new research by University of Manchester academics.
'Domestic gag rule' will negatively impact women's health care
Texas study points to adverse impact of proposed federal title x guidelines on abortion counseling and referrals.
Light switch: Scientists develop method to control nanoscale manipulation in high-powered microscopes
Researchers from Japan have taken a step toward faster and more advanced electronics by developing a way to better measure and manipulate conductive materials through scanning tunneling microscopy.
Long-term exposure to ozone has significant impacts on human health
A new study has utilized a novel method to estimate long-term ozone exposure and previously reported epidemiological results to quantify the health burden from long-term ozone exposure in three major regions of the world.
Deep learning can distinguish recalled-benign mammograms from malignant and negative images
An artificial intelligence (AI) approach based on deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) could identify nuanced mammographic imaging features specific for recalled but benign (false-positive) mammograms and distinguish such mammograms from those identified as malignant or negative.
Study identifies effective ketamine doses for treatment-resistant depression
A study led by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators identifies two subanesthetic dosage levels of the anesthetic drug ketamine that appear to provide significant symptom relief to patients with treatment-resistant depression.
Self-healing material can build itself from carbon in the air
A new material developed at MIT can mimic plants by taking carbon dioxide from the air and turning it into a useful solid material, potentially helping in the battle against global climate change.
Novel topological insulator
For the first time, physicists have built a unique topological insulator in which optical and electronic excitations hybridize and flow together.
Geoengineering, other technologies won't solve climate woes
The IPCC report released in early October underscored the need to act quickly to cut greenhouse gas emissions before the planet's temperatures rise to an unacceptable level.
The metabolome: A way to measure obesity and health beyond BMI
The current standard for determining obesity is body mass index (BMI), a simple mathematical formula that uses weight and height.
Mouse pups with same-sex parents born in China using stem cells and gene editing
Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences were able to produce healthy mice with two mothers that went on to have normal offspring of their own.
Did sexism play a role in Serena Williams' loss at the US Open?
A new Statistics Views article examines whether sexism played a role in what took place in the final round of the women's singles at the 2018 US Open, when American tennis superstar Serena Williams was fined for three code violations that caused her to be penalized during a game when she criticized the umpire for a controversial call and labeled him a 'thief.'
Clemson University breakthrough in self-healing materials detailed in journal Science
Marek Urban and his team write in the journal Science about how they were able to give self-healing qualities to polymers that are used in relatively inexpensive commodities, such as paints, plastics and coatings.
Human brain cell transplant offers insights into neurological conditions
Scientists have created a 'window' into the brain, which enables researchers to watch in incredible detail how human brain cells develop and connect to each other in real time.
Smarter data analysis strategies will improve infertility treatment in the future
Scientists from Tartu have discovered a simple way how to improve infertility treatment in the future.
The significance of water in a promising biomarker against cancer
The UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry and the Biofísika Institute have conducted a multidisciplinary study of the Tn antigen that appears in 90 percent of cancers.
Physical activity has health benefits for smokers, regardless of air pollution levels
A European study analyzed the effects of physical activity on lung function.
Boy meets world: Life-long space buff and Western graduate student discovers exoplanet
Ever since Chris Fox was a young boy, he wanted to visit alien planets.
E-cigarette additives increase inflammation and impair lung function, study finds
Flavoring and additive ingredients in e-cigarettes may increase inflammation and impair lung function, according to new research.
Massive star's unusual death heralds the birth of compact neutron star binary
Carnegie's Anthony Piro was part of a Caltech-led team of astronomers who observed the peculiar death of a massive star that exploded in a surprisingly faint and rapidly fading supernova, possibly creating a compact neutron star binary system.
Obesity associated with higher colorectal cancer risk among younger women
Obesity was associated with an increased risk of early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) among women younger than 50.
Bioinspired camera could help self-driving cars see better
Inspired by the visual system of the mantis shrimp-researchers have created a new type of camera that could greatly improve the ability of cars to spot hazards in challenging imaging conditions.
