Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 18, 2018
MIT system aims to prevent attacks made possible by Meltdown/Spectre
Researchers from MIT have developed a new security system that has been shown to outperform Intel's own approach at preventing so-called 'timing attacks' made possible by vulnerabilities like Meltdown and Spectre.

$5.1 million grant will fund research to develop a stem cell-based therapy for blinding eye condition
Scientists at the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and the Stein Eye Institute have been awarded a $5.1 million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine to advance the development of a novel therapy for blinding retinal conditions.

Social media for medical journals operates in 'wild west,' needs more support to succeed
In this first study to examine social media editor roles at medical journals, researchers at Northwestern Medicine found that while medical journals are using social media more to extend the reach of new research, the responsibilities and measures of success for these roles aren't well defined or supported.

Media Alert: The Lancet special issue on primary health care
'Primary health care is in crisis... Leadership after the Astana meeting is essential to rejuvenate and revitalise all aspects of primary health care.' -- The Lancet special issue on primary health care marks 40 years since landmark Alma-Ata Declaration.

New statistical method estimates time to metastasis of breast cancer in US women
A statistical method could fill the gaps in the US cancer registry data to estimate the short- and long-term risk of recurrence of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HR-negative breast cancers.

Scientists grow functioning human neural networks in 3D from stem cells
A team of researchers has developed three-dimensional (3D) human tissue culture models for the central nervous system that mimic structural and functional features of the brain and demonstrate neural activity sustained over a period of many months.

Weight loss success linked with active self-control regions of the brain
New research suggests that higher-level brain functions have a major role in losing weight.

Muscle mass should be a new vital sign, research shows
Adults go to the doctor roughly three times a year.1 During their visit, vitals are taken such as blood pressure, pulse, and weight, but are these measurements really showing the full picture of a person's overall health?

Producing defectless metal crystals of unprecedented size
IBS-CMCM researchers have published in Science about a new method to convert inexpensive polycrystalline metal foils to single crystals with superior properties.

For preterm infants, skin-to-skin contact affects
For premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), skin-to-skin contact with parents influences levels of hormones related to mother-infant attachment (oxytocin) and stress (cortisol) -- and may increase parents' level of engagement with their infants, reports a study in Advances in Neonatal Care, official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses.

Nurse-led care significantly more successful in treating gout, trial reveals
Providing nurse-led care for people suffering with the painful, long-term condition gout could lead to an increase in the number of patients sticking to a beneficial treatment plan, a clinical trial has revealed.

Advanced sequencing technology provides new insights into human mitochondrial diseases
Researchers have for the first time been able to investigate the abundance and methyl modifications of all mitochondrial tRNAs in patients suffering from one of the most common inherited mitochondrial tRNA mutations.

Accurate evaluation of chondral injuries by near infrared spectroscopy
An arthroscopic near infrared spectroscopic probe for evaluation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone structure and composition was developed as part of a Ph.D. thesis at the University of Eastern Finland.

ASU astronomers catch red dwarf star in a superflare outburst
Most red dwarf stars have planet families but are prone to violent outbursts, making their planets less hospitable to life.

'Geek Girl' gamers are more likely to study science and technology degrees
Girls who play video games are three times more likely to choose physical science, technology, engineering or maths (PSTEM) degrees compared to their non-gaming counterparts, according to new research from the University of Surrey.

Surgery technique reduces strokes in atherosclerosis patients
A surgical technique called EDAS (encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis) significantly decreases the rate of stroke recurrence and death for patients with severe atherosclerosis of the brain arteries, according to findings of a Phase IIa clinical trial presented today at the World Stroke Congress in Montreal.

Managing the complexities and risks of HIV and tuberculosis coinfection
A new study identified a significant association between HIV infection and complexities of treating patients with tuberculosis coinfection.

Physical activity lowers risk of death from heart disease
Researchers recently designed a study to explore whether physical activity could lower the high rate of death associated with frailty in older people.

