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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | October 29, 2018


Consequences-focused cognitive training may promote healthier habits
Interventions aimed at reducing unhealthy behaviors often focus on retraining people's mental associations, but a series of studies suggests that showing people the consequences of the behaviors may be more effective.
Can attending a top high school reduce teens' marijuana abuse?
Low-income students who attended a top-achieving high school were less likely to abuse marijuana than those who weren't offered admission.
New guidelines on best practices for videoconferencing-based telemental health
New guidance is available from the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the American Telemedicine Association (ATA) to assist in the development and delivery of effective and safe interactive videoconferencing-based mental health services.
Relying on Dr. Google to diagnose eye problems may be dangerous to your health
A study examining the diagnoses generated by WebMD Symptom Checker showed the online tool was correct only 26 percent of the time.
Peer support can help curb acute care for persons with depression and diabetes
A new study from UAB describes the impact of a peer coach intervention on hospitalizations and emergency room visits for individuals with diabetes and depression.
Earliest hominin migrations into the Arabian Peninsula required no novel adaptations
A new study suggests that early hominin dispersals beyond Africa did not involve adaptations to environmental extremes, such as to arid and harsh deserts.
New techniques allow medicine to see the whole again
Medical diagnoses mostly focuses on resolving isolated issues. But, fixing one problem may create others and even invoke an overall health collapse.
Honeybees at risk from Zika pesticides
Up to 13 percent of US beekeepers are in danger of losing their colonies due to pesticides sprayed to contain the Zika virus, new research suggests.
Smell and behavior: The scents of taking action
Canadian scientists have discovered a neural pathway that links olfaction to locomotion.
Obese mice lose a third of their fat using a natural protein
To the great surprise of cancer researchers in a Georgetown University-led study, a protein they investigated for its possible role in cancer turned out to be a powerful regulator of metabolism.
Veterans with PTSD improve mental health after therapeutic horseback riding intervention
Veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder were less anxious and depressed and had an improved quality of life after an eight-week therapeutic horseback riding program, according to a Baylor University study.
Bitcoin can push global warming above 2 degrees C in a couple decades
The electricity requirements of Bitcoin have created considerable difficulties, and extensive online discussion, about where to put the facilities or rings that compute the proof-of-work of Bitcoin.
Atlantic's Hurricane Oscar's water vapor measured by NASA's Terra Satellite
When NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Central Atlantic Ocean on Oct.
Novel quantum dots enhance cell imaging
A team of researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Mayo Clinic have engineered a new type of molecular probe that can measure and count RNA in cells and tissue without organic dyes.
Ben-Gurion University researchers achieve breakthrough in process to produce hydrogen fuel
''This discovery could have a significant impact on efforts to replace carbon-based fuels with more environmentally friendly hydrogen fuels.
Synchronized telescope dance puts limits on mysterious flashes in the sky
Two outback radio telescopes synchronized to observe the same point of sky have discovered more about one of the Universe's most mysterious events in new research published today.
Most Americans underestimate minorities' environmental concerns -- even minorities
A new study shows most Americans underestimate just how concerned minorities and lower-income people are about environmental threats, including members of those groups.
Home monitoring confirms clinic diagnosis of high blood pressure
A US study found that home blood pressure readings of 130/80 mm Hg or higher correspond to greater risk for cardiovascular complications.
Donor hearts at increased disease risk offer better survival rates for transplant recipients
Accepting an organ that has an increased risk of potentially transmitting disease offers a higher one-year survival rate for candidates on the heart transplant list over waiting for an organ with less risk, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
SwRI improves structural health monitoring with magnetostrictive transducer
A new, more powerful generation of a patented Southwest Research Institute magnetostrictive sensor withstands extreme temperatures, automatically adjusts frequencies and incorporates a stronger magnet.
Oral curcumin shows no benefit in reducing inflammation following vascular surgery
A study of oral curcumin, the active medicinal ingredient in turmeric, showed no benefit in preventing inflammation and complications in patients undergoing elective surgery for aortic aneurysm repair, according to a large randomized controlled trial in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Casino lights and sounds encourage risky decision-making
The blinking lights and exciting jingles in casinos may encourage risky decision-making and potentially promote problem gambling behaviour, suggests new research from the University of British Columbia.
Drugs' side effects in lungs 'more widespread than thought'
A systematic review of research has revealed that the toxic effects on the lung of drugs commonly taken to treat a range of common conditions is much more widespread than thought.
'Milder' ammonia synthesis method should help environment
A Chinese research team has developed a ''milder'' way to synthesize ammonia by requiring lower temperature and pressure than the current method.