How teens with type 1 diabetes can guard their hearts
After interviewing both teens and parents, Joslin Diabetes Center researchers have identified strategies to help teens with type 1 diabetes who have hypertension (high blood pressure) or dyslipidemia (unhealthy levels of cholesterol or triglycerides), They offer realistic and specific guidance on steps both parents and healthcare providers can use.
New technique for turning sunshine and water into hydrogen fuel
Korean researchers has developed new photocatalyst synthesis method using Magnesium hydride (MgH2) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Scientists reveal new cystic fibrosis treatments work best in inflamed airways
A new UNC School of Medicine study shows that two cystic fibrosis (CF) drugs aimed at correcting the defected CFTR protein seem to be more effective when a patient's airway is inflamed.
New study finds thalamus wakes the brain during development
The study published in the Journal of Neuroscience suggests the thalamus controls the development of state dependency and continuity.
'Fudge factors' in physics?
What if your theory to model and predict the electronic structure of atoms isn't accounting for dispersion energy?
Researchers create a functional salivary gland organoid
A research group led by scientists from Showa University and the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Japan have, for the first time, succeeded in growing three-dimensional salivary gland tissue that, when implanted into mice, produced saliva like normal glands.
Recent National Academies report puts research participants' rights at risk, say law scholars
In a Policy Forum article appearing in the Oct. 12, 2018 issue of Science, leading bioethics and legal scholars sound the alarm about a recent report from National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine.
Gene variants raise risk of migraines in African-American children
Pediatric researchers have discovered common gene variants associated with migraines in African-American children.
Low copper levels linked to fatter fat cells
In studies of mouse cells, Johns Hopkins researchers have found that low levels of cellular copper appear to make fat cells fatter by altering how cells process their main metabolic fuels, such as fat and sugar.
Disorder induces topological Anderson insulator
A team of experimental physicists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have made the first observation of a specific type of topological insulators that's induced by disorder.
New transgenic model of parkinson's illuminates disease biology
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have developed a unique mouse model to induce PD-like αS aggregation, leading to resting tremor and abnormal movement control.
New techniques can detect lyme disease weeks before current tests
Researchers have developed techniques to detect Lyme disease bacteria weeks sooner than current tests, allowing patients to start treatment earlier.
Smallest ever Tylosaurus fossil sheds light on species
The smallest Tylosaurus mosasaur fossil ever found has been revealed in a new study in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology and surprisingly it lacks a trademark feature of the species.
Personality differences between the sexes are largest in the most gender equal countries
The self-rated personalities of men and women differ more in more gender equal countries, according to recent research from the University of Gothenburg, University West and the University of Skövde.
Day of discharge does not influence heart surgery patient readmissions
Despite a common belief that weekend and holiday discharge after major heart surgery may impact hospital readmissions, research published online today in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery showed that day of discharge does not affect readmissions.
UC researchers say ritual for orthodox Jewish men may offer heart benefits
A pilot study led by researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine suggests Jewish men who practice wearing tefillin, which involves the tight wrapping of an arm with leather banding as part of daily prayer, may receive cardiovascular health benefits.
Physics model finds that SCOTUS 'Super Court' votes are non-partisan
Eddie Lee, doctoral student in physics at Cornell University, applied a statistical physics model to a 'Super Court' of 36 Supreme Court justices and 24 nine-member courts from 1946 to 2016 and found that consensus dominates the court, and strong correlations in voting far outlast any one justice or court.
Higher levels of the hormone prolactin in women are associated with protection against type 2 diabetes
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that in women, high levels of the hormone prolactin in the blood (but within the physiological range) are associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Researchers discover brain cortex activity differences in children with arthrogryposis
Researchers from the Higher School of Economics and the Turner Scientific and Research Institute for Children's Orthopedics have discovered that in children with arthrogryposis, the power of electrical activity in the brain cortex decreases, while its dynamics remains the same as in healthy children.
