Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 15, 2018
Sea snail shells dissolve in increasingly acidified oceans, study shows
Shelled marine creatures living in increasingly acidified oceans face a fight for survival as the impacts of climate change spread, a new study suggests.

More clues revealed in link between normal breast changes and invasive breast cancer
A research team, led by investigators from Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, details how a natural and dramatic process -- changes in mammary glands to accommodate breastfeeding -- uses a molecular process believed to contribute to survival of pre-malignant breast cells.

Sound, vibration recognition boost context-aware computing
Smart devices can seem dumb if they don't understand what's happening around them.

Increasing vigorous exercise decreases risk of type two diabetes, cardiovascular disease in childhood
Physical exercise can reduce the risk factors of type two diabetes and cardiovascular disease even in children, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.

Teenaged girls did not engage in riskier sexual behavior after HPV vaccination introduced in school
Despite fears to the contrary, sexual behaviors of adolescent girls stayed the same or became safer after publicly funded school-based HPV vaccinations were introduced in British Columbia (BC), according to new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

If cannabis use increases after legalization, government must alter the act
If cannabis use increases after legalization of recreational cannabis on Oct.

Tracking the movement of the tropics 800 years into the past
For the first time, scientists have traced the north-south shifts of the northern-most edge of the tropics back 800 years.

Feminine leadership traits: Nice but expendable frills?
The first study to examine tradeoffs in masculine versus feminine leadership traits reveals that stereotypically feminine traits -- like being tolerant and cooperative -- are viewed as desirable but ultimately superfluous add-ons.

Us vs. them: Understanding the neurobiology of stereotypes
In a review published in the journal Trends in Cognitive Science, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, MD, PhD, and colleagues describe how non-invasive brain stimulation -- a technique he and others have pioneered to unlock the secrets of the brain -- could shed light on the neurobiology underlying implicit bias.

Don't sweat the sweet stuff
Sweet and bitter flavors are identified as soon as they are tasted, according to human neural and behavioral data published in eNeuro.

Financial impacts of cancer found to intensify disease burden among German patients
A study conducted in Germany draws attention to the fact that the socio-economic burden of cancer is real in Europe too, and not only in the context of the US healthcare system where it has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality.

Attacking RNA with small-molecule drugs
Yale researchers have developed a way to target RNA with small-molecule drugs, creating a new method for tapping into a vast number of biological mechanisms critical to metabolism and gene expression.

Ultra-light gloves let users 'touch' virtual objects
Scientists from EPFL and ETH Zurich have developed an ultra-light glove -- weighing less than 8 grams per finger- that enables users to feel and manipulate virtual objects.

3D mammography detected 34 percent more breast cancers in screening
After screening 15 000 women over a period of five years, a major clinical study in Sweden has shown that 3D mammography, or breast tomosynthesis, detects over 30 percent more cancers compared to traditional mammography - with a majority of the detected tumors proving to be invasive cancers.

Young innovators
This month's special issue of the journal Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, recognizes its Young Innovators Award winners.

Study exposes security vulnerabilities in terahertz data links
Scientists have assumed that future terahertz data links would have an inherent immunity to eavesdropping, but new research shows that's not necessarily the case.

New study answers old questions about why tropical forests are so ecologically diverse
The population of a tropical tree increases mostly in places where it is rare, a Brown study found.

Discovery of inner ear function may improve diagnosis of hearing impairment
Results from a research study published in Nature Communications show how the inner ear processes speech, something that has until now been unknown.

PPR virus poses threat to conservation
A team of conservationists from the Royal Veterinary College, WCS, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna published a letter in this week's edition of the journal Science on the threat of the virus peste des petits ruminants (PPR) to conservation.

Energy harvesting and innovative inputs highlight tech show gadgetry
A battery-free energy harvester, a novel conductive system for smartwatches, and a prototype that extends body language to the human ear feature at new tech conference.

Endurance exercise training has beneficial effects on gut microbiota composition
Endurance exercise training beneficially modifies gut microbiota composition.

Getting a longer heads-up on El Niño
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) leads to extreme climatic variations called El Niño and La Niña that cause dangerous weather conditions in many regions throughout the world.

Survey shows widespread skepticism of flu shot
The consensus among medical professionals is that the flu shot is safe and is the most effective tool we have in preventing the flu, but a new national survey by Orlando Health finds that a shocking number of parents are still skeptical about the safety and effectiveness of the flu shot.

The easy way may not be the best
The steps cells take in response to challenges are more complex than previously thought, finds new research.

