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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | November 07, 2018


Smoking, diabetes and high blood pressure increase women's risk of heart attack
Smoking, diabetes and high blood pressure increase the risk of a heart attack more in women than in men, new research from The George Institute for Global Health at the University of Oxford has found.
Could machines using artificial intelligence make doctors obsolete?
The technology of these tools is evolving rapidly. Standalone machines can now perform limited tasks raising the question of whether machines will ever completely replace doctors?
Does a woman's weight gain during pregnancy affect children's bone health?
A new study has examined whether managing weight during pregnancy might affect children's bone mass.
Climate change causing more severe wildfires, larger insect outbreaks in temperate forests
A warmer, drier climate is expected is increase the likelihood of larger-scale forest disturbances such as wildfires, insect outbreaks, disease and drought, according to a new study co-authored by a Portland State University professor
Researchers examine health behaviors after childhood cancer diagnosis
In a Psycho-Oncology study of childhood cancer survivors, several health behaviors fell short of expectations for exercise and diet during early survivorship, and they remained sub-optimal upon reaching five years post-diagnosis.
Compound derived from marijuana may benefit children with epilepsy
In recent years, cannabinoids -- the active chemicals in medical marijuana -- have been increasingly touted as a potential treatment for a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Exercise, diet and wellness apps are powerful learning resources for young people -- study finds
Research undertaken at the University of Birmingham has found that young people are able to judge which health related apps are relevant to their age and bodies, are able to source appropriate digital content as well as dismiss app content that might be harmful to them.
Low health literacy associated with early death for cardiovascular patients
Patients hospitalized with a cardiovascular event are more likely to die within one year if they have low health literacy, according to a Vanderbilt University Medical Center study released today in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.
Many older adults do not take prescribed statins properly
In a British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology study of older adults prescribed statins, first-year nonadherence and discontinuation rates were high.
Financial giants can have a pivotal role for climate stability
Banks, pension funds and other institutional investors have a key role to play in efforts to avoid dangerous climate change.
Save wildlife? Researchers use geology to track elusive animals
The University of Cincinnati is using isotopic analysis to track where elusive hawks were fledged.
Smoking during pregnancy may lead to childhood eye condition
In an Acta Ophthalmologica analysis of 11 relevant articles, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 46 percent increased risk that offspring will develop strabismus -- one of the most prevalent eye-related diseases among children.
Genetic study clarifies the causes of the most severe heart muscle diseases of children
The researchers at the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital have collected a globally unique KidCMP cohort of children with severe cardiomyopathies from the past 21 years, and characterized them genetically.
Study finds 'dual mobility' hip replacement implant reduces risk of dislocation
A study conducted at Hospital for Special Surgery and other joint replacement centers indicates that a newer type of artificial hip known as a 'modular dual mobility' implant could reduce the risk of dislocation in patients who need a revision surgery.
Fine water particle sprays improve facial skin moisture
In a Skin Research & Technology study, spraying fine water particles onto the facial skin of adult women in winter, when skin is dry, improved skin hydration and softening.
Discovery: Rare three-species hybrid warbler
Scientists have shown that a bird found in Pennsylvania is the offspring of a hybrid warbler mother and a warbler father from an entirely different genus -- a combination never recorded before now and which resulted in a three-species hybrid bird.
Nutrition educators identify barriers to physical activity and propose strategies to overcome them
Throughout its fifty years of publication, the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior (JNEB) has recognized the importance of physical activity as a key behavior helpful to achieving a healthy lifestyle.
Far fewer lakes below the East Antarctic Ice Sheet than previously believed
But if that's the case, what is the source of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet's massive ice streams?
ASU geoscientists discover an overlooked source for Earth's water
When planet Earth formed, it grabbed a lot of hydrogen, a precursor to water, from the gas surrounding the newborn Sun.
Surgery patients use only 1/4 of prescribed opioids, and prescription size matters
Many surgeons write prescriptions for opioid pain medications four times larger than what patients will actually use after common operations, a study shows.
