Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 16, 2018
Artificial intelligence used in clinical practice to measure breast density
An artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm measures breast density at the level of an experienced mammographer, according to a new study.

New policy brief highlights role of indigenous peoples in maintaining global food security
A new policy brief released today -- World Food Day -- highlights the link between recognizing community land rights and ensuring global food security and climate protection.

Siberian physicists suggested a new approach to creating effective diffraction grating
A team from the L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics of the Siberian Branch of RAS and Siberian Federal University (SFU) suggested a new approach to developing a dynamically controlled diffraction grating in atomic media that eliminates all existing limitations in this area.

Looking and listening for signals of navy test explosions off Florida coast
Underwater explosions detonated by the US Navy to test the sturdiness of ships' hulls have provided seismologists with a test opportunity of their own: how much can we know about an underwater explosion from the seismic and acoustic data it generates?

Experts recommend new way to describe cognitive changes after anesthesia, surgery in elderly patient
A multidisciplinary, international group of experts has recommended changing the way clinicians and patients describe cognitive changes experienced in some patients after anesthesia and surgery.

Early onset of menopause and diabetes may limit life span
Only in science fiction novels can scientists predict people's lifespans.

Researchers engineer dual vaccine against anthrax and plague
A team of researchers has now engineered a virus nanoparticle vaccine against Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, tier 1 agents that pose serious threats to national security of the United States.

'Terrorism does not terrorize' claims new study
The impact of terrorist events on mental wellbeing may be less significant than we are led to believe, argue the authors of a significant new study published today in The Lancet Psychiatry.

A bad influence: the interplay between tumor cells and immune cells
Research at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) yielded new insights into the environment surrounding different types of lung tumors, and described how these complex cell ecosystems may in turn ultimately affect response to treatment.

Research assesses geographic distribution of new antibiotics following market introduction
New study finds that between 1999 and 2014, only 25 new antibiotics entered the global market.

True sanctuary
When they first set out to follow grey reef sharks around the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), Darcy Bradley and her colleagues intended to survey their movement in the protected waters there.

Father's nicotine use can cause cognitive problems in children and grandchildren
A father's exposure to nicotine may cause cognitive deficits in his children and even grandchildren, according to a study in mice publishing on Oct.

Diets rich in fish oil could slow the spread and growth of breast cancer cells
Omega-3 fatty acids, such as those typically contained in fish oil, may suppress the growth and spread of breast cancer cells in mice.

Infectious diarrhea spores survive high temperatures of hospital laundering
Washing contaminated hospital bedsheets in a commercial washing machine with industrial detergent at high disinfecting temperatures failed to remove all traces of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), a bacteria that causes infectious diarrhea, suggesting that linens could be a source of infection among patients and even other hospitals, according to a study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

Brain cancer survival has improved -- but not much for elderly
A new study from Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki and the Finnish Cancer Registry shows that survival after glioblastoma has improved since the millennium.

All in the family: Kin of gravitational wave source discovered
According to new research, an object named GRB150101B -- first reported as a gamma-ray burst in 2015 -- shares remarkable similarities with GW170817, the neutron star merger discovered by LIGO and observed by multiple light-gathering telescopes in 2017. The new analysis, published on Oct.

Are trigger warnings emotionally protective?
Do you like to see warnings about violent or other distressing content before watching a TV show or movie, or reading a book?

What makes a good life in late life? Citizenship and justice in aging societies
A new Hastings Center Special Report calls on bioethics to 'broaden its lens' to improve the experience of aging and tackle problems of injustice affecting older adults and caregivers.

How healthy will we be in 2040?
A new scientific study of forecasts and alternative scenarios for life expectancy and major causes of death in 2040 shows all countries are likely to experience at least a slight increase in lifespans.

New reservoir computer marks first-ever microelectromechanical neural network application
A group of researchers in Canada reports the construction of the first reservoir computing device built with a microelectromechanical system.

Controlling organic semiconductor band gaps by electron-acceptor fluorination
Osaka researchers synthesized a fluorinated electron-acceptor for use in organic semiconductors.

Machine-learning driven findings uncover new cellular players in tumor microenvironment
New findings presented today by CytoReason reveals possible new cellular players in the tumor microenvironment that could impact the treatment process for the most in-need patients -- those who have already failed to respond to ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4) immunotherapy.