Genetic breakthrough by CU Denver scientists will aid whitebark pine conservation efforts
A University of Colorado Denver-led research team for the first time developed reliable genetic markers known as nuclear microsatellites for the whitebark pine, a discovery that could improve the tree's prospects for survival.

3D printers have 'fingerprints,' a discovery that could help trace 3D-printed guns
Like fingerprints, no 3D printer is exactly the same. That's the takeaway from a new University at Buffalo-led study that describes what's believed to be the first accurate method for tracing a 3D-printed object to the machine it came from.

Biodiversity can also destabilize ecosystems
According to the prevailing opinion, species-rich ecosystems are more stable against environmental disruptions such as drought, hot spells or pesticides.

Women more prone to selected oesophagogastric cancer chemotherapy side-effects
Men and women may need to be treated differently -- at least when it comes to some types of cancer.

Bioceramics power the mantis shrimp's famous punch
Researchers in Singapore can now explain what gives the mantis shrimp, a marine crustacean that hunts by battering its prey with its club-like appendages, the most powerful punch in the animal kingdom.

Cancer patients can now use skin creams during radiation therapy
Contrary to the advice most cancer patients receive when they go through radiation treatment, topical skin treatments, unless applied very heavily, do not increase the radiation dose to the skin and can be used in moderation before daily radiation treatments.

Yale-led team finds missing-in-action MS genes
An international collaboration led by scientists at Yale has cracked a tough nut in multiple sclerosis: where are all the genes?

Eating leafy greens could help prevent macular degeneration
A new study has shown that eating vegetable nitrates, found mainly in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, could help reduce your risk of developing early-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Cryptographic protocol enables greater collaboration in drug discovery
MIT researchers have developed a cryptographic system that could help neural networks identify promising drug candidates in massive pharmacological datasets, while keeping the data private.

Bee social or buzz off: Study links genes to social behaviors, including autism
A new study published this week found that the social lives of sweat bees -- named for their attraction to perspiration -- are linked to patterns of activity in specific genes, including ones linked to autism.

Fentanyl test strips prove useful in preventing overdoses
A Brown University study found that many young adults who tried fentanyl test strips reduced overdose risk by using less, going slower or using with someone else present.

Distinguishing fatal prostate cancer from 'manageable' cancer now possible
Scientists at the University of York have found a way of distinguishing between fatal prostate cancer and manageable cancer, which could reduce unnecessary surgeries and radiotherapy.

Polluted city neighborhoods are bad news for asthmatic children
Children with asthma who grow up in a New York City neighborhood where air pollution is prevalent need emergency medical treatment more often than asthmatics in less polluted areas.

New data science method makes charts easier to read at a glance
Researchers have developed a new method -- 'Pixel Approximate Entropy' -- that measures the complexity of a data visualization and can be used to develop easier to read visualizations.

UMass Amherst researchers unfold secret stability of bendy straws
Collapsible dog bowls and bendable straws seem to work on a common principle, snapping into stable and useful states, but mechanisms have remained elusive.

Nanodiamonds as photocatalysts
Diamond nanomaterials are considered hot candidates for low-cost photocatalysts. They can be activated by light and can then accelerate certain reactions between water and CO2 and produce carbon-neutral 'solar fuels'.

New finding could unmask blood doping in athletes
Autologous blood doping, in which an athlete is transfused with their own stored red blood cells to increase their oxygen capacity for competition, might be detectable now with the use of a microRNA marker of blood aging.

New material, manufacturing process use sun's heat for cheaper renewable electricity
A Purdue University-led team developed a new material and manufacturing process that would make one way to use solar power -- as heat energy -- more efficient in generating electricity.

New causative gene found in severe childhood epilepsy
A large international research team has discovered a new genetic cause for a severe, difficult-to-treat childhood epilepsy syndrome.

Anti-inflammatory drug effective for treating lymphedema symptoms
Two early-stage clinical trials led by Stanford researchers have shown that ketoprofen can improve skin damage in patients with lymphedema.

Making gene therapy delivery safer and more efficient
Viral vectors used to deliver gene therapies undergo spontaneous changes during manufacturing which affects their structure and function.

