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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | November 02, 2018


Oncologists' LGBT-related knowledge & practices improved after cultural competency training
An interactive online LGBT cultural competency training program for oncologists may be acceptable, feasible, and improve LGBT-related knowledge and clinical practices.
Mental health diagnoses among US children, youth continue to rise at alarming rate
The number of children and adolescents visiting the nation's emergency departments due to mental health concerns continued to rise at an alarming rate from 2012 through 2016, with mental health diagnoses for non-Latino blacks outpacing such diagnoses among youth of other racial/ethnic groups, according to a retrospective cross-sectional study presented during the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition.
Nature of immune cells in the human brain disclosed
Researchers from the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience and Amsterdam UMC have disclosed the nature of how T cells protect the brain against harmful viruses.
For older adults, does eating enough protein help delay disability?
A research team focused their attention on learning whether eating more protein could contribute to helping people maintain independence.
Training with states of matter search algorithm enables neuron model pruning
The approximate logic neuron model (ALNM) is a single neural model with a dynamic dendritic structure.
Physical activity should be a vital sign of children's overall health
While the benefits of exercise for health and well-being are well documented, new research suggests the vast majority of children do not meet current exercise recommendations.
African-American caregivers report better mental health outcomes than white caregivers
African-Americans caring for loved ones with cancer were less likely than their white peers to report distress and depression, possibly due to stronger social support.
A prognostic model may predict survival in African-American women with breast cancer
A prognostic model developed using a machine learning approach could identify African-American breast cancer patients with increased risk of death.
Seed banking not an option for over a third of threatened species
In paper published today in Nature Plants, researchers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, detail for the first time the scale of threatened species that are unable to be conserved in seed banks.
NASA finds Tropical Depression Yutu fading off China coast
Once a Super Typhoon, now a ghost of its former self, Tropical Depression Yutu was fading off the coast of southeastern China on Nov.2 when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead.
Soft furniture doesn't cushion risk of falls by young children
The rate of bed- and sofa-related injuries among young children is on the rise.
Can chocolate, tea, coffee and zinc help make you more healthy?
Ageing and a low life expectancy are caused, at least partly, by oxidative stress.
Fleets of drones could aid searches for lost hikers
In a paper being presented at the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics conference next week, MIT researchers describe an autonomous system for a fleet of drones to collaboratively search under dense forest canopies.
Voters' preexisting opinions shift to align with political party positions
The views expressed by political party leaders can change how individual voters feel about an issue, according to findings from a longitudinal study of voters in New Zealand.
Study examines racial disparities in patient characteristics, survival after heart attack
This study analyzed data for about 6,400 patients who had heart attacks to compare black and white patients across a range of characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic status, social factors, lifestyle factors, medical history, clinical presentation, health status and depression).
Most children surveyed couldn't tell real guns from toy guns
Parents surveyed said they were confident their children could tell a real gun apart from a toy gun.
Gene PPM1D gives stem cells a 'winning boost' after chemotherapy
Researchers show that gene PPM1D, whose function in blood production was unknown, can confer blood cells exposed to the chemotherapy agent cisplatin a survival advantage that might favor the development of leukemia years later.
Molecular biology: Phaser neatly arranges nucleosomes
LMU researchers have, for the first time, systematically determined the positioning of the packing units of the fruit fly genome, and discovered a new protein that defines their relationship to the DNA sequence.
Injury to a parent can lead to sleep issues in children and teens
When children face an unsettling experience, such as the injury of a parent, it can alter their sleep habits, according to new research being presented at the 2018 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition.
Tying the knot: New DNA nanostructures
In new research appearing in the journal Nature Communications, Hao Yan and his colleagues Fei Zhang, Xiaodong Qi and others describe a method for coaxing segments of single-stranded DNA into complex 2- and 3D knotted structures.
Good sleep quality encourages better recovery after sport-related concussion
Abstract of findings suggest sleep is not only important for physical, mental, and cognitive well-being, but also seems to play a pivotal role in the recovery of the brain following a sport-related concussion.
Racial, ethnic minorities face greater vulnerability to wildfires
Massive wildfires, which may be getting more intense across the US due to climate change and a long history of fire-suppression policies, have strikingly unequal effects on minority communities, a new study shows.
Grandparents: Raising their children's children, they get the job done
Millions of children are being raised solely by their grandparents, with numbers continuing to climb as the opioid crisis and other factors disrupt families.
Traumatic brain injuries can lead to long-term neurological and psychiatric disorders
Study abstract being presented at American Academy of Pediatrics 2018 National Conference and Exhibition suggests that children who suffer traumatic brain injuries are at significantly increased risk of developing new post-traumatic neuropsychiatric disorders, and may benefit from ongoing outpatient follow-up to facilitate early detection and intervention.