Selective amnesia: How rats and humans are able to forget distracting memories
Our ability to selectively forget distracting memories is shared with other mammals, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
Bird feathers and shark skin: Explained by the same patterning mechanism
A patterning system that has been shown to play a role in bird feather development is also apparent in the development of sharks' tooth-like skin, new theoretical and experimental evidence finds.
Novel antibiotic shows promise in treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea
An investigational oral antibiotic called zoliflodacin was well-tolerated and successfully cured most cases of uncomplicated gonorrhea when tested in a Phase 2 multicenter clinical trial, according to findings published today in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Microbiome implicated in sea star wasting disease
A first-of-its-kind study shows that the sea star microbiome is critically important to the progression of the wasting disease that is killing these animals from Mexico to Alaska -- and that an imbalance of microbes might be the culprit.
Dry conditions may have helped a new type of plant gain a foothold on Earth
Plants reap energy from the sun using two photosynthesis pathways, C3 and C4.
Autonomous vehicles could shape the future of urban tourism
In the first study of its kind, published in the Annals of Tourism Research, academics from the University of Surrey and the University of Oxford have examined how Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) may have a substantial impact on the future of urban tourism.
Nasal delivery of weight-loss hormone eases breathing problems in sleeping mice
Experimenting with mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a hormone best known for helping regulate hunger and body weight might also ease breathing problems experienced during sleep more effectively when given through the nose.
How do babies laugh? Like chimps!
Few things can delight an adult more easily than the uninhibited, effervescent laughter of a baby.
Health services must address multiple conditions in dementia care
Most people living with dementia also have at least one other health condition, and health services need to adapt to optimize their health and quality of life, a new study concludes.
Powered by windows: enhanced power factor in transparent thermoelectric nanowire materials
A research group led by Professor Yoshiaki Nakamura of Osaka University successfully developed a methodology for enhancing thermoelectric power factor while decreasing thermal conductivity.
High patient satisfaction rates after 'Adam's apple' reduction surgery
Cosmetic surgery to reduce the masculine appearance of the 'Adam's apple' has a high patient satisfaction rate, according to a study in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery--Global Open®, the official open-access medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). 
Artificial sensor mimics human sense of touch
A new tactile sensor can detect surface shapes and structures, showing advantages over existing sensors, according to new research in IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics.
Study explores timing of muscle-related problems of statin use
Statins have been linked with muscle pain and other musculoskeletal adverse events (MAEs) in some patients.
An overlooked giant: Useful and abundant, African 'Zam' palm newly described for science
It might have been it's extremely large size, or maybe confusion with a similar species, that has previously discouraged botanists from collecting and describing a fairly common palm, now named Raphia zamiana.
New, more accessible staging system developed to predict survival for patients with AL Amyloidosis
A new staging system developed with a more accessible test to predict the chance of survival in patients living with light chain (AL) amyloidosis.
Need to mail mosquitoes? Pack them up nice and snug
Several emerging mosquito-management methods require the transport of mosquitoes to precise locations.
Pilates provides a range of benefits for patients with chronic musculoskeletal conditions
A Musculoskeletal Care study is the first to investigate individual perceptions of the impact of a Pilates exercise program on the daily lives of people with chronic conditions.
Chlamydia attacks with Frankenstein protein
When Chlamydia trachomatis, the bacterium that causes one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide, enters a human cell, it hijacks parts of the host to build protective layers around itself.
Machine-learning algorithm predicts how cells repair broken DNA
By creating a machine-learning algorithm that predicts how human and mouse cells respond to CRISPR-induced breaks in DNA, a team of researchers discovered that cells often repair broken genes in ways that are precise and predictable, sometimes even returning mutated genes back to their healthy version.
Tiny molecule has big effect in childhood brain tumor studies
A very small molecule under study at UT Health San Antonio is able to kill a childhood brain cancer, and the lead researcher said it may be possible to reduce by 90 percent the amount of chemotherapy and radiation required to kill such tumors.