New ASTRO/ASCO/AUA guideline for prostate cancer supports shortened radiation therapy
Three prominent medical societies today issued a new clinical guideline for physicians treating men with early-stage prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy (EBRT).
Computational model links family members using genealogical and law-enforcement databases
The notion of using genetic ancestry databases to solve crimes recently crossed from hypothetical into credible when police used an online genealogical database to track down the alleged Golden State Killer, a serial criminal who terrorized much of California in the 1970s and 1980s.
Thyroid hormone regulates development of color vision
By growing human retinal tissue from stem cells, researchers have determined how the various types of cells that enable people to see colors develop.
UNH researchers find video games effective for bystander intervention in sexual assaults
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire are looking at gaming as a way to introduce intervention strategies.
How yeast cells detect genetic infections
ETH researchers studying yeast cells have discovered a surprisingly located new mechanism for detecting foreign genetic material -- whether from pathogens or environmental contamination -- and rendering it harmless.
Fake or real? New UC Davis study finds consumers wary of manipulated photos
In the age of fake news and doctored photos, wary consumers are not nearly as gullible as one might presume.
NASA finds Tropical Cyclone Luban crawling
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Luban as it continued to spin over the Arabian Sea and slowly head toward Oman.
Age at which women experience their first period is linked to their sons' age at puberty
The age at which young women experience their first menstrual bleeding is linked to the age at which their sons start puberty, according to the largest study to investigate this association in both sons and daughters.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi-NPP satellite finds Hurricane Leslie's ragged eye
Hurricane Leslie had a ragged eye on imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi-NPP satellite when it passed over the Eastern Atlantic.
Fruit fly protein could be new tool in tackling disease-carrying mosquitos
An insulin-binding protein in fruit flies could provide new opportunities for tackling disease-carrying mosquitos, such as malaria and yellow fever, scientists at the University of York have found.
Scientists develop novel vaccine for lassa fever and rabies
A novel vaccine designed to protect people from both Lassa fever and rabies showed promise in preclinical testing, according to new research published in Nature Communications.
Russian scientists created a new method for diagnosing drilling rigs for oil production
Researchers of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) came closer to solving one of the key issues of offshore oil production, namely they developed a special method of nondestructive testing of drilling rig elements in the oil wells, which will ensure the efficient oil production and reduce the time and cost of equipment repair.
UCI-led study reveals that cells involved in allergies also play a key role in survival
In a UCI-led study, researchers found evidence that mast cells, an important group of immune cells typically associated with allergies, actually enable the body to survive fasting or intense exercise.
Fat: A new player expands our definition of diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions around the world.
Dying star emits a whisper
The unexpectedly gentle death of a massive star suggests that it was being robbed by a dense companion lurking out of sight.
Your smartphone could soon be making your commute much less stressful
Apps that can detect what mode of transport phone users are traveling on and automatically offer relevant advice are set to become a reality after extensive data-gathering research led by the University of Sussex.
Genetic Achilles heel hurts humans fighting hepatitis C
An antimicrobial signaling molecule called IFNλ4 has lower activity against the hepatitis C virus in the vast majority of humans compared with chimpanzees and African hunter-gatherer Pygmies, according to a study published Oct.
New model mimics human tumors for accurate testing of cancer drugs
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have genetically engineered a new laboratory model that enables accurate testing of anti-cancer drugs by mimicking the complexity of human cancers.
Efficiently turning light into electricity
Perovskites form a group of crystals that have many promising properties for applications in nano-technology.
How are pulsed electric fields being used in cancer therapy?
Pulsed electric fields are helping fight cancer, whether by inducing tumor cell death or by stimulating the immune system.
The future of electronic devices: Strong and self-healing ion gels
Scientists at Yokohama National University and the University of Tokyo in Japan have designed an ion gel with excellent toughness and an ability to self-heal at ambient temperature without any external trigger or detectable change in the environment such as light or temperature.