Lifetime peer influences, and parenting, predict adult coercive relationships
Researchers in the Arizona State University Department of Psychology have found peer socialization and disruptive parenting were strong predictors of whether adults age 28-30 years were in a coercive romantic relationship.
Secrets of mighty cancer killing virus unlocked by Otago researchers
University of Otago researchers have used high-resolution electron microscopy images to reveal how an anti-cancer virus interacts with tumor cells, increasing its potential to save lives.
Virus production boosted in cells to generate more vectors for gene transfer
Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers increased the production of lentiviral vectors by host cells by co-expressing the proteins SPSB1 or Tax.
Scientists developed new contactless method of measuring blood flow in hands
Russian researchers proposed a new contactless method for measuring blood flow in the upper limbs.
Modified LDL particles activate inflammatory pathways in monocyte-derived macrophages
A hallmark of atherosclerosis is its complex pathogenesis, which is dependent on altered cholesterol metabolism and inflammation.
AI and NMR spectroscopy determine atoms configuration in record time
EPFL scientists have developed a machine-learning approach that can be combined with experiments to determine, in record time, the location of atoms in powdered solids.
Study reconciles persistent gap in natural gas methane emissions measurements
A new study offers answers to questions that have puzzled policymakers, researchers and regulatory agencies through decades of inquiry and evolving science: How much total methane, a greenhouse gas, is being emitted from natural gas operations across the US?
Anti-cancer virus fits tumor receptor like a 'key in a lock'
For the first time, scientists reveal how a promising drug candidate for cancer therapy interacts with receptors on tumors.
Study: Coal power plant regulations neglect a crucial pollutant
Rice University researchers determine that particle-forming sulfur dioxide is the most damaging pollutant from Texas' coal-fired power plants that lack equipment to scrub emissions.
Interior northwest Indians used tobacco long before European contact
Washington State University researchers have determined that Nez Perce Indians grew and smoked tobacco at least 1,200 years ago, long before the arrival of traders and settlers from the eastern United States.
Thrill-seeking, search for meaning fuel political violence
What drives someone to support or participate in politically or religiously motivated acts of violence, and what can be done to prevent them?
Unapproved therapies cause significantly more patient injuries than reported
A team of ophthalmologists went looking for scientific evidence in support of commercially available 'cell therapy' for eye diseases.
Truck driver pain and discomfort can be alleviated
Almost 60 per cent of truck drivers in a recent Canadian study reported experiencing musculoskeletal (MSD) pain and discomfort on the job, even though it may be preventable.
Alterations to seabed raise fears for future
The ocean floor as we know it is dissolving rapidly as a result of human activity.
At least one year between pregnancies reduces risks for mother and baby
Twelve to 18 months seems to be the ideal length of time between giving birth and getting pregnant again, according to new research from the University of British Columbia and the Harvard T.H.
Study reveals how soil bacteria are primed to consume greenhouse gas
New research has revealed that some soil bacteria are primed ready to consume the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when they experience life without oxygen in the environment.
Interventions to delay and prevent type 2 diabetes are underused, researchers say
Currently, one in three American adults has prediabetes and more than 70 percent of adults are overweight or obese.
Exercise may lessen fall risk for older adults with Alzheimer's
A research team decided to explore whether exercise could reduce the risk of falling among community-dwelling people with Alzheimer's Disease who also had neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Studies raise questions over how epigenetic information is inherited
Evidence has been building in recent years that our diet, our habits or traumatic experiences can have consequences for the health of our children -- and even our grandchildren.
Mycoplasma genitalium's cell adhesion mechanism revealed
Researchers from the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC) and the Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (IBB-UAB) have discovered the mechanism by which the bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium (Mgen) adheres to human cells.
Threatening Typhoon Yutu probed by GPM Satellite
Typhoon Yutu, known as Rosita in the Philippines, is now threatening the Philippine Island of Luzon.
UK bumblebee population trends
Data collected by Bumblebee Conservation Trust (BBCT) volunteers to assess the country's changing bumblebee populations have been analyzed in a new way for the first time at the University of Kent -- and show mixed results about their decline, with cause for concern for two species.
Dartmouth's PhasorSec protects power grids from cyberattack
A new technique protects power grids from attacks against utility control systems that can shut down facility operations, trigger longer-term blackouts and even cause permanent physical damage.
Inside these fibers, droplets are on the move
An MIT team has develop fibers containing systems for mixing, separating, and testing fluids.
User-friendly tools help older adults guide future medical care
A user-friendly website on advance care planning, as well as easy-to-read advance directives, can be highly effective in empowering both English- and Spanish-speaking older adults to plan for their future medical care, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco.