Half of parents say their preschooler fears doctor's visits
One in 25 parents had postponed a vaccine due to their child's fear of doctor visits and one in five said it was hard to concentrate on what the doctor or nurse was saying because their young child was so upset.

Memristive device as an active synapse
Biological neurons are coupled unidirectionally through a special junction called a synapse.

Men in leadership gain from psychopathic behavior, women punished
People with psychopathic tendencies are slightly more likely to be a company boss, but a new study finds men are allowed a pass for those inclinations while women are punished.

Giant planets around young star raise questions about how planets form
Researchers have identified a young star with four Jupiter and Saturn-sized planets in orbit around it, the first time that so many massive planets have been detected in such a young system.

Cancer survivors at risk for heart failure during, after pregnancy
Young women previously treated for cancer with chemotherapy or radiation therapy with a prior history of cardiotoxicity are more likely to develop clinical congestive heart failure (CHF) during and after pregnancy, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Biomaterials with 'Frankenstein proteins' help heal tissue
Biomedical engineers from Duke University and Washington University in St.

Two degrees decimated Puerto Rico's insect populations
While temperatures in the tropical forests of northeastern Puerto Rico have climbed two degrees Celsius since the mid-1970s, the biomass of arthropods - invertebrate animals such as insects, millipedes, and sowbugs - has declined by as much as 60-fold, according to new findings published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

Flexible fertilizer regulations could reduce pollution, save billions
To reduce pollution and save billions of dollars in damages, the United States and other national governments should require manufacturers to sell nitrogen fertilizer with compounds designed to increase their efficiency and reduce pollution.

Does risk of embryonic malformations outweigh benefits of using SSRIs in pregnant women?
A comprehensive new review article presents the most current understanding of the role selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) play in increased risk of multiple diverse gestational malformations and takes aim at the ongoing debate over whether SSRIs as a drug class can cause these malformations.

Perovskites -- materials of the future in optical communication
Researchers at the universities in Linköping and Shenzhen have shown how an inorganic perovskite can be made into a cheap and efficient photodetector that transfers both text and music.

Arctic sea ice decline driving ocean phytoplankton farther north
A new study reveals phytoplankton spring blooms in the Arctic Ocean, which were previously nonexistent, are expanding northward at a rate of one degree of latitude per decade.

How beetle larvae thrive on carrion
The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides buries the cadavers of small animals to use them as a food source for its offspring.

The tightest non-aminoglycoside ligand for the bacterial ribosomal RNA A-site
A research group at Tohoku University has made a significant discovery with positive implications for the development of bacteria-fighting drugs.

Physics: Not everything is where it seems to be
Scientists at TU Wien, the University of Innsbruck and the ÖAW have for the first time demonstrated a wave effect that can lead to measurement errors in the optical position estimation of objects.

Study points to possible new therapy for hearing loss
Researchers have taken an important step toward what may become a new approach to restore the hearing loss.

Polio: Environmental monitoring will be key as world reaches global eradication
Robust environmental monitoring should be used as the world approaches global eradication of polio, say University of Michigan researchers who recently studied the epidemiology of the 2013 silent polio outbreak in Rahat, Israel.

Study reveals how climate change could cause global beer shortages
Severe climate events could cause shortages in the global beer supply, according to new research involving the University of East Anglia.

Study finds potential benefits of wildlife-livestock coexistence in East Africa
A study of 3,588 square kilometers of privately owned land in central Kenya offers evidence that humans and their livestock can, in the right circumstances, share territory with zebras, giraffes, elephants and other wild mammals -- to the benefit of all.

Eating with your eyes: Virtual reality can alter taste
Humans not only relish the sweet, savory and saltiness of foods, but they are influenced by the environment in which they eat.

The Lancet Psychiatry: Major changes needed to improve the care of older adults who self-harm
The majority of over 65s who self-harm are not referred for specialist help, according to UK study.

Invention of ionic decision-maker capable of self-learning
A NIMS research group has invented an ionic device, termed as ionic decision-maker, capable of quickly making its own decisions based on previous experience using changes in ionic/molecular concentrations.

Diversity is key to sustainability for local chicken farming in Africa
Adopting a more local and flexible approach to sustainable development could be key to boosting the productivity of small-scale chicken farms in Africa, a new study reports.

Males have greater reproductive success if they spend more time taking care of kids
Males have greater reproductive success if they spend more time taking care of kids -- and not necessarily only their own, according to new research published by anthropologists at Northwestern University.