Breast cancer patients use Twitter as a non-medical forum to share their experiences
Twitter is a place where many cancer patients go to share and discuss their experiences of the disease.
Bacterial DNA gets passed around in viral packages -- in greater amounts than previously
Bacteria's ability to exchange genes amongst each other may occur more frequently and involve the transfer of even more genetic material than previously believed, a new study suggests.
Elderly housing with supportive social services can reduce hospital use, study finds
According to a Rutgers study, programs designed to provide social support may impact hospitalization rates and decrease spending.
Link between gut flora and multiple sclerosis discovered
In multiple sclerosis, a defective response of the body's own immune system leads to brain tissue damage.
Researchers look beyond BMI to predict obesity-related disease risk
Predictors of future diabetes and cardiovascular disease for a person with obesity can be found among their body's metabolites, molecules that all of us produce as we live, breathe and eat.
Study holds promise for new pediatric brain tumor treatment
New research published in Nature Communications from scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U), in collaboration with the Stanford University School of Medicine, shows a specific protein regulates both the initiation of cancer spreading and the self-renewal of cancer cells in medulloblastoma, a type of pediatric brain cancer.
Hidden gapless states on the path to semiconductor nanocrystals
When chemists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw were starting work on yet another material designed for the efficient production of nanocrystalline zinc oxide, they didn't expect any surprises.
Stanford researchers modify CRISPR to reorganize genome
Researchers at Stanford University have reworked CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology to manipulate the genome in three-dimensional space, allowing them to ferry genetic snippets to different locations in a cell's nucleus.
A novel biosensor to advance diverse high-level production of microbial cell factories
A research group at KAIST presented a novel biosensor which can produce diverse, high-level microbial cell factories.
Surfing on calcium waves: A larva's journey to becoming a fly
A group of researchers at the National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, have uncovered the neuronal typeset that determines a larva's decision to pupariate, especially when challenged for nutrients.
Nerve stimulation in mice suggests new way to reduce delirium after surgery
For adults over age 65, surgical complications can dampen not only their physical health but also their mental sharpness, with more than half of high-risk cases declining into delirium.
Opening communication lines between propulsion and airflow poses new questions
On the runway to more fuel-efficient aircraft, one alternative propulsion scheme being explored is an array of electrically powered ducted fans.
Immune cells in triple-negative breast cancer offer potential therapeutic target
New research led by the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine's Rumela Chakrabarti reveals how immune cells called myeloid-derived immunosuppressor cells contribute to the progression of triple-negative breast cancer, a particularly aggressive form of the disease.
UTSA professor studies impact of political incivility on partisanship
From Twitter to daily interactions on the street, the constant impoliteness in today's politics is under examination in UTSA Department of Political Science and Geography.
Canadian smokers support bold new approaches to end tobacco use
Most Canadian smokers are in favour of novel policies to reduce tobacco use, according to a national survey by the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC) at the University of Waterloo.
Lassa fever vaccine shows promise and reveals new test for immunity
A new Lassa fever and rabies vaccine shows lasting immunity and suggests a new way to test for protection.
Smaller, more frequent eruptions affect volcanic flare-ups
Eruption patterns in a New Zealand volcanic system reveal how the movement of magma rising through the crust leads to smaller, more frequent eruptions.
Questioning the link between pollution by magnetite particles and Alzheimer's disease
A 2016 study showed that exposure to urban pollution involving magnetite particles played a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease.
White Americans see many immigrants as 'illegal' until proven otherwise, survey finds
Fueled by political rhetoric evoking dangerous criminal immigrants, many white Americans assume low-status immigrants from Mexico, El Salvador, Syria, Somalia and other countries President Donald Trump labeled 'shithole' nations have no legal right to be in the United States, new research in the journal American Sociological Review suggests.