Patients with type 1 diabetes missing out on glucose devices, finds BMJ investigation
The device, which works via a sensor attached to the skin, has been available on prescription since November 2017.
Mutant protein tackles DNA guardian to promote cancer development
Melbourne scientists have discovered how tumour development is driven by mutations in the most important gene in preventing cancer, p53.
Among heart attack survivors, drug reduces chances of second heart attack or stroke
In a clinical trial involving 18,924 patients from 57 countries who had suffered a recent heart attack or threatened heart attack, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and fellow scientists around the world have found that the cholesterol-lowering drug alirocumab reduced the chance of having additional heart problems or stroke.
Goffin's cockatoos can create and manipulate novel tools
Goffin's cockatoos can tear cardboard into long strips as tools to reach food -- but fail to adjust strip width to fit through narrow openings, according to a study published Nov.
The teeth of Changchunsaurus: Rare insight into ornithopod dinosaur tooth evolution
The teeth of Changchunsaurus parvus, a small herbivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of China, represent an important and poorly-known stage in the evolution of ornithopod dentition, according to a study released Nov.
After a bad winter in the ocean, female Magellanic penguins suffer most, study shows
Research from the University of Washington is showing how Magellanic penguins fare during the winter months when they spend months at sea feeding.
Levitating particles could lift nuclear detective work
Laser-based 'optical tweezers' could levitate uranium and plutonium particles, thus allowing the measurement of nuclear recoil during radioactive decay.
Batteryless smart devices closer to reality
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have taken a huge step towards making smart devices that do not use batteries or require charging.
Home cleanliness, residents' tolerance predict where cockroaches take up residence
Poor home sanitation and residents' tolerance regarding German cockroaches were a good predictor of the pest's presence in their apartments, according to a Rutgers study in Paterson and Irvington, New Jersey.
Astronomers get best view yet of supermassive black holes in colliding galaxies
Two galaxies, drawn together by the force of gravity, are merging into a tangled mass of dense gas and dust.
Utah's Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument home to rich bee diversity
Utah State University researchers say one out of every four bee species in the United States is found In Utah and the arid, western state is home to more bee species than most states in the nation.
Researchers have unlocked secrets about engineered protein receptor, CAR
Three USC Viterbi School of Engineering researchers -- Assistant Professor Stacey Finley, Professor Pin Wang and Assistant Professor Nick Graham -- have just published a paper in 'Biophysical Journal' that sheds light on Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, information that could one day result in better cancer therapies with fewer side effects.
Will tarloxotinib finally break the HER2 barrier in lung cancer?
By pairing a potent HER2/EGFR inhibitor with a targeting mechanism specific to tumors, researchers show that tarloxotinib is far more active against HER2 lung cancer cell lines than even the most successful existing HER2/EGFR inhibitors.
Graphene takes a step towards renewable fuel
Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, are working to develop a method to convert water and carbon dioxide to the renewable energy of the future, using the energy from the sun and graphene applied to the surface of cubic silicon carbide.
Singing may reduce stress, improve motor function for people with Parkinson's disease
Singing may provide benefits beyond improving respiratory and swallow control in people with Parkinson's disease, according to new data from Iowa State University researchers.
Scientists theorize new origin story for Earth's water
Earth's water may have originated from both asteroidal material and gas left over from the formation of the Sun, according to new research.
Quantitative 3D analysis of bone tools sheds light on ancient manufacture and use
Quantitative three-dimensional analysis of bone wear patterns can provide insight into the manufacture and use of early human tools, according to a study by Naomi Martisius of the University of California at Davis and colleagues, published Nov.
Antihormone therapy linked with higher heart failure risk in prostate cancer patients
Androgen deprivation therapy was associated with a 72 percent higher risk of heart failure in a study of patients with prostate cancer.