Zebrafish make waves in our understanding of a common craniofacial birth defect
Scientists in the USC Stem Cell laboratories of Gage Crump and Robert E.
Sweet discovery: New UBC study pushes back the origins of chocolate
As Halloween revelers prepare to feast on chocolate, a new study from an international team of researchers, including the University of British Columbia, is pushing back the origins of the delicious sweet treat.
Gastric bypass surgery associated with greater weight loss in adults
Adults with severe obesity had greater initial and sustained weight loss with gastric bypass surgery than either sleeve gastrectomy or adjustable gastric banding, according to a new study published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
The long-term effects of alcohol demand on retail alcohol markets
As new study by the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation and the Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics examined the determinants of the number of licensed bars, restaurants, and liquor stores across neighborhoods in 53 California cities from 2000 to 2013.
Mass shootings trigger blood donations
The report, appearing this week in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, is focused on blood transfusion needs and the influence of media coverage on blood bank operations.
Cancer's most deadly assassin exists in every cell
A kill code is embedded in every cell in the body whose function may be to cause the self-destruction of cells that become cancerous, reports a new study.
New platform based on biology and nanotechnology carries mRNA directly to target cells
Tel Aviv University's Prof. Dan Peer and his team have developed a biological approach to directing nanocarriers loaded with protein 'game changers' to specific cells.
NSU researcher part of team that conducted genome-wide study of tigers
Study brings important context and conclusions to recovery and management strategies for a treasured endangered species, and included subspecies, at high extinction risk.
Cephalopods could become an important food source in the global community
With a growing world population and climate challenges that are causing agricultural areas to shrink, many are wondering where sustainable food will come from in the future.
Combination drug targeting opioid system may help relieve symptoms of major depression
Two clinical trials of an investigational drug that targets the opioid system support its safety and effectiveness in reducing symptoms of major depression, when added to standard antidepressant treatment.
Naps help some preschoolers learn, but may hinder learning in children with down syndrome
New research suggests that typically developing young children retain new information better after taking a nap, but the opposite is true in children with Down syndrome.
Breast milk, formula nurture similarities, differences in gut microbes
Baby formula is designed to mimic human breast milk as closely as possible.
UC psychologists devise free test for measuring intelligence
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices is a widely used standardized test to measure reasoning ability.
One in 10 people may opt-out of proposed organ donor system
A new study has revealed that around one in 10 people are considering opting out of a proposed new system that aims to increase organ donation by presuming consent.
RNA-protein network may explain why melanoma grows more
A collaboration led by scientists from KU Leuven, Belgium, with Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), Japan, revealed a new way to fight melanoma.
Researchers create scalable platform for on-chip quantum emitters
Researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology and Columbia University have developed a scalable method for creating large numbers of quantum light sources on a chip with unprecedented precision that not only could pave the way for the development of unbreakable cryptographic systems but also quantum computers that can perform complex calculations in seconds that would take normal computers years to finish.
Hormone-blocking injections reduce early menopause from breast cancer treatment
Final results of SWOG Cancer Research Network's groundbreaking international Prevention of Early Menopause Study (POEMS) clinical trial are in, and they show continued evidence that women who get injections of the hormone drug goserelin along with standard breast cancer chemotherapy are more likely to become pregnant - without developing negative side effects or shortening their lives.
Scientists neutralize reactive nitrogen molecules to enhance cancer immunotherapy
Researchers at the University of Notre Dame studying tumors in prostate cancer models found that nitration of an amino acid can inhibit T-cell activation, thwarting the T-cell's ability to kill cancer cells.
Animal species becoming extinct in Haiti as deforestation nearly complete
Species of reptiles, amphibians and other vertebrates are becoming extinct in Haiti as deforestation has claimed more than 99 percent of the country's original wooded areas.
Free movement can protect humans from environmental threats
Greater freedom of movement and investments in human rights and social opportunities can help protect humans from environmental threats like rising sea levels, new research says.
Gunshot wounds in children account for $270 million in emergency room and inpatient charges annually
A new Johns Hopkins study of more than 75,000 teenagers and children who suffered a firearm-related injury between 2006 and 2014 pinpoints the financial burden of gunshot wounds and highlights the increasing incidence of injury in certain age groups.
Astronomers witness slow death of nearby galaxy
Astronomers from The Australian National University (ANU) and CSIRO have witnessed, in the finest detail ever, the slow death of a neighbouring dwarf galaxy, which is gradually losing its power to form stars.
A solar cell that does double duty for renewable energy
Researchers at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, have developed an artificial photosynthesis device called a ''hybrid photoelectrochemical and voltaic (HPEV) cell'' that turns sunlight and water into two types of energy - hydrogen fuel and electricity.