Study finds healthy elders consuming walnuts daily show no negative effects on body weight
Researchers at Loma Linda University Health found that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without having a negative impact on weight gain or weight management.

Infants are more likely to learn when with a peer
Researchers at the University of Connecticut and University of Washington looked at the mechanisms involved in language learning among nine-month-olds, the youngest population known to be studied in relation to on-screen learning.

Climate changes require better adaptation to drought
Europe's future climate will be characterised by more frequent heat waves and more widespread drought.

A stabilizing influence enables lithium-sulfur battery evolution
A new approach to making the sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur batteries, developed by researchers at Drexel University could preserve their impressive energy density -- clearing a significant hurdle that had blocked their widespread use for more than a decade.

What's in the man box? Increased violence & suicidal thoughts
An Australian study has revealed the dangers of 'toxic masculinity' for men aged 18 to 30 and those around them.

Amount of weight regain after bariatric surgery helps predict health risks
Measuring the percentage of weight regained following the maximum amount of weight lost after bariatric surgery can help predict a patient's risk of several serious health problems.

Public opinion on GMOs might impact similar technologies in stores
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that an individual's perception of genetically modified organisms might impact their judgments about whether or not nanotechnology-enabled products should be labeled in stores.

Syracuse geologists contribute to new understanding of Mekong River incision
An international team of earth scientists has linked the establishment of the Mekong River to a period of major intensification of the Asian monsoon during the middle Miocene, about 17 million years ago, findings that supplant the assumption that the river incised in response to tectonic causes.

Loss of a microRNA molecule boosts rice production
Rice, one of the world's biggest staples, has fed humanity for thousands of years.

Do lovers always tease each other? Study shows how couples handle laughter and banter
How partners in a romantic relationship deal with laughter or being laughed at affects their every day life, their relationship satisfaction and even their sexuality.

Hippocampus yields clues to treatment strategies for cognitive deficits in MS
'Recent advances in neuroimaging have greatly improved our understanding of the involvement of the hippocampus in MS,' said John DeLuca, PhD, at Kessler Foundation.

Holographic images increase accuracy of external ventricular drain insertion
Researchers from Beijing have developed a new technique of external ventricular drain (EVD) insertion that involves the use of a mixed-reality holographic computer headset.

Top athletes weigh in on perceived effectiveness of anti-doping measures
Doping remains an ongoing problem in competitive sports, but researchers have never before asked athletes to rank the effectiveness of available anti-doping strategies.

Why heart contractions are weaker in those with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic heart disease in the US and affects an estimated 1 in 500 people around the world.

Moon helps reveal secrets of the Universe
The Moon may be the key to unlocking how the first stars and galaxies shaped the early Universe.

Climate models fail to simulate recent air-pressure changes over Greenland
Climatologists may be unable to accurately predict regional climate change over the North Atlantic because computer simulations have failed to include real data from the Greenland region over the last three decades -- and it could lead to regional climate predictions for the UK and parts of Europe being inaccurate.

Tropical Storm Tara's water vapor concentrations seen by NASA's Aqua satellite
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean on Oct.

Guidelines for a standardized data format for use in cross-linguistic studies
An international team of researchers, members of the Cross-Linguistic Data Formats Initiative (CLDF) led by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, has set out a proposal for new guidelines on cross-linguistic data formats, in order to facilitate sharing and data comparisons between the growing number of large linguistic databases worldwide.

Age-related increase in estrogen may cause common men's hernia
An age-related increase in estrogen may be the culprit behind inguinal hernias, a condition common among elderly men that often requires corrective surgery.

No sweat required: UToledo finds hypertension treatment that mimics effect of exercise
By studying a chemical produced predominately in the liver, hypertension researchers at The University of Toledo have found a novel approach to lower blood pressure, even without reducing sodium intake or increasing exercise.

Can forests save us from climate change?
Additional climate benefits through sustainable forest management will be modest and local rather than global.

This RNA-based technique could make gene therapy more effective
MIT biological engineers have devised a way to regulate the expression of messenger RNA once it gets into cells, giving them more precise control over gene therapy treatments for cancer and other diseases.

RUDN chemist tested a new nanocatalyst for obtaining hydrogen
A chemist from RUDN was the first to use catalysts with ruthenium nanoparticles to obtain hydrogen under the influence of visible light and UV radiation.