Mailed HPV tests can help find women at-risk for cervical cancer, study finds
n the journal Obstetrics & Gynecology, researchers published the results of mailing at-home, HPV self-collection kits to 193 low-income women in North Carolina who were overdue for screening according to national guidelines.
Astronomers find pairs of black holes at the centers of merging galaxies
For the first time, a team of astronomers has observed several pairs of galaxies in the final stages of merging together into single, larger galaxies.
Filtering liquids with liquids saves electricity
Filtering and treating water accounts for about 13 percent of all electricity consumed in the US every year and releases about 290 million metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphere annually.
Quantity of opioids prescribed after surgery associated with higher patient use
Changing how opioids are prescribed after surgery requires understanding the factors associated with patients' use of the pain-relieving medications.
Skin-like sensor maps blood-oxygen levels anywhere in the body
A new flexible sensor developed by engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, can map blood-oxygen levels over large areas of skin, tissue and organs, potentially giving doctors a new way to monitor healing wounds in real time.
Sizing up tumor DNA fragments improves blood-based cancer detection
Florent Mouliere and colleagues have designed a new method that was able to detect hard-to-trace tumor DNA in the blood (or ctDNA).
Watching nanoparticles
Stanford researchers retooled an electron microscope to work with visible light and gas flow, making it possible to watch a photochemical reaction as it swept across a nanoparticle the size of a single cold virus.
Modern slavery promotes overfishing
Labour abuses, including modern slavery, are 'hidden subsidies' that allow distant-water fishing fleets to remain profitable and promote overfishing.
Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers mark 30 years of research
Over the past three decades, the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Center (TBIMSC) program has served as a critical source of research to improve care and outcomes for patients and families affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI).
NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Alcide reach hurricane strength
NASA's Terra satellite provided a visible image of a more organized Tropical Cyclone Alcide in the Southern Indian Ocean after it reached hurricane-force.
Scientists shuffle the deck to create materials with new quantum behaviors
Generating complex multi-principle element TMDCs essential for the future development of new generations of quantum, electronic, and energy conversion materials is difficult.
Clearing up information about corneal dystrophies
Jayne Weiss, MD, Associate Dean of Clinical Affairs, Professor and Chair of Ophthalmology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, is the lead author of an editorial about inaccuracies in the medical literature that medical professionals rely upon to diagnose corneal dystrophies, as well as a free resource that provides correct information.
Some factors have a greater impact on heart attack risk in women than they do in men
High blood pressure, smoking and diabetes increase the risk of heart attack in both sexes but they have more impact in women than they do in men, shows a study published by The BMJ today.
'Bionic mushrooms' fuse nanotech, bacteria and fungi
Researchers from Stevens Institute of Technology have taken an ordinary white button mushroom from a grocery store and made it bionic, supercharging it with 3D-printed clusters of cyanobacteria that generate electricity and swirls of graphene nanoribbons that can collect the current.
How beatboxers produce sound: Using real-time MRI to understand
Beatboxing is a musical art form in which performers use their vocal tract to create percussive sounds, and a team of researchers is using real-time MRI to study the production of beatboxing sounds.
Immune cells could hold key to therapies for spinal cord injuries
Fresh insights into how zebrafish repair their damaged nerve connections could aid the development of therapies for people with spinal cord injuries.
Stroke of genius: Drug could target leading cause in young
A study led by researchers at the Centenary Institute has identified a drug currently used to treat cancer patients, as a potential treatment option for a leading cause of stroke in young people.
Study compares stools of breastfed and formula-fed infants
When researchers compared the stools of 40 infants who were exclusively breastfed with those of 13 who were exclusively formula fed, the average daily stool frequency was significantly higher in the breastfed than formula-fed infants during the first month of life (4.9 versus 2.3) and second month of life (3.2 versus 1.6).
White wine, lemon juice combo prevents unwanted discoloration of pastry dough
No matter if it's grandma's cookies or commercially produced rolls, pastry lovers expect their baked goods to have a certain 'golden brown' allure -- but only after baking.