Finally, a robust fuel cell that runs on methane at practical temperatures
Either exorbitantly expensive fuel or insanely hot temperatures have made fuel cells a boutique proposition, but now there's one that runs on cheap methane and at much lower temperatures.
Deconstructing the superfood that determines honeybee hierarchy
All bee larvae eat royal jelly when they're new, but only future queens continue to eat it.
IRL rich people don't live that much longer than the poor
Differences in how many extra years rich people live compared to poor people is only about half of what we thought.
Cloud computing load balancing based on ant colony algorithms improves performance
The criticality of certain sectors, as well as the requirement of users, involve Cloud providers to guarantee a high level of performance.
Improving climate models to account for plant behavior yields 'goodish' news
Climate scientists have not been properly accounting for what plants do at night, and that, it turns out, is a mistake.
Illinois study provides whole-system view of plant cold stress
When temperatures drop, plants can't bundle up. Stuck outside, exposed, plants instead undergo a series of biochemical changes that protect cells from damage.
Beyond 1984: narrow focus on wildfire trends underestimates future risks to water security
Dramatic increases in wildfire over the last few decades have garnered considerable media attention.
Opioid-affected births to rural residents increase in rural and urban hospitals
Pregnant women with opioid addiction may have particular challenges in receiving the care they need when they live in rural areas.
New drug candidates reverse drug resistance in multiple myeloma in preclinical models
A new strategy to enhance the activity of proteasome inhibitors (PIs), which are standard-of-care agents in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), was reported by researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina in the journal Leukemia.
Our microbes are starving, and that's a good thing
Our bodies house trillions of microbes, collectively known as the microbiome, which digest food, synthesize vitamins, bolster immune systems, and even maintain mental health.
Severity of crime increases jury's belief in guilt
A laboratory experiment with 600 mock jurors has found the more severe an alleged crime, the higher a juror's confidence in guilt becomes, regardless of the evidence.
Scientists refine the search for dark matter
Researchers from Lund University in Sweden, among others, have developed a more effective technique in the search for clues about dark matter in the universe.
Deforestation triggered mass extinction of endemic animal species in Haiti
The findings published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggest that in less than two decades Haiti will lose all of its remaining primary forest cover and, as a result, most of its endemic species will disappear.
Experimental vaccine may reduce post-stroke blood clot risk
An experimental vaccine might one day protect ischemic stroke survivors from developing blood clots and subsequent strokes.
Synthetic microorganisms allow scientists to study ancient evolutionary mysteries
Scientists at Scripps Research and their collaborators have created microorganisms that may recapitulate key features of organisms thought to have lived billions of years ago.
Chimpanzees react faster to cooperate than make selfish choices
When it comes to cooperation, there's no monkey business in how some chimpanzees respond.
Lights, sounds paired with winning encourages risk-taking
The intense audiovisual feedback from slot machines can directly influence a player's decisions, suggests a laboratory study of more than 100 healthy adults published in JNeurosci.
Sniffer dogs could detect malaria in people
Dogs could be trained to sniff out malaria in people according to new research aimed at preventing the spread of the deadly disease.
Robotic arm may help to rehabilitate chronic stroke victims, finds new study
New research published in Frontiers in Neurology by NYU researcher Adam Buchwald finds that robotic arm rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients with aphasia, the loss of ability to understand or express speech, may promote speech and language function recovery.
Scientists from the California Academy of Sciences describe 17 new species of sea slugs
This National Sea Slug Day, celebrate the addition of 17 new species of nudibranch to the tree of life.
Crystals that clean natural gas
A metal-organic framework that selectively removes impurities from natural gas could allow greater use of this cleaner fossil fuel.
Hidden costs of disease to greater Yellowstone elk
For decades researchers have known that a bacterial disease in elk, bison and cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem causes periodic abortions in these animals and chronic illness in humans drinking infected cow's milk.
Why people have lateral preferences when kissing and hugging
Typically, a person will initiate a hug with the right hand.
New study: reduced screen time for young highly recommended for well-being
Utilizing National Survey of Children's Health data from 2016, Twenge and Campbell analyzed a random sample of more than 40,300 surveys from the caregivers of children aged 2 to 17.
Long-term side effects similarly low for weekly, conventional breast radiation, trial finds
In a 10-year study of women who received radiation therapy to treat early-stage breast cancer, those receiving fewer, larger individual doses experienced similarly low rates of late-onset side effects as those undergoing conventional radiation therapy.
A new method to quickly identify outliers in air quality monitoring data
Ambient air quality monitoring data are the most important source for public awareness regarding air quality and are widely used in many research fields, such as improving air quality forecasting and the analysis of haze episodes.