How to catch fruit flies (video)
You can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar -- or can you?

Study finds racial disparities in student debt increase after young people leave college
Racial disparities in student debt between blacks and whites may perpetuate the racial wealth gap according to a study in the online first edition of Sociology of Race and Ethnicity.

Why does diabetes cause heart failure?
A Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine study reveals how, on a cellular level, diabetes can cause heart failure.

150-million-year old, piranha-like specimen is earliest known flesh-eating fish
Researchers reporting in Current Biology on Oct. 18 have described a remarkable new species of fish that lived in the sea about 150 million years ago in the time of the dinosaurs.

OSU researchers propose CRISPR as influencer of low genetic diversity in deadly bacteria
Scientists at Oregon State University have shed light on the evolutionary history of a soil-borne bacteria that is so dangerous to grazing animals it is kept behind lock-and-key to prevent its spread.

Genetic behavior reveals cause of death in poplars essential to ecosystems, industry
Scientists studying a valuable, but vulnerable, species of poplar have identified the genetic mechanism responsible for the species' inability to resist a pervasive and deadly disease.

Molecular memory can be used to increase the memory capacity of hard disks
Researchers at the University of Jyväskylä have taken part in an international British-Finnish-Chinese collaboration where the first molecule capable of remembering the direction of a magnetic above liquid nitrogen temperatures has been prepared and characterized.

One in six premenopausal early breast cancer patients do not adhere to hormonal therapy
Nearly one in six premenopausal women being treated for early stage breast cancer do not adhere adequately to tamoxifen therapy after one year of treatment, potentially putting themselves at increased risk of recurrence and reduced survival, a French prospective study reports at ESMO 2018.

Treat-to-target strategy in gout management is effective
Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis, caused by crystallization of uric acid in the joint.

Expanding the optogenetics toolkit
A new molecular engineering technique has the potential to double the number of light-sensitive proteins available for studying brain circuits.

Sculpting bacteria into extreme shapes reveals the rugged nature of cell division
Stars, triangles and pentagons demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of bacterial cell division machinery.

Elucidating cuttlefish camouflage
Computational image analysis of behaving cuttlefish reveals principles of control and development of a biological invisibility cloak.

Did Leonardo da Vinci have a vision disorder that may have helped him capture space on a flat canvas?
Beginning with Rembrandt, a number of famous artists have been identified as having strabismus, a misalignment of the eyes.

Carbon fiber can store energy in the body of a vehicle
A study led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has shown that carbon fibers can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly.

A new mechanism in the control of inflammation
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have discovered a new inflammation control mechanism that shows how the damage caused by the immune response can be controlled.

How the brain makes rapid, fine adjustments in motor activity
Scientists have discovered a neural mechanism for making rapid, fine adjustments in precise motor activity.

Novel DNA vaccine design offers broad protection against influenza-A H3N2
Researchers developed a novel DNA influenza vaccine based on four micro-consensus antigenic regions selected to represent the diversity of seasonal H3N2 viruses across decades.

Pushing the (extra cold) frontiers of superconducting science
Ames Laboratory has developed a method to measure magnetic properties of superconducting and magnetic materials that exhibit unusual quantum behavior at very low temperatures in high magnetic fields.

People who commute through natural environments daily report better mental health
People who commute through natural environments report better mental health.

High stakes decision-making causes a little more cheating, a lot less charity
The age old adage of virtue being its own reward may not hold true in the corporate world -- in fact, honourable acts could lead workers to behave more selfishly later on, new research has shown.

Cytokine mediates obesity-related factors linked to colorectal cancer
A new study describes the mechanistic relationship between the cytokine interleukin-1ß, (IL-1ß) and obesity, showing that when IL-1ß levels are increased in obesity, IL-1 receptor signaling activates multiple pathways leading to colon cancer.

Predictability limit for tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific
Dr. Quanjia Zhong and Professor Ruiqiang Ding, from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, employed the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) approach to estimate the predictability limit of TCs over the whole western North Pacific (WNP) basin using observed TC best-track data.

