Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 19, 2018
En route to custom-designed natural products
Microorganisms often assemble natural products similar to industrial assembly lines.

Securing access to optimal cancer care through innovation, integration and sustainability
Securing access to optimal cancer care for all patients can only be achieved through integrated, sustainable translation of today's scientific advances into tomorrow's treatments, reinforced by a clear understanding of the magnitude of clinical effects and accurate identification of patients most likely to benefit.

Clapping Music app reveals that changing rhythm isn't so easy
Scientists at Queen Mary University of London have developed an app to understand why some rhythms are more difficult to perform than others.

Cleveland Clinic shows better cardiorespiratory fitness leads to longer life
Cleveland Clinic researchers have found that better cardiorespiratory fitness leads to longer life, with no limit to the benefit of aerobic fitness.

Scientists identify critical cancer immunity genes using new genetic barcoding technology
Mount Sinai Scientists developed a novel way to barcode and track different CRISPRs by utilizing synthetic proteins built from combinations of smaller proteins, called epitopes.

Pregnancy possible after chemotherapy for breast cancer patients, but many no longer wish
Chemotherapy is known to have a negative impact on the reproductive potential of young breast cancer patients.

Adding refined fiber to processed food could have negative health effects, study finds
Adding highly refined fiber to processed foods could have negative effects on human health, such as promoting liver cancer, according to a new study by researchers at Georgia State University and the University of Toledo.

New research shows benefits of exercise for first time in advanced lung cancer
Most people with lung cancer are unaware of the benefits of regular exercise, yet new data show it can significantly reduce fatigue and improve well being.

Healthy diets linked to better outcomes in colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer patients who followed healthy diets had a lower risk of death from colorectal cancer and all causes, even those who improved their diets after being diagnosed.

Regular exercise should be part of cancer care for all patients
Including exercise or sport as part of cancer care can significantly improve symptom management, quality of life and fitness during and after treatment, French researchers have concluded in two presentations to be reported at the ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich.

Restrictive abortion laws in Northern Ireland affect women's health, study shows
Despite a policy change to provide free abortion services for women traveling from Northern Ireland to clinics in Great Britain, Northern Irish women still experience multiple barriers accessing care.

Juul e-cigarettes pose addiction risk for young users, Stanford study finds
Teens and young adults who use Juul brand e-cigarettes are failing to recognize the product's addictive potential, despite using it more often than their peers who smoke conventional cigarettes, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

How do pelvic floor muscle exercises reduce overactive bladder symptoms?
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common form of urinary incontinence that is widely treated with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training.

The stress-free way to listen to your unborn baby's heart
Checking the heartbeat of babies in the womb is set to become more accurate and less stressful for expectant mothers thanks to research by the University of Sussex.

New drug could sustain oxygen-starved hearts
In new studies conducted at UC San Francisco, a novel oxygen-delivery therapeutic restored the function of oxygen-starved heart tissue in an animal model of global hypoxia.

The neurobiology of social aggression
Bullying and aggression carry heavy societal costs. For the first time, Duke-NUS researchers have found a signalling mechanism in the brain that shapes social behaviour -- specifically a growth factor protein, called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), which affects social dominance.

Pediatric advance care planning linked to better understanding of child's end-of-life care choices
The more that families understand the end-of-life treatment preferences expressed by adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the less likely these youth are to suffer HIV-related symptoms compared with youths whose families do not understand their end-of-life care goals, according to a single-blinded, randomized study published online Oct.

Pod-based electronic cigarette use among California youth
Adolescents and young adults who used new pod-based electronic cigarettes commonly did so along with other e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes.

1 in 4 @JUULvapor tweeps is underage, a #PublicHealth concern
E-cigarette brand JUUL's Twitter handle is attracting adolescents to the point that at least a quarter of its followers appear to be under age 18.

Making the case for a comprehensive national registry for pediatric CKD
In a commentary published by the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Sun-Young Ahn, M.D., and Marva Moxey-Mims, M.D., explain that pediatric chronic kidney disease can contribute to growth failure, developmental and neurocognitive defects, and impaired cardiovascular health.

Recent survey provides updated national estimate of doctors' financial ties to industry
Since 2013, gifts and payments to doctors by pharmaceutical and medical device companies have been publicly reported.

Marijuana use might lead to higher risk of stroke, World Stroke Congress to be told
A five-year study of hospital statistics from the United States shows that the incidence of stroke has risen steadily among marijuana users even though the overall rate of stroke remained constant over the same period.

Researchers discuss the role of evidence-based medicine in healthcare decision making
A special issue of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES)'s Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making explores the competing perspectives on evidence-based medicine, best practices, and the quality movement in healthcare.

Length of breathing disruption in OSA may be better predictor of mortality risk
How long a person with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) stops breathing may be a better predictor of mortality risk from OSA than the number of times they stop breathing, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

PTSD symptoms improve when patient chooses form of treatment, study shows
A study led by the University of Washington is the first large-scale trial of hundreds of PTSD patients, including veterans and survivors of sexual assault, to measure whether patient preference in the course of treatment impacts the effectiveness of a type of cognitive behavioral therapy and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, a type of antidepressant often prescribed for PTSD.

Dena Haritos Tsamitis secures $5 million NSF award for CyberCorps Scholarship for Service program
At a time when demand for cybersecurity expertise has never been higher, Carnegie Mellon University has just been awarded a $5 million renewal of its National Science Foundation CyberCorps Scholarship for Service program through 2023.

Electronic medical records show promise in reducing unnecessary testing
Upon implementing electronic medical record-based interventions, Boston Medical Center reduced unnecessary diagnostic testing and increased the use of postoperative order sets.