High-performance flexible transparent force touch sensor for wearable devices
Researchers reported a high-performance and transparent nanoforce touch sensor by developing a thin, flexible, and transparent hierarchical nanocomposite (HNC) film.

Stanford study traces hospital-acquired bloodstream infections to patients' own bodies
The most common source of a bloodstream infection acquired during a hospital stay is not a nurse's or doctor's dirty hands, or another patient's sneeze or visitor's cough, but the patient's own gut, Stanford University School of Medicine investigators have found.

Oldest evidence for animals found by UCR researchers
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside, have found the oldest clue yet of animal life, dating back at least 100 million years before the famous Cambrian explosion of animal fossils.

Older people who self-harm at highest risk of suicide, finds study
People over 65 who harm themselves are more likely to die by suicide than other age groups according to new research published in the Lancet Psychiatry by University of Manchester and Keele University academics.

Use of tobacco & marijuana products frequently featured in hip-hop music videos
Use of tobacco & marijuana products frequently featured in hip-hop music videos.

Purdue aims to find better drug 'fits,' avoid medication tragedies like thalidomide
Purdue University researchers, including chemistry professor and Nobel Prize winner Ei-ichi Negishi, have developed technology to create a new chemical process to synthesize drug-like molecules with ultra-high purity.

Study reveals best use of wildflowers to benefit crops on farms
For the first time, a Cornell University study of strawberry crops on New York farms tested this theory and found that wildflower strips on farms added pollinators when the farm lay within a ''Goldilocks zone,'' where 25 to 55 percent of the surrounding area contained natural lands.

Kids' sleep may suffer from moms' tight work schedules
After studying the sleep habits of children from ages five to nine, researchers found that when mothers reported less flexibility in their work schedules, their children got less sleep.

People donate more when they sense they are being watched
The mere presence of a pair of eyes on a sign requesting donations makes people more likely to give more.

New test rapidly identifies antibiotic-resistant 'superbugs'
A simple and inexpensive new test developed by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, can diagnose patients with antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in a matter of minutes.

Many cases of dementia may arise from non-inherited DNA 'spelling mistakes'
Only a small proportion of cases of dementia are thought to be inherited -- the cause of the vast majority is unknown.

New model helps define optimal temperature and pressure to forge nanoscale diamonds
To forge nanodiamonds, which have potential applications in medicine, optoelectronics and quantum computing, researchers expose organic explosive molecules to powerful detonations in a controlled environment.

HIV-positive infants are at high risk for acquiring congenital cytomegalovirus infection
Infants born to HIV-positive mothers had high rates of congenital cytomegalovirus, or CMV.

National bans on slapping children linked to less youth violence
National bans on parents slapping or spanking their children to punish them for bad behaviour are linked to lower rates of youth violence, reveals an international study published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Hurricane Michael's heavy rainfall measured by NASA
Some casualties resulted not only from Michael's destructive winds and storm surges but also from the blinding rain that Michael produced as it battered states from Florida northeastward through Virginia.

Global warming will have us crying in what's left of our beer
In a study published today in Nature Plants, researchers from the University of California, Irvine and other institutions report that concurrent droughts and heat waves, exacerbated by anthropogenic global warming, will lead to sharp declines in crop yields of barley, beer's main ingredient.

Linguistic red flags from Facebook posts can predict future depression diagnoses
Research led by the University of Pennsylvania's Johannes Eichstaedt and Robert J.

Blood test biopsy for kids with brain tumors is simple, safe way to see if treatment is working
A new blood test for children with brain tumors offers a safer approach than surgical biopsies and may allow doctors to measure the effectiveness of treatment even before changes are identified on scans, according to research led by UCSF Benioff Children's Hospitals and Children's National Health System.

How common are tobacco, marijuana use in hip-hop music videos?
Popular hip-hop music videos frequently feature tobacco and marijuana use, and because of the genre's broad appeal, this may contribute to growing public health concern about the use of these products in traditional combustible or new electronic forms.

Analyzing half a million mouse decisions
Mice can be used to study the neural circuits underlying complex decision-making, suggests an analysis of more than 500,000 mouse decisions reported in JNeurosci.

Alcohol disorder screening tests fail in weight-loss surgery patients
People who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, a common type of bariatric surgery, are at an increased risk for alcohol-related problems.

When ignoring your spouse can help your relationship
It is a classic relationship stalemate: One partner asks the other to change something and the partner who is asked shuts down.

Marker may help target treatments for Crohn's patients
Crohn's disease has emerged as a global disease, with rates steadily increasing over the last 50 years.