Neo-colonial attitudes to security in war-torn nations out-of-date and unhelpful
Developed countries imposing their own Security Sector Reform (SSR) processes onto nations recovering from war often rely on entrenched colonial attitudes with no guarantee of success.

Army researcher minimizes the impact of cyber-attacks in cloud computing
Through a collaborative research effort, an Army researcher has made a novel contribution to cloud security and the management of cyberspace risks.

Johns Hopkins researchers detail how middlemen suppliers can increase hospital bills and drug prices
Hospitals should be cautious of group purchasing organizations, or entities that act as middlemen between health care providers and manufacturers, says Martin Makary, M.D., M.P.H., a professor of surgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Environmental associations with genes may yield opportunities for precision medicine
A new approach to genetic analysis finds associations between environmental factors and pharmacogenes -- genes associated with a person's response to drugs -- sparking ideas for new research at the interface of population genetics and medicine.

Suicide risk in abused teen girls linked to mother-daughter conflict
University of Rochester researchers identified a stark correlation between both poor mother-daughter relationships and high degrees of conflict -- with the likelihood of suicidal thoughts.

New fly species found in Indiana may indicate changing climate, says IUPUI researcher
A new type of blow fly spotted in Indiana points to shifting species populations due to climate change.

Female chimpanzees know which males are most likely to kill their babies
Researchers from the Living Primates Research Group in the University of Kent's School of Anthropology and Conservation (SAC), and the School of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of St Andrews, examined the behaviour of female chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda, where chimpanzees (at least in the study community) are particularly prone to committing and suffering infanticide.

Increased mortality in children with inflammatory bowel disease
Children who develop inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease) have an increased risk of death, both in childhood and later in life, a study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in the journal Gastroenterology reports.

Study provides insight into how nanoparticles interact with biological systems
Personal electronic devices are a growing source of the world's electronic waste.

Diagnosis of ovarian cancer delayed by woeful lack of awareness
A global study of women with ovarian cancer has found that two thirds of women had never heard of the disease, or did not know anything about it before their diagnosis.

Study points to new method to deliver drugs to the brain
Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have discovered a potentially new approach to deliver therapeutics more effectively to the brain.

Adding flavors to e-cigarette liquids changes chemistry, creates irritants
New research from Duke and Yale universities shows added flavorings in e-cigarettes or vaping devices react to e-liquid, or e-juice, creating new compounds that could trigger irritation and inflammation when inhaled.

The dual and unknown function of the immune system
A new study led by CNIC researcher Andrés Hidalgo and published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine shows that in addition to its defense function and the associated damage to affected tissues, the immune system also plays an important role in the day-to-day function of healthy organs.

3D-printed supercapacitor electrode breaks records in lab tests
Scientists at UC Santa Cruz and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have reported unprecedented performance results for a supercapacitor electrode.

Estimating the feeding habits of corals may offer new insights on resilient reefs
Researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and colleagues have found that corals living in more productive waters take advantage of the increased food availability.

University choice and achievement partly down to DNA
Research from King's College London has shown for the first time that genetics plays a significant role in whether young adults choose to go to university, which university they choose to attend and how well they do.

Study pinpoints what makes human neurons unique
Human neurons are much larger than those of model organisms, so it's been unclear whether size makes a difference in our brain's computational power.

Colored filter improves dyslexic children's reading speed
Volunteers aged 9-10 with dyslexia took less time to read passages from children's books, possibly thanks to attenuated excitability of the cerebral cortex.

Communism continues to cause heavy drinking in Eastern European countries
Men and women who lived under communist regimes during the Cold War drink more alcohol more often than people in capitalist nations in the West, according to new research from the University of Kent.

Food systems planning experts say it's time to reflect on local governments' efforts
Special issue of peer-reviewed journal addresses key questions in food systems planning efforts.

Smallest life forms have smallest working CRISPR system
Bacteria and Archaea have developed many types of CRISPR-Cas systems to protect themselves from viruses.