Aggressive treatment for some stage IV lung cancer pts can dramatically improve OS
Adding radiation therapy or surgery to systemic therapy for stage IV lung cancer patients whose cancer has spread to a limited number of sites can extend overall survival time significantly, according to new results from a multicenter, randomized, controlled phase II study.
Astrocytes regulate signal speeds of neurons
The transmission speed of neurons fluctuates in the brain to achieve an optimal flow of information required for day-to-day activities, according to a National Institutes of Health study.
Sea science: Navy task force promotes increased knowledge of ocean environment
At the 2018 Oceans Conference, Chief of Naval Research Rear Adm.
FEFU astrophysicists studied asteroid 3200 Phaeton
Polarimetric investigation of a near-Earth asteroid Phaethon was carried out in December 2017 on its closest approach to the Earth.
The islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria could be closer together within millions of years
There is a gravitational sinking or isostatic adjustment of Teide after the volcanic crisis of 2004.
Manganese may finally solve hydrogen fuel cells' catalyst problem
Manganese could advance one of the most promising sources of renewable energy: hydrogen fuel cells.
World Stroke Day! SVIN latest clinical trials and breaking science news!
SVIN's 2018 annual meeting to showcase breakthrough technology on stroke thrombectomy offering a ray of hope for stroke patients worldwide.
Genetic search reveals key to resistance in global cotton pest
Researchers have pinpointed a dominant genetic mutation that makes cotton bollworms, one of the world's most destructive crop pests, resistant to genetically engineered cotton.
Trapping atoms, not space ships, with tractor beams
University of Adelaide researchers have delved into the realm of Star Wars and created a powerful tractor beam -- or light-driven energy trap -- for atoms.
Radiation therapy cuts low risk of recurrence by nearly 3/4 for patients with 'good risk'
A subset of patients with low-risk breast cancer is highly unlikely to see cancer return following breast conservation surgery but can lower that risk even further with radiation therapy, finds a new long-term clinical trial report.
New evidence of durable immune response to 3 experimental Ebola vaccines helps drive new wave of vaccine development targeting a number of diseases with epidemic potential
In the midst of an increasingly volatile Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a new study presented today finds that the immune response generated by three experimental Ebola vaccines -- including one already deployed in the DRC -- persists for at least two and a half years.
New study reports dogs successfully diagnosed malaria by sniffing socks worn by African children
As the global battle against malaria stalls, scientists may be adding a novel tool to the fight: sniffer dogs.
Plant-based 'road salt' good for highways but not for insects
Beet juice deicer, a natural alternative to road salt that is considered to be an eco-friendlier winter road management solution, may not be ecologically friendly to nearby aquatic species.
Eye-tracking glasses provide a new vision for the future of augmented reality
Battery-free eye-tracking glasses creates an even more realistic experience for augmented reality enthusiasts, improving player controls for gaming and allowing for more realistic image displays.
Biologists discover source for boosting tumor cell drug sensitivity
Biologists at UC San Diego have discovered a new way of re-sensitizing drug-resistant human tumor cells to the potency of DNA-damaging agents, the most widely used group of cancer drugs.
Study sheds light on why a warmer world may equal a wetter Arctic
As the Arctic warms, it's predicted to get wetter. But why?
Mass shootings may trigger unnecessary blood donations
A new Northwestern Medicine study published in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery analyzed the blood resource needs and blood donations in Las Vegas compared to other mass shooting incidents offering insight into medical needs following a mass shooting incident, which may help guide preparedness for future events.
Modelling a future fuelled by sustainable energy
University of Adelaide economists have modelled the transition from a world powered by fossil fuels to one in which sustainable sources supply all our energy needs.
Berkeley computer theorists show path to verifying that quantum beats classical
Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have just found a way to show that quantum computing beats classical computing by giving a leading practical proposal known as random circuit sampling (RCS) a qualified seal of approval with the weight of complexity theoretic evidence behind it.
Photosynthesis like a moss
Moss evolved after algae but before vascular land plants, such as ferns and trees, making them an interesting target for scientists studying photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight to fuel.

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We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
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#538 Nobels and Astrophysics
This week we start with this year's physics Nobel Prize awarded to Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz and finish with a discussion of the Nobel Prizes as a way to award and highlight important science. Are they still relevant? When science breakthroughs are built on the backs of hundreds -- and sometimes thousands -- of people's hard work, how do you pick just three to highlight? Join host Rachelle Saunders and astrophysicist, author, and science communicator Ethan Siegel for their chat about astrophysics and Nobel Prizes.