For-profit nursing home residents more likely to be diagnosed with neglect issues
Residents receiving care in for-profit nursing homes are almost twice as likely to experience health issues caused by substandard care compared with clients living in not-for-profit facilities or in homes in the community, according to a new report in the journal Gerontology.

Higher temperatures could help protect coral reefs
A new study in the journal Behavioral Ecology suggests that higher water temperature, which increases the aggressiveness of some fish, could lead to better protection of some coral.

RUDN physicist described the shape of a wormhole
A RUDN physicist demonstrated how to describe the shape of any symmetrical wormhole -- a black hole that theoretically can be a kind of a portal between any two points in space and time -- based on its wave spectrum.

Moving location of fruit and vegetables can lead to 15 percent sales increase
Moving location of fruit and vegetables in shops can lead to 15 percent sales increase.

Renewable energy is common ground for Democrats and Republicans
While conservatives and liberals tend to disagree on many environmental issues, they both view the development of solar power and other forms of renewable energy as financially savvy and a step towards self-sufficiency.

Automated system identifies dense tissue, a risk factor for breast cancer, in mammograms
Researchers from MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have developed an automated model that assesses dense breast tissue in mammograms -- which is an independent risk factor for breast cancer -- as reliably as expert radiologists.

Youth violence lower in countries with complete ban on corporal punishment
A study published today in the BMJ Open shows that in countries where there is a complete ban on all corporal punishment of children there is less fighting among young people.

No decrease in X-rays for infants with lower respiratory tract infections
Revised guidelines recommend against routine X-rays for infants with bronchiolitis, a viral lower respiratory tract infection that often lands babies in the hospital.

New findings cast light on lymphatic system, key player in human health
Defects in the lymphatic system have been linked to a wide range of health consequences, but new findings of how the system works could lead to future therapies.

Sex or food? Decision-making in single-cell organisms
Unicellular diatoms are able to adapt their behavior to different external stimuli based on an evaluation of their own needs.

Bariatric surgery reduces heart attacks, strokes and death in obese people with diabetes
People with diabetes and severe obesity who had bariatric surgery were 40 percent less likely to have a heart attack or stroke within 5 years than those who had usual medical care for their diabetes, according to a new study published today in JAMA.

Why mothers in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan choose cesarean delivery
Pregnant women in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan are more likely to express preference for cesarean section (CS) as their mode of delivery later in pregnancy and postpartum, as compared to early in pregnancy, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine.

Video monitoring of tuberculosis treatment effective in urban and rural areas
Researchers from University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with statewide collaborators, report that patients who recorded videos of themselves taking tuberculosis (TB) medications better adhered to treatment than patients who were observed in-person.

When it comes to smartphone lifespan, brand name matters more than hardware
The environmental costs of smartphones are often exacerbated by the relatively short lifespans of these globally ubiquitous devices.

Religious leaders' support may be key to modern contraception
Women in Nigeria whose clerics extol the benefits of family planning were significantly more likely to adopt modern contraceptive methods, new research suggests, highlighting the importance of engaging religious leaders to help increase the country's stubbornly low uptake of family planning services.

Antarctic ice shelf 'sings' as winds whip across its surface
Winds blowing across snow dunes on Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf cause the massive ice slab's surface to vibrate, producing a near-constant set of seismic 'tones' scientists could potentially use to monitor changes in the ice shelf from afar, according to new research.

Just how blind are bats? Color vision gene study examines key sensory tradeoffs
Could bats' cave-dwelling nocturnal habits over eons enhanced their echolocation acoustic abilities, but also spurred their loss of vision?

A selfish gene makes mice into migrants
House mice carrying a specific selfish supergene move from one population to another much more frequently than their peers.

Number of veterans affairs facilities offering acupuncture growing rapidly
Acupuncture is an increasingly important and effective component of chronic pain management and other areas of care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).

Long-running study identifies modifiable dementia risk factor in older adults
Stiffness of the aorta -- more so than blood pressure or subclinical brain disease -- is a key risk factor for dementia.

Algorithmic innovation may help reduce invasive heart procedures
Doctors use invasive procedures to decide whether an ablation procedure to remove heart tissue is likely to have a positive outcome.

New memristor boosts accuracy and efficiency for neural networks on an atomic scale
Hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse.

3D imaging opens door to better understanding of fascinating leaf complexity
Leading biologists launch global rallying cry to overhaul theoretical models of carbon-water exchange and photosynthesis using 3D imaging.