USC analysis solves puzzle of poor cancer prognosis in young Americans
For decades, some researchers believed cancer survival rates were dismally low among adolescents and young adults in the United States.

Cesarean-born mice show altered patterns of brain development, study finds
Cesarean-born mice show altered patterns of cell death across the brain, exhibiting greater nerve cell death than vaginally delivered mice in at least one brain area, a finding by Georgia State University researchers that suggests birth mode may have acute effects on human neurodevelopment that may lead to long-lasting changes in the brain and behavior.

Molecular atlas of postnatal mouse heart development
Researchers mapped the postnatal changes in mouse myocardium on three omics levels and multiple time points, highlighting the importance of metabolic pathways as potential drug targets.

New interactive scenario explorer for 1.5 degrees C pathways
IIASA and the Integrated Assessment Modeling Consortium (IAMC) have made the scenarios underlying last week's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1.5 degrees C Special Report publicly available, in an interactive online resource.

When light, not heat, causes melting
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere observe for the first time in detail a type of phase transition that processes very differently from ordinary freezing and melting.

Ketamine is a safe, effective alternative to opioids in treating acute pain in the ED
Intravenous, low-dose ketamine (LDK) is as effective as intravenous morphine in the control of acute pain in adults in the emergency department (ED).

Unravelling the genetics of fungal fratricide
Selfish genes are genes that are passed on to the next generation but confer no advantage on the individual as a whole, and may sometimes be harmful.

NASA finds Tropical Storm Tara affecting Western Mexico
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite found newly developed Tropical Storm Tara affecting the western coast of Mexico.

Cellular 'tuning mechanism' builds elegant eyes
Scientists discover a molecular 'brake' that helps control eye lens development in zebrafish.

Scientists discover new properties of uranium compounds
A group of physicists predicted that much lower pressures of about 50,000 atm can produce 14 new uranium hydrides, of which only one, UH3, has been known to date.

Scientists chase mystery of how dogs process words
Experimental results suggest that dogs have at least a rudimentary neural representation of meaning for words they have been taught, differentiating words they have heard before from those they have not.

Researchers find no progress in media representation of nurses over last 20 years
A replication of the 1997 ''Woodhull Study on Nursing and the Media'' led by the George Washington University School of Nursing found nurses continue to be underrepresented as sources in heath news stories despite their increasing levels of education and expertise.

Blue phosphorus -- mapped and measured for the first time
Until recently, the existence of 'blue' phosphorus was pure theory: Now an HZB team was able to examine samples of blue phosphorus at BESSY II for the first time and confirm via mapping of their electronic band structure that this is actually this exotic phosphorus modification.

Neck device shows promise in protecting the brain of female soccer players
First-of-its-kind study looks at female athletes wearing experimental neck collar.

Most people don't know the difference between OCD and OCPD
The general public has trouble understanding differences between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), according to new research from Binghamton University, State University at New York.

Extensive trade in fish between Egypt and Canaan already 3,500 years ago
Some 3,500 years ago, there was already a brisk trade in fish on the shores of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

Immune health maintained by meticulously ordered DNA
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have revealed how immune health is maintained by the exquisite organisation skills of a protein called Pax5.

Discovery of a simplest mechanism for color detection
Color vision, ocular color detection is achieved with complicated neural mechanisms in the eyes.

NASA finds remnants of Tropical Cyclone Luban near Yemen/Oman border
Tropical Cyclone Luban made landfall in northern Yemen and imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite confirmed that the low pressure area has continued to linger near the border of Yemen and Oman.

'Universal' blood test for earlier diagnosis of cancer moves closer to market
UK researchers behind a potential 'universal' liquid biopsy blood test for cancer detection have licensed the technology to an industrial partner to take it to market.

Early study results suggest fertility app as effective as modern family planning methods
Early results from a first-of-its-kind study by researchers from the Institute for Reproductive Health at Georgetown University Medical Center suggests that typical use of a certain family planning app is as effective as other modern methods for avoiding an unplanned pregnancy.

Announcing the discovery of an atomic electronic simulator
Targeting applications like neural networks for machine learning, a new discovery is paving the way for atomic ultra-efficient electronics, the need for which is increasingly critical in our data-driven society.

Function of neutrophils during tumor progression unraveled
Researchers at The Wistar Institute have characterized the function of neutrophils, a type of white blood cells, during early stages of tumor progression, showing that they migrate from the bone marrow to distant sites and facilitate tumor cell seeding and establishment of metastasis.