Medicating distress: Risky sedative prescriptions for older adults vary widely
A new study shows wide variation in prescriptions of sedative drugs, called benzodiazepines, to people with Medicare coverage.

E-cigarette vaping negatively impacts wound healing: Study
A new study shows that e-cigarette vaping negatively affects skin wound healing, causing damage similar to that of traditional cigarette smoking.

Government corruption tops 5th annual Chapman University survey of American fears
More Americans are afraid than ever, according to the 5th annual Chapman University Survey of American Fears, released today.

Cost-effective and transparent spending promotes species recovery
Initiatives like the US Endangered Species Act have successfully prevented the extinction of many species worldwide.

Scientists develop DNA molecule that may one day be used as 'vaccine' for prostate cancer
Researchers from City of Hope have developed a synthetic DNA molecule that is programmed to jump-start the immune system to eradicate genetically distinct types of prostate cancer.

Cancer-associated mutations are common in normal human esophagus
Unexpectedly, a new study finds that cancer-associated genetic mutations are surprisingly common in aged, healthy esophageal epithelium tissue.

Breakthrough in accessing the tiny magnet within the core of a single atom
IBS-QNS researchers in South Korea have made a major scientific breakthrough by detecting the nuclear magnetism, or 'nuclear spin' of a single atom.

UToledo research finds link between refined dietary fiber, gut bacteria and liver cancer
Adding refined soluble fiber to processed foods could present a health risk for certain people, researchers say in newly published study.

Gender equality and economic development promote gender-specific preferences
The more equal women's opportunities compared to men's, and the more resources women have, the more their preferences differ from men's, suggests a new study based on survey data from nearly 80 countries.

ANU researchers find new disease
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have discovered a new genetic disease and a method for detecting more unexplained medical conditions.

Family Medicine and Community Health Journal volume 6, issue number three publishes
Family Medicine and Community Health Journal volume 6, issue number three publishes.

Scientists discover first high-temperature single-molecule magnet
A team of scientists led by Professor Richard Layfield at the University of Sussex has published breakthrough research in molecule-based magnetic information storage materials.

Children with autism, developmental delays nearly 50 percent more likely to be overweight, obese
A new study reveals that children with developmental delays, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are up to 50 percent more likely to be overweight or obese compared with the general population.

A clearer path to clean air in China
New research from Harvard shows that a key to reducing extreme wintertime air pollution in China may be reducing formaldehyde emissions rather than sulfur dioxide.

Canadian-led international study shows huge costs of delayed access to stroke care
HOT TOPIC: Canadian study finds that delays of just an hour result in poorer outcomes for patients and greatly increased healthcare costs HOT TOPIC: Young people, especially women, are less likely to take an ambulance to the hospital after stroke, causing harmful delays, Canadian researchers find HOT TOPIC: Canadian study looks at impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive improvement of stroke patients

Electrical properties of dendrites help explain our brain's unique computing power
MIT neuroscientists have discovered that human dendrites have very different electrical properties from those of other species.

Mutant cells colonize our tissues over our lifetime
By the time we reach middle age, more than half of the oesophagus in healthy people has been taken over by cells carrying mutations in cancer genes, scientists have uncovered.

Research gives new insight into the evolution of the nervous system
Pioneering research has given a fascinating fresh insight into how animal nervous systems evolved from simple structures to become the complex network transmitting signals between different parts of the body.

Women may experience more side effects than men during gastric cancer chemotherapy
Women may experience certain chemotherapy side-effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, mouth ulceration and hair loss more frequently than men, according to a new analysis of oesophageal and stomach cancer patients.

Working lands play a key role in protecting biodiversity
Diversifying working lands -- including farmland, rangeland and forests -- may be key to preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change, says a new review paper published this week in Science by biologists at the University of California, Berkeley.

Extremely small magnetic nanostructures with invisibility cloak imaged
In novel concepts of magnetic data storage, it is intended to send small magnetic bits back and forth in a chip structure, store them densely packed and read them out later.

Accelerating drug discovery by crowdsourcing confidential data
Leveraging modern cryptographic and machine learning tools, researchers seeking to accelerate drug discovery have developed a way for multiple pharmaceutical companies and laboratories to collaborate without revealing confidential data.