Ben-Gurion University research leads to first nationwide sunscreen chemicals ban in Palau
'We are pleased to see that governments are using scientific research conducted at Ben-Gurion University to protect the delicate coral reef systems and ocean wildlife that are already under significant stress from climate change,' says Prof.
UTSA constructs world's most comprehensive digital roadmap to unlock male infertility
Millions of couples who have trouble conceiving may get relief from new research led by scientists at The University of Texas at San Antonio.
New integrated analytical approach reveals molecules involved in disease
Osaka University researchers developed a novel method of identifying disease-related molecules and processes.
One type of brain cell might hold key to inflammation after head injury
By eliminating one type of immune cell in the brain, researchers were able to erase any evidence of inflammation following traumatic brain injury, according to a new study from The Ohio State University.
Codebreaker Turing's theory explains how shark scales are patterned
A system proposed by world war two codebreaker Alan Turing more than 60 years ago can explain the patterning of tooth-like scales possessed by sharks, according to new research.
Protecting adult female north atlantic right whales from injury and death key to recovery
Why is the endangered western North Atlantic right whale population growing far more slowly than those of southern right whales, a sister species also recovering from near extinction by commercial whaling?  NOAA Fisheries researchers and colleagues looked more closely at the question and have concluded that preserving the lives of adult females in the population is by far the most effective way to promote population growth and recovery.
A molecular switch links a Scottish mouse, a Finnish patient and Parkinson's disease
Researchers at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, make an unexpected and vital contribution to an international collaborative effort in Parkinson's disease research.
Clinical and environmental factors impact absorption of common sunscreen ingredient
New research, Evaluation of Reapplication and Controlled Heat Exposure on Oxybenzone Permeation from Commercial Sunscreen Using Excised Human Abdominal Skin, presented today at the 2018 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) PharmSci 360 Meeting demonstrates that heat and reapplication influences different sunscreen products containing the same amount of a key ingredient, oxybenzone, potentially affecting safety and toxicity of the UV filters included in sunscreens.
Are there geographic disparities in death due to traumatic brain injury for US veterans?
There are known racial and ethnic disparities in death due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a new study has now examined if there is an association between TBI mortality and where a US veteran lives.
Ultrasound releases drug to alter activity in targeted brain areas in rats
Stanford University School of Medicine scientists have developed a noninvasive way of delivering drugs to within a few millimeters of a desired point in the brain.
Disrupting communication in infectious bacteria
Chemists in Konstanz inhibit the biosynthesis of a bacterial signal and, as a result, block the infectious properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common germ found in health care facilities.
Finding a rhyme and reason to CRISPR-Cas9's mutations
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital, in collaboration with colleagues at the Broad Institute and MIT, have discovered that template-free Cas9 editing is predictable, and they have developed a machine learning model that can predict insertions and deletions with high accuracy.
Bacteria use different strategies to divide and survive under stress
A new study by scientists from the University of Chicago shows how cyanobacteria, or bacteria that produce energy through photosynthesis like plants, change the way they grow and divide in response to different levels of light.
A bionic mushroom that generates electricity
In the quest to replace fossil fuels, scientists are always on the lookout for alternative, environmentally friendly sources of energy.
Doing the wave: how stretchy fluids react to wavy surfaces
Scientists investigate the strange behavior of viscoelastic fluids in a series of specially designed experiments.
Chew on this: Two new studies reveal secrets of early dinosaur and mammal tooth evolution
Two new research papers take a bite out of the mysteries around how early dinosaurs and mammals evolved their unique tooth replacement and anchoring systems.
Quantum systems: Same, but different
Remarkable rules have been detected in the apparent chaos of disequilibrium processes.
New hope for world's most endangered mammal
New genetic analysis of white rhino populations suggests it could be possible to rescue the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros from extinction, using the genes of its less threatened southern cousin.