New, durable catalyst for key fuel cell reaction may prove useful in eco-friendly vehicles
A new catalyst, developed by Brown University researchers, exceeds Department of Energy targets for performing the oxygen reduction reaction, a key step in generating an electric current in a hydrogen fuel cell.

ESMO advocacy for patient-centred care takes on global dimension
Supportive and palliative care should be an integral part of cancer treatment (ESMO Position Paper, 2017).

State pension plans would be better off avoiding external management fees
Recent research finds state pension plans would be better off avoiding external asset managers when investing their assets -- and would carry substantially smaller unfunded liabilities if they simply invested in a conventional index fund.

Is weight-loss surgery associated with lower risk of macrovascular events like heart attack, stroke for patients with type 2 diabetes?
Macrovascular disease events, which include heart attack and stroke, are a leading cause of illness and death for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Simple stickers may save lives of patients, athletes and lower medical costs
Purdue University researchers have created wearable medical electronic devices that someone can easily attach to their skin.

Letting nature take its course: Wolves in Yellowstone National Park
Since the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park in 1995, the park's ecosystem has become a deeply complex and heterogeneous system, aided by a strategy of minimal human intervention.

The science of sustainability
Can humans drive economic growth, meet rising demand for food, energy and water, and make significant environmental progress?

Factors linked with wellbeing and medication adherence in young adults with kidney failure
In a study of young adults with kidney failure, poor wellbeing and lower medication adherence were both associated with psychological morbidity.

UMBC researchers develop new method to address deep-seated biases in science
A new statistical method that tests for equivalence, rather than difference, has a role to play in dismantling gender and publication biases in science.

Researchers use brain cells in a dish to study genetic origins of schizophrenia
A study in Biological Psychiatry has established a new analytical method for investigating the complex genetic origins of mental illnesses using brain cells that are grown in a dish from human embryonic stem cells.

Forest carbon stocks have been overestimated for 50 years
A formula used to calculate basic wood density has recently been corrected.

Exploring new spintronics device functionalities in graphene heterostructures
Graphene Flagship researchers have shown in a paper published in Science Advances how heterostructures built from graphene and topological insulators have strong, proximity induced spin-orbit coupling which can form the basis of novel information processing technologies.

Poor breakfast quality has a negative effect on cardiovascular health in childhood
Researchers at the Institute for Innovation and Sustainable Development in the Food Chain (IS-FOOD) of the Public University of Navarre (NUP/UPNA) have published a piece of research in which they show that the nutritional quality of breakfast is associated with significant cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in overweight children (even in those who are fit and who do exercise every day).

Largest autism sequencing study to date yields 102 genes associated with ASD
In the largest genetic sequencing study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to date, researchers have identified 102 genes associated with ASD, and report significant progress toward teasing apart the genes associated with ASD from those associated with intellectual disability and developmental delay, conditions between which there is often overlap.

New research identifies two types of drought across China and how they evolve
Dr. Linying WANG and Professor Xing YUAN, from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, used in-situ observations and reanalysis datasets to explore the long-term variability and trends of two types of flash drought.

Population aging and decrease may have socioeconomic and environmental benefits
Environmental scientists argue that societies should embrace population aging and decrease in an opinion appearing Oct.

The role of PRMT1-mediated alternative splicing in dilated cardiomyopathy
In a study published in iScience, Professor Akiyoshi Fukamizu of the Life Science Center for Survival Dynamics, Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (University of Tsukuba, JAPAN) and the research group reported a new work on discovery of the important role of PRMT1 in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Unlike obese adults, obese children don't have more pain after surgery
While obese adults often report more pain after surgery, the same does not appear to be true for obese children, according to the largest study of its kind, being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2018 annual meeting.

Innuendo alone can fuel conspiracy theories, research shows
Innuendo alone in news coverage can fuel belief in conspiracy theories, according to a new study.

Environmental factors may trigger onset of multiple sclerosis
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that certain environmental conditions like salt concentrations and temperature may precipitate structural changes that take place in myelin sheaths in the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Sydney to move away from CBD model
Sydney may soon undergo a transition from a monocentric city with sprawling suburbs radiating from one CBD, to a polycentric model -- one marked by several sub-centres -- according to a recent study led by a multidisciplinary team at the University of Sydney. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to