With a microbe-produced toxin, bacteria prove old dogs can learn new tricks
In the ongoing chemical battles among bacteria and their microbial neighbors, a new toxin has been uncovered.

Scientists uncover how rare gene mutation affects brain development and memory
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, have found that a rare gene mutation alters brain development in mice, impairing memory and disrupting the communication between nerve cells.

Aerobic exercise has antidepressant treatment effects
An analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials indicates that supervised aerobic exercise has large antidepressant treatment effects for patients with major depression.

The big problem of small data: A new approach
You've heard of 'big data' but what about small? Researches have crafted a modern approach that could solve a decades-old problem in statistics.

Infection biology: Staying a step ahead of the game
Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness, evades the immune system by repeatedly altering the structure of its surface coat.

New tool uses your smartphone camera to track your alertness at work
Our level of alertness rises and falls over the course of a workday, sometimes causing our energy to drop and our minds to wander just as we need to perform important tasks.

Tough laws prevent gun deaths
A major global report confirms gun-related homicides, suicides and accidents are falling in Australia after the introduction of anti-gun laws, and that the effect of such tough laws is similar elsewhere.

Scientific research will help to understand the origin of life in the universe
Scientists from Samara University and several universities in the USA have proposed and experimentally confirmed new fundamental chemical mechanisms for the synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Brain cells called astrocytes have unexpected role in brain 'plasticity'
Researchers from the Salk Institute have shown that astrocytes -- long-overlooked supportive cells in the brain -- help to enable the brain's plasticity, a new role for astrocytes that was not previously known.

Mice need a clutch to smell
Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) identify shootin 1b as a clutch molecule that couples force and adhesion for the migration of neurons to the mouse olfactory bulb.

Gene-edited zebrafish models take disease research to the next level
The potent combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and zebrafish as a model organism offers enormous potential for research into human diseases caused by point mutations.

New cell movement process key to understanding and repairing facial malformations
The embryonic stem cells that form facial features, called neural crest cells, use an unexpected mechanism of moving from the back of the head to the front to populate the face, finds a new UCL-led study.

Allergy research: Test predicts outcome of hay fever therapies
Allergen-specific immunotherapy can considerably improve everyday life for allergy sufferers.

Superflares from young red dwarf stars imperil planets
Flares from the youngest red dwarfs surveyed are 100 to 1,000 times more energetic than when the stars are older.

Consumers choose smartphones mostly because of their appearance
The more attractive the image and design of the telephone, the stronger the emotional relationship that consumers are going to have with the product, which is a clear influence on their purchasing decision.

Nanocages in the lab and in the computer: how DNA-based dendrimers transport nanoparticles
How to create nanocages, i.e., robust and stable objects with regular voids and tunable properties?

To track how students ace the LSAT, watch their eyes
Neuroscientists are tracking eye movements to understand how practicing tough reasoning tests like the LSAT makes students smarter.

Kids health outcomes have more to do with parents level of education than income
A recent Rutgers study finds that parents educated beyond high school have healthier families, as they invest more in family health care which reduces the likelihood of adverse medical conditions.

Big-picture approach to understanding cancer will speed new treatments
The new approach lets scientists examine the cumulative effect of multiple gene mutations, providing a much more complete picture of cancers' causes.

How plants bind their green pigment chlorophyll
Water-soluble protein helps to understand the photosynthetic apparatus.

South American marsupials discovered to reach new heights
There have long been speculations that the mouse-sized marsupial monito del monte climbs to lofty heights in the trees.

Pathogens may evade immune response with metal-free enzyme required for DNA replication
New study shows that some bacterial pathogens, including those that cause strep throat and pneumonia, are able to create the components necessary to replicate their DNA using a ribonucleotide reductase enzyme that does not require a metal ion cofactor.

Researchers describe novel immune syndrome
Researchers from Australia and Japan have discovered a new human immunodeficiency syndrome in two patients on separate continents. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to