Early sleep loss accelerates Alzheimer's pathology in mice
Lack of sleep during adolescence and early adulthood accelerates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related tau pathology, finds a study of male and female mice published in JNeurosci.

Mammals cannot evolve fast enough to escape current extinction crisis
The sixth mass extinction is underway, this time caused by humans.

Lift off for world-first ultrasound levitation that bends around barriers
Researchers at the University of Sussex have become the first in the world to develop technology which can bend sound waves around an obstacle and levitate an object above it.

NASA sees remnants of Post-Tropical Cyclone Leslie over Spain
Post-tropical cyclone Leslie made landfall in Portugal bringing heavy rains and hurricane-force winds.

Alcohol-related liver disease patients need more care, study finds
Patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) tend to have worse outcomes than others following a stay in intensive care, research shows.

High entropy alloys hold the key to studying dislocation avalanches in metals
For decades researchers have studied materials from structures to see why and how they fail.

Cumulative sub-concussive impacts in a single season of youth football
In an investigation of head impact burden and change in neurocognitive function during a season of youth football, researchers find that sub-concussive impacts are not correlated with worsening performance in neurocognitive function.

Parasites from medieval latrines unlock secrets of human history
A radical new approach combining archaeology, genetics and microscopy can reveal long-forgotten secrets of human diet, sanitation and movement from studying parasites in ancient poo, according to new Oxford University research.

Food transports Syrian refugees' imaginations to a place that no longer exists
A study conducted at the University of São Paulo in Brazil used cuisine as a starting point for an analysis of the difficulties faced by Syrian refugees in the city.

Researchers at MU produce virus-resistant pigs, could vastly improve global animal health
Researchers at the University of Missouri have successfully produced a litter of pigs that are genetically resistant to Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV), which commonly infects the intestines of pigs and causes almost 100 percent mortality in young pigs.

Technique quickly identifies extreme event statistics
Engineers at MIT have developed an algorithm that quickly pinpoints the types of extreme events that are likely to occur in a complex system, such as an ocean environment, where waves of varying magnitudes, lengths, and heights can create stress and pressure on a ship or offshore platform.

Scientists found common genes in different peoples of the Ural language family
The genetic diversity of peoples of the Ural language family living in Europe and Siberia are strongly influenced by a geography.

New research shows drinking No 1 Rosemary Water improves memory by up to 15 percent
New research published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, has shown that drinking a concentrated rosemary extract drink, No 1 Rosemary Water, can boost cognitive and memory performance by up to 15%.

Psychopaths in the C-Suite?
The seemingly never-ending stream of corporate scandals over the past decades, from Enron to Theranos, suggests that something is rotten in corporate leaders.

New smart watch algorithms can help identify why you are sleeping poorly
New algorithms take advantage of multiple smart watch sensors to accurately monitor wearers' sleep patterns.

Costs of Medicare diabetes prevention program may exceed reimbursements
For some healthcare providers - especially those serving racial/ethnic minority and low-income patients - the costs of delivering a new Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program (MDPP) may be much higher than the expected reimbursement, reports a study in the November issue of Medical Care.

Arsenic for electronics
The discovery of graphene, a material made of one or very few atomic layers of carbon, started a boom.

Scientists find missing piece in glacier melt predictions
A new method for observing water within ice has revealed stored meltwater that may explain the complex flow behavior of some Greenland glaciers, an important component for predicting sea-level rise in a changing climate.

Applying auto industry's fuel-efficiency standards to agriculture could net billions
Adopting benchmarks similar to the fuel-efficiency standards used by the auto industry in the production of fertilizer could yield $5-8 billion in economic benefits for the U.S. corn sector alone, researchers have concluded in a new analysis.

New immunotherapy targeting blood-clotting protein
A team led by Katerina Akassoglou, Ph.D., senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes, developed an antibody that blocks the inflammatory and oxidative activity of fibrin, which contributes to neurodegeneration in the brain, without compromising the protein's clotting function.

Scientists create synthetic prototissue capable of synchronised beating
A tissue-like material capable of synchronised beating when heated and cooled has been developed by a team of University of Bristol chemists.

How communication among cells affects development of multicellular tissue
Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental techniques, a research team has developed new information about how intercellular communication affects the differentiation of an embryonic stem cell colony over time.

People ordered into mental health care less likely to perceive it as helpful
A new study, led by Sirry Alang of Lehigh University, finds that people who independently seek mental health care are more likely to rate their treatment as effective, compared to people ordered into care.

The state of the early universe: The beginning was fluid
Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided Xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP). is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to