Latest Cornell dot features a new cancer weapon: Antibodies
Ulrich Wiesner, the Spencer T. Olin Professor of Engineering in materials science and engineering at Cornell University, in collaboration with Dr.
Fatal police shootings more frequent in US states with high household gun ownership
US states with high levels of household gun ownership have higher rates of fatal shootings of civilians by police than states with lower gun prevalence, according to a new study led by researchers from the Harvard T.H.
How a common drug causes liver failure
A study of liver cells exposed to the common painkiller acetaminophen found a novel mechanism for the drug's toxicity at high doses.
Nice people finish last when it comes to money
Nice people may be at greater risk of bankruptcy and other financial hardships compared with their less agreeable peers, not because they are more cooperative, but because they don't value money as much, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Clues from a Somalian cavefish about modern mammals' dark past
After millions of years living in darkness, a species of blind cavefish has lost an ancient system of DNA repair.
Researchers discover what pneumococcus says to make you sick
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have identified a molecule that plays a key role in bacterial communication and infection.
The FASEB Journal: Bile salt receptor linked to replication and repression of HBV virus
A new animal study published in The FASEB Journal reveals a significant link between HBV and the metabolic pathway of bile salts that could have implications for a new therapeutic strategy for HBV treatment.
Pertuzumab in early BC: No added benefit proven despite exemplary surrogate validation
The treatment effect on disease-free survival is not large enough to derive an effect on overall survival from it.
New microscope offers 4D look at embryonic development in living mice
With the development of an adaptive, multi-view light sheet microscope and a suite of computational tools, researchers have captured the first view of early organ development inside the mouse embryo.
New route of acquiring antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the most potent one to date
For the first time in 60 years, researchers at NUS Medicine and the University of Glasgow and colleagues have discovered a new mechanism of genetic transduction, the process by which bacteriophages transfer bacterial DNA between bacteria.
Human retinas grown in a dish explain how color vision develops
Biologists grew human retina tissue from scratch to determine how cells that allow people to see in color are made.
UBC researchers dig to get to the root of lavender's secrets
A team of researchers, including UBC's Soheil Mahmoud, have recently sequenced the genome of lavender.
Prize-winning research reveals how parenting behavior is controlled in the mouse brain
Johannes Kohl has been named the 2018 Grand Prize winner of The Eppendorf & Science Prize for Neurobiology, for research that makes sense of how a cluster of neurons controls parenting behavior in mice.
Dramatic drop in public confidence after Philippines dengue vaccine controversy
The Philippines' highly politicised response to newly-reported risks of a dengue vaccine led to a dramatic drop in public trust in vaccines overall, according to new research published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.
Blood test identifies more treatable cancer mutations than tissue biopsy alone
Researchers from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania found that they could identify significantly more mutations through liquid biopsy instead of a solid tissue biopsy alone.
NASA eyes Hurricane Michael moving inland
NASA's Aqua satellite and NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite passed over the Florida Panhandle and captured different views of Hurricane Michael after it made landfall on Oct.
NASA finds wind shear weakening Tropical Storm Nadine
Wind shear is an adversary of tropical cyclones like Tropical Storm Nadine, and it is tearing the storm apart in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean.
WSU Vancouver climate scientist sees stage set for reprise of worst known drought, famine
A Washington State University researcher has completed the most thorough analysis yet of The Great Drought -- the most devastating known drought of the past 800 years -- and how it led to the Global Famine, an unprecedented disaster that took 50 million lives.
Crime and privacy: Using consumer genomics to identify anonymous individuals
Over 60 percent of individuals in the US with European ancestry -- including those that have not undergone genetic testing themselves -- can be identified through their DNA using data from open genetic genealogy databases, a new study reports.
Stringent password policies help prevent fraud, study finds
An Indiana University study finds stringent password rules that encourage longer and more complicated passwords significantly lower the risk of personal data breaches, especially among employees at large organizations that handle sensitive data, like universities.