Astronomers unveil growing black holes in colliding galaxies
These images reveal the final stage of unions between pairs of galactic nuclei in the messy cores of colliding galaxies.
Exhaustive analysis reveals cell division's inner timing mechanisms
After exploring every possible correlation, researchers shed new light on a long-standing question about what triggers cell division.
Scientists reveal spring cold spells that reduce crop yields
A new study reveals process of an extreme spring cold spell, which happens over North China.
Tumour immune cells could aid cancer therapies, study shows
A pioneering technique designed to spot differences between immune cells in tumours could speed the development of cancer treatments, research suggests.
UMN researchers study the impact of insurance coverage on transferred patients
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers seek to identify the relationship between insurance coverage and the mortality rate of patients transferred between hospitals.
Long-term study shows that HIV-2 is deadlier than previously thought
A study published in The Lancet HIV shows that HIV-2 is more pathogenic than previously demonstrated.
Can social media lead to labor market discrimination?
A new Journal of Economics & Management Strategy study investigates whether social media may be used as a source of information for recruiters to discriminate against job applicants.
Hunt for interesting metabolites with the antiSMASH database
Scientists who treasure hunt for interesting bacterial metabolites using the online tool antiSMASH now have the opportunity to use an antiSMASH database with pre-calculated results of nearly 25,000 bacterial genomes.
Study shows how vultures evesdrop to gather vital flight information
A new study has shown vultures use their very own social networks to take advantage of thermal updrafts which help them fly vast distances.
Researchers create most complete high-res atomic movie of photosynthesis to date
An international collaboration between scientists at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and several other institutions is working to change that.
Promising new targeted therapy for acceleration of bone fracture repair
New research, Bone Fracture-Targeted Dasatinib Conjugate Potently Enhances Fracture Repair In Vivo, presented today at the 2018 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) PharmSci 360 Meeting highlights a novel bone anabolic agent that, when injected, intravenously reduces femur fracture healing time by 60 percent without impacting the surrounding healthy tissue.
Goldilocks and the optimal mating distance: Neither too small nor too large but just right
Evolutionary theory predicts that the fitness of an individual is maximized when the genetic differences between its parents are neither too small nor too large but some ideal amount known as the optimal mating distance.
Bullying 'follows' LGB people from school to work
New study finds bullying against minorities is more likely to persist over several years.
Interdisciplinary interactions inspire new discovery
Researchers in Japan have found new good catalysts using unique 'Heusler' alloys, following an interdisciplinary approach.
Experimental compound reduces Gulf War illness-like behavior in mice
An experimental drug is showing some promise in stopping mood abnormalities and cognitive disorders similar to those seen in people with Gulf War illness, an animal study suggests.
Researchers capture in-action images of photosynthetic protein complex splitting water
In a new article published in Nature an international research team presents high-resolution images of photosystem II, the protein complex that splits water into hydrogen ions and oxygen during photosynthesis.
'Bargaining while black' may lead to lower salaries
African-American job candidates are more likely to receive lower salaries in hiring negotiations when racially biased evaluators believe they have negotiated too much, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Body clock researchers prevent liver cancer growth in mice
The body's internal clock could play a critical role in the fight against certain types of liver cancer, according to a preclinical study by scientists from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

Best Science Podcasts 2018

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2018. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
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Human innovation has transformed the way we live, often for the better. But as our technologies grow more powerful, so do their consequences. This hour, TED speakers explore technology's dark side. Guests include writer and artist James Bridle, historians Yuval Noah Harari and Edward Tenner, internet security strategist Yasmin Green, and journalist Kashmir Hill.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#499 Technology, Work and The Future (Rebroadcast)
This week, we're thinking about how rapidly advancing technology will change our future, our work, and our well-being. We speak to Richard and Daniel Susskind about their book "The Future of Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts" about the impacts technology may have on professional work. And Nicholas Agar comes on to talk about his book "The Sceptical Optimist" and the ways new technologies will affect our perceptions and well-being.