Merging mathematical and physical models toward building a more perfect flying vehicle
When designing flying vehicles, there are many aspects of which we can be certain but there are also many uncertainties.

HER2+ early breast cancers where shorter-course trastuzumab could be an option
Women with HER2-positive early breast cancer with small tumours have similar disease-free survival and lower risk of cardiac toxicity with a nine-week course of adjuvant trastuzumab compared to those treated for one year, according to a subgroup analysis of the Short-HER trial reported at ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich.

Father's nicotine exposure may cause problems in future generations of his children
A new Florida State University College of Medicine study in mice produced results that suggest nicotine exposure in men could lead to cognitive deficits in their children and grandchildren.

Surprise finding: Discovering a previously unknown role for a source of magnetic fields
Feature describes unexpected discovery of a role the process that seeds magnetic fields plays in mediating a phenomenon that occurs throughout the universe and can disrupt cell phone service and knock out power grids on Earth.

MSU pioneers new course: Digital introduction to biology, evolution
Michigan State University researchers have improved an introductory biology class to make it more accessible for students not majoring in life sciences.

Immunotherapy is safe and feasible in cancer patients treated for HIV, study suggests
Immunotherapy has been a major breakthrough in oncology -- but little is known about its safety for HIV-positive cancer patients.

How schools can optimise support for children with ADHD
New research gives the clearest guidance yet on how schools can best support children with ADHD to improve symptoms and maximise their academic outcomes.

UTA researchers find genomic evidence of rapid adaptation of invasive Burmese pythons in Florida
UTA researchers set out to determine whether pythons could have adapted to an extreme Florida freeze event in 2010.

US air pollution deaths nearly halved between 1990 and 2010
Air pollution in the US has decreased since about 1990, and a new study conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill now shows that this air quality improvement has brought substantial public health benefits.

Patients at risk of coverage denial
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital analyzed a national sample of Emergency Department visits between 2011-15 to determine what proportion of them could be denied coverage if commercial insurers across the US adopted the policy of a large national insurer, Anthem Inc., to potentially deny coverage, after the visit, based on ED discharge diagnoses.

Large regional differences in endoscopic sinus surgery in Finland
According to recent research, there are large differences in the frequency of endoscopic sinus surgery performed due to chronic rhinosinusitis between hospital districts in Finland.

Good spatial memory? You're likely to be good at identifying smells too
People who have better spatial memory are also better at identifying odors, according to a study published this week in Nature Communications.

How to avoid raising a materialistic child
If you're a parent, you may be concerned that materialism among children has been on the rise.

Huge variations between countries in time for reimbursement decisions on new cancer drugs
Some European countries take more than twice as long as others to reach health technology assessment (HTA) decisions to reimburse new cancer drugs following their approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

Monkeys do not start to resemble their parents before puberty
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the University of Leipzig presented experienced human raters with digital images of rhesus macaques of different ages and asked them to identify related individuals.

Researchers suggest new model for measuring growth in students' proficiency in MOOCs
Researchers from the Higher School of Economics and KU Leuven have developed a method of measuring growth in students' proficiency in digital learning environments.

Social vulnerability and medical skepticism top factors limiting adherence to screening
Social vulnerability showed to be a major limitation to participation in cancer screening for four tumors types - breast, cervical, colorectal and lung -- according to the French nationwide observational survey, EDIFICE 6.

European Commission launches online tool to measure how well Europe and Asia are connected
The ASEM Sustainable Connectivity Portal offers insights into the state of connectivity between 30 European countries, 19 Asian countries, Australia and New Zealand, together representing the ASEM countries.

Invasive forage grass leads to grassland bird decline
In a recent study published in Landscape Ecology, University of Illinois researchers and others found that a common cattle forage grass, tall fescue, is associated with nest failure in dickcissels, small grassland birds similar to sparrows.

A single missing gene leads to miscarriage
A single gene of the mother plays such a crucial role in the development of the placenta that its dysfunction leads to miscarriages.

Sleep apnea more deadly when patients experience short interrupted breaths
Patients with sleep apnea who have short interruptions in breathing while they sleep are at higher risk for death than those with longer interruptions, according to a study published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Validating a new definition for respiratory failure in children
According to a first-of-its-kind international study, a new definition of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (PARDS) results in a more accurate diagnosis of many more children with the rapidly progressive disease than the widely used adult definition.

New way to prevent heart disease in type 1 diabetes
Research shows metformin, a commonly prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes prevents heart disease in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Does herpes cause Alzheimer's?
Herpes is the dreaded 'gift that keeps on giving'. But could it also be taking our memories?

New study may provide clues to how birds began to fly
For the first time, researchers have measured what is known as the ground effect of flying animals -- and it turns out that they save a lot more energy by flying close to the ground than previously believed.

Src regulates mTOR, a major player in cancer growth
This study shows that Src is necessary and sufficient to activate mTORC1 and offers the possibility to develop novel approaches to control cancer growth.

Advantages of DNA immunization platform for eliciting mAbs in multiple species
Researchers have taken advantage of the benefits of DNA immunization over traditional protein-based immunization to elicit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against challenging targets in three species -- mouse, rabbit, and human models.

Link found between chronic inflammation and risk for Alzheimer's disease
While it is widely shown that possessing the ApoE4 gene is the major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), not all ApoE4 carriers develop AD.

Why some cancers affect only young women
Among several forms of pancreatic cancer, one of them affects specifically women, often young, even though the pancreas is an organ with little exposure to sex hormones.

Scientists find brain signal that might help us judge the holiday buffet
Neuroscientists have found a brain region that appears to be strongly connected to food preference decisions, like what to choose from a buffet line or potluck table.

A new way to measure nearly nothing
NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge, based on ultracold trapped atoms, is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers.
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