Exploring the structure and properties of new graphene-like polymers
A team of scientists from Siberian Federal University (SibFU) together with foreign colleagues described the structural and physical properties of a group of two-dimensional materials based on polycyclic molecules called circulenes.
'Good guys' in superhero films more violent than villains
New research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2018 National Conference & Exhibition found that protagonists in superhero films engage in more violent acts, on average, than the villains.
Coverage of hormonal breast cancer therapies increased in states that expanded Medicaid
An evaluation of breast cancer patients enrolled in Medicaid showed that states that expanded Medicaid during 2011 to 2017 had a 27 percent increase in prescriptions for hormonal therapy medications compared to states that did not expand Medicaid during the same period.
Study suggests childhood obesity linked to poor school performance and coping skills
Study suggests that childhood obesity, now at epidemic levels in the United States, may affect school performance and coping skills for challenging situations.
Genetic factors tied to obesity may protect against diabetes
Some genetic variations associated with obesity actually protect against Type 2 diabetes, heart attack and stroke, new findings suggest.
Physicists explain how large spherical viruses form
A team of physicists and a virologist, led by a scientist at the University of California, Riverside, explains how large virus shells are formed.
Half as many US children die from firearm injuries where gun laws are strictest
New research shows dramatic differences in the number of children hospitalized and killed each year in the US from firearm-related injuries based on their states' gun legislation, even after adjusting for poverty, unemployment, and education rates.
Russian physicists upgrade cheap diode laser for use in precise measurements
Physicists have developed a method for drastically narrowing the emission spectrum of an ordinary diode laser, like that in a laser pointer, for use in compact chemical analyzers that can fit into a smartphone, cheap lidars for self-driving cars, as well as security and structural health monitoring systems on bridges, gas pipelines, and elsewhere.
Disorder plays a key role in phase transitions of materials
An international team of researchers discovers that disorder is part of the structural transition of Vanadium Dioxide from an insulator state to a metallic state at extremely small time resolutions The results of the study, published in Science, provide a new perspective on how to control matter, especially in the field of superconductivity, which could have major implications for nano-technology and optoelectronics.
Study finds hospital communication-and-resolution programs do not expand liability risk
Brigham and Women's Hospital evaluated liability effects of communication-and-resolution programs.
Kids' firearm-related injuries differ: Younger kids are more likely to be injured accidentally
The reasons that children with firearm-related injuries are rushed to the nation's emergency departments differs by the intent of the person discharging the weapon, with younger kids more likely to be injured by accident and older youths more likely to be victims of an assault, according to retrospective, cross-sectional analyses presented during the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition.
NUS researchers turn plastic bottle waste into ultralight supermaterial
A team led by researchers from the National University of Singapore has found a way to turn plastic bottle waste into ultralight polyethylene terephthalate (PET) aerogels that are suitable for various applications, including heat insulation and carbon dioxide absorption.
How one tough shrub could help fight hunger in Africa
The trick to boosting crops in drought-prone, food-insecure areas of West Africa could be a ubiquitous native shrub that persists in the toughest of growing conditions.
Spaced-out nanotwins make for stronger metals
New research shows that metals can be made dramatically stronger by varying the spacing between nanoscale boundaries in the metal's atomic lattice.
Ring-shaped protein complex wrangles DNA
Rice University scientists determine the whole structure of the condensin protein complex, which helps to organize DNA throughout the life cycle of a cell.
Online program helps prevent teen depression
A new study highlights the positive effect of a web-based depression prevention intervention, called CATCH-IT, among adolescents most at risk.
Researchers at IRB Barcelona explain the origin of the periodicity of the genome
The team headed by Núria López-Bigas has published an article in Cell about what might have favored the periodicity of certain base pairs in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms.
Risk of cancer mortality may increase for successive generations of Latino immigrants
Latinos in the United States experienced an overall increased risk of cancer death with each generation born in this country.
One step closer to complex quantum teleportation
For future technologies such as quantum computers and quantum encryption, the experimental mastery of complex quantum systems is inevitable.
Emergency department visits by uninsured patients drop in Illinois after Medicaid expansion
Study adds to growing body of evidence suggesting that the expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) helped low-income families rely less on emergency department visits for medical care.
Study: Culture strongly influences coping behaviors after natural disasters
Demographic and cultural differences strongly influence the coping styles young people use when they're affected by a natural disaster, and these disparities should be taken into account when providing services to help them recover from these traumatic experiences, University of Illinois social work professors Tara M.
Unraveling a genetic network linked to autism
Donnelly Centre Researchers have uncovered a network of more than 200 genes linked to autism.
Biomarkers may predict Zika-related birth defects
The highest risk of birth defects is from Zika virus infection during the first and second trimester.
Ozone hole modest despite optimum conditions for ozone depletion
The ozone hole that forms in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica each September was slightly above average size in 2018, NOAA and NASA scientists reported today.