He's in a rush, she isn't: Reproductive strategy drives slower female aging
The aging of males and females is influenced by how they choose to invest their available energy, according to a study of fruit flies carried out at Linköping University, Sweden.
Do lizards dream like us?
Researchers from the CNRS, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle have confirmed that lizards exhibit two sleep states, just like humans, other mammals, and birds.
Clay supplements in dairy cows improve immune response to aflatoxin challenge, study says
In the fight against aflatoxin, dairy producers often turn to sequestering agents such as clay to reduce transference of the toxin into milk.
The Lancet: Caesarean section use has almost doubled globally since 2000
Peer-reviewed / Modelling and review **Country-level data and spokespeople available** Globally, 21 percent births are delivered via C-section, higher than the level thought required for medical purposes (10-15 percent).
Does more education stem political violence?
In a study released online today in Review of Educational Research, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association, three Norwegian researchers attempt to bring clarity to this question by undertaking the first systematic examination of quantitative research on this topic.
NASA provides takes powerful Hurricane Sergio's temperature
NASA's Aqua satellite provided those cloud top temperatures of Category 4 Hurricane Sergio in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
'Vampire burial' reveals efforts to prevent child's return from grave
Archaeologists found the remains of a 10-year-old child with a stone inserted into his or her mouth at a fifth-century Italian cemetery.
Where is it, the foundation of quantum reality?
With the aid of simple theoretical models it is possible to build systems operating strictly according to the rules of classical physics, yet faithfully reproducing the predictions of quantum mechanics for single particles -- even those that are the most paradoxical!
Army-funded research results in new kits for teaching science
An affordable children's educational kit is the latest commercial spinoff of research pursued by the US Army to create advanced materials for Soldier systems.
Photoactive bacteria bait may help in fight against MRSA infections
Purdue University researchers are testing whether a light-active version of heme, the molecule responsible for transporting oxygen in blood circulation, may help people infected with MRSA.
Ultrasound helps predict the success of fistulas in individual dialysis patients
Certain parameters measured by ultrasound helped predict the success of an arteriovenous fistula, the preferred type of hemodialysis vascular access, in individual patients.
New study examines Brexit's effect on 'Sugar Tax' and coronary heart disease
A new study published in Public Health Nutrition examines the potential effects of Brexit on the 'Sugar Tax' and coronary heart disease (CHD) in England.
Poor, elderly Puerto Ricans faced a persistent risk of dying after Hurricane Maria
The study found that people living in all areas of Puerto Rico faced an elevated risk of mortality during the first two months after the storm, but this risk elevation was most prominent, and prolonged, for people living in the poorest parts of the island.
Optical illusion spooks raptors
Researchers from the CNRS and Université de Rennes 1, in collaboration with Airbus, have designed a visual pattern that elicits long-term avoidance of high-risk areas by raptors.
How parenting affects antisocial behaviors in children
In a recent study of the parental caregiving environment, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Michigan and Michigan State University, found that within identical twin pairs, the child who experienced harsher behavior and less parental warmth was at a greater risk for developing antisocial behaviors.
World's fastest camera freezes time at 10 trillion frames per second
What happens when a new technology is so precise that it operates on a scale beyond our characterization capabilities?
Scientists accidentally reprogram mature mouse GABA neurons into dopaminergic-like neurons
Attempting to make dopamine-producing neurons out of glial cells in mouse brains, a group of researchers instead converted mature inhibitory neurons into dopaminergic cells.
Scientists unexpectedly reprogram mature mouse neurons
UT Southwestern researchers attempting to transform supporting brain cells into neurons instead reprogrammed mature inhibitory neurons into a different type of neuron that creates the neurotransmitter lost in Parkinson's disease.
NASA catches Tropical Cyclone Titli headed for landfall in India
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC issued the final warning on Tropical Cyclone Titli after it made landfall on the northeastern coast of India late on Oct.

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