Shortening the rare-earth supply chain via recycling
A Japanese research team led by Kanazawa University used chelator chemistry to recycle rare earths (REs) from spent fluorescent lamps.
New insights on comet tails are blowing in the solar wind
Combined observations of Comet McNaught -- one of the brightest comets visible from Earth in the past 50 years -- have revealed new insights on the nature of comets and their relationship with the Sun.
Molecular virologist fights influenza at the molecular level
In research to improve influenza therapies against H7N9 and other influenza strains, Chad Petit and his University of Alabama at Birmingham colleagues have detailed the binding site and mechanism of inhibition for two small-molecule experimental inhibitors of influenza viruses.
Lateral inhibition keeps similar memories apart
Our brains are able to store memories of very similar events as distinct memories.
New studies on student alcohol use can inform interventions to reduce blackouts
While most college students who drink alcohol don't intend to drink to the point of blackout, many don't fully understand the specific behaviors and risk factors associated with alcohol-induced memory loss, a suite of new studies found.
Researchers discover potential antidote to botulism
Researchers have identified a compound that strongly inhibits botulinum neurotoxin, the most toxic compound known.
Distance to nearest pediatric surgeon a potential barrier for millions of US children
Children who need surgery, statistics show, have fewer complications when it's performed by doctors with specialized pediatric surgical training in regionalized centers where a high a volume of procedures are performed.
A culturally tailored intervention increased HPV vaccination of Asian-American adolescents
A culturally tailored multilevel strategy designed to remove barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among low-income, mostly Chinese-American adolescent girls and boys significantly increased vaccine uptake.
Scientists find a 'switch' to increase starch accumulation in algae
Results from a collaborative study by Tokyo Institute of Technology and Tohoku University, Japan, raise prospects for large-scale production of algae-derived starch, a valuable bioresource for biofuels and other renewable materials.
Differences in intent of pediatric injuries underscore importance of safe firearm storage
Study abstract suggests that younger children were more likely to sustain unintentional firearm injuries, whereas adolescents were more likely to be victims of firearm-related assault or self-harm.
How often are cost considerations documented in clinical notes?
Treatment in intensive care units (ICUs) is driven by urgency rather than economic considerations.
Are children's television programs too cool for school?
Study abstract suggests need to advocate for more positive depictions of academics and school in children's programming, especially as children get older.
Instant soups and noodles responsible for burning nearly 10,000 children each year
Microwavable instant soup products cause at least two out of every 10 scald burns that send children to emergency departments each year, according to a study abstract being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2018 National Conference & Exhibition.
Researchers identify additional inoculation source for lambic beer production
Researchers in Belgium have identified an additional inoculation source - the wooden casks or foeders - for producing lambic beers.
Racial and ethnic differences in emergency pain relief for kids with broken bones
Children of all ages are rushed to emergency departments to treat broken bones.
Survey finds 'alarming' percentage of families share leftover antibiotics
Taking antibiotics when they're unnecessary, or in the wrong dose or timeframe, fuels rising rates of antibiotic-resistant infections.
ACL re-injury appears to be a subject of 'relative risk'
Children with immediate family members who had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have more complicated recoveries when they need surgical reconstruction themselves.
Astrophysics: First detailed observations of material orbiting close to a black hole
ESO's GRAVITY instrument confirms black hole status of the Milky Way center.
Food for thought
From the standpoint of heart health, the Tsimane are a model group.
Bohr scientists figure out how to measure electrical activity in a fetal heart
Discovery points to new diagnostic equipment -- based on a cloud of cesium atoms locked up in a hermetically closed glass cell.
First discovery of adventive populations of Trissolcus japonicus
MSc Judith Stahl and Dr Tim Haye led an international team of researchers, including those from the University of Torino and the USDA Agricultural Research Service, who used DNA analysis to confirm the wasp - which is native to China,Japans and Korea - was found in Switzerland in 2017.
Researchers explore division of public opinion on Black Lives Matter
Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas examined public opinions about Black Lives Matter, an activist movement founded in 2013 that has gained national attention in subsequent years.
HKUST-Beijing Tiantan Hospital scientists bring new hope to brain tumor patients
HKUST scientists in collaboration with medical staff at Beijing Tiantan Hospital undertook a groundbreaking large-scale study on secondary glioblastomas (sGBM) to search for new therapy treatments. sGBMs are an aggressive type of brain tumor, target younger patients and existing treatment method is insufficient.
Alcohols as carbon radical precursors
Carbon radicals are attractive intermediates for organic synthesis because of their diversity and high reactivities.
Key gene find could enable development of disease-resistant crops
Discovery of a gene that helps plants control their response to disease could aid efforts to develop crops that are resistant to infection, research suggests.
What's in the air? There's more to it than we thought
Using high-powered equipment to analyze air samples, Yale researchers were able to get a detailed look at the molecular makeup of organic aerosols, which have a significant presence in the atmosphere.

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