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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | November 12, 2018


Defective DNA damage repair leads to chaos in the genome
Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) have now found a cause for the frequent catastrophic events in the genetic material of cancer cells that have only been known for a few years: If an important DNA repair system of the cells has failed, this promotes fragmentation and defective assembly of the genetic material.
COPD patients rarely receive pulmonary rehabilitation despite its health benefits
Only a tiny fraction of patients hospitalized for COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, participate in a pulmonary rehabilitation program following hospitalization, even though such programs are recommended and Medicare covers their cost, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
More than 80 percent of Americans are concerned with antibiotic resistance health threat
Nearly two thirds of Americans (65 percent) say antibiotic resistance is a public health problem and a strong majority (81 percent) say they are concerned that antibiotic resistance will make more infections difficult or impossible to treat and even deadly, according to a national public opinion survey commissioned by Research!America in collaboration with the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA).
Montreal researchers explain how your muscles form
An international team led by Montreal researchers discovers two proteins essential to the development of skeletal muscle.
Lack of exercise impacts mental health in Japanese expats
A study of Japanese people living in Malaysia found that their exercise routines affected time spent sitting down and quality of life, including their mental health.
Hands-only CPR training kiosks can increase bystander intervention, improve survival
Hands-Only CPR training kiosks are becoming more widespread and are an effective training tool, a new Annals of Emergency Medicine analysis finds.
Exercise intervention benefits older hospitalized patients
A randomized clinical trial in Spain that included 370 hospitalized patients 75 or older showed an exercise intervention was effective at helping to reverse the functional decline associated with hospitalization for older patients.
SDSU-led team developing instruments to detect language problems earlier
Using the Computerized Comprehension Task, the team measured concepts by asking children to touch images on a touch-sensitive screen that represented words they were learning.
Fewer Canadians winning major health research prizes
An analysis of major health research prizes, including the Canada Gairdner International Award, found that few Canadian-based scientists are winning these prestigious prizes.
Modelling reveals dynamics of climate change, urbanization and heat-mitigating technologies
Researchers led by Arizona State University have completed some of the most sophisticated modeling of the effects of climate change and urban centers in the US, and are finding that some of today's proposed solutions will provide only a fraction of relief from the projected heat.
Scientists shine new light on link between obesity and cancer
The body's immune surveillance systems stutter and fail in the presence of excess fat, which reduces their ability to fight cancer and disease.
Primary care clinicians' willingness to care for transgender patients
A new survey finds that most family medicine and general internal medicine clinicians are willing to provide routine care for transgender patients.
Urban planning policy contributes to political polarization
Urban planning decisions from decades past are likely a contributing factor to the rise of right-wing populism, a study from the University of Waterloo has found.
Study suggests diabetes medication improves heart structure
The diabetes medication empagliflozin has important effects that can improve cardiac structure in people with Type 2 diabetes who also have heart disease, suggests a new study led by St.
Misunderstood flying fox could prove bat species demise, warn scientists
A large fruit-eating bat native to Mauritius is the subject of controversy over the announcement of a major cull to protect the Indian island's fruit crops, despite a lack of evidence as to the extent of damage directly attributed to the endangered species.
Major traumatic injury increases risk of mental health diagnoses, suicide
People who experience major injuries requiring hospital admission, such as car crashes and falls, are at substantially increased risk of being admitted to hospital for mental health disorders, found a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
New study: Parents put nature in the shopping basket
In a world of vast consumer choice, ambiguous product descriptions and self-appointed experts, parents face a minefield when picking out food, toys or other products for their children.
New clues to the origin and progression of multiple sclerosis
Mapping of a certain group of cells, known as oligodendrocytes, in the central nervous system of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), shows that they might have a significant role in the development of the disease.
Weight during adolescence may affect pancreatic cancer risk in adulthood
New research has linked adolescent obesity with up to a four-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer later in life.
Research brings personalized medicine to treat leukemia one step closer
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have revealed the roles that different types of gene mutations play in causing blood cancers in a study that was the culmination of a decade's research.
Key takeaways from three landmark heart studies
New findings about sudden cardiac arrest, one of medicine's biggest mysteries, were revealed at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.
Insufficient sleep in children is associated with poor diet, obesity and more screen time
A new study conducted among more than 177,000 students suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle profile among children and adolescents.
Citizens prefer landscapes that combine nature with built infrastructure
A pioneering study analyses the photographs shared by citizens in social networks to evaluate the aesthetic consideration of natural landscapes.
It's not trails that disturb forest birds, but the people on them
The physical presence of trails has less impact on forest birds than how frequently the trails are used by people, finds the first study to disentangle the effect of forest trails from the presence of humans.
How pneumococci challenge our immune system
Pneumococci are the most common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and sinusitis, as well as of severe infections like pneumonia and meningitis.
How nurses rate daily job difficulty plays key role in patient care
A neonatal intensive care unit nurse's ability to provide optimal patient care is influenced by a variety of factors -- not just how many babies he or she is caring for or how sick they might be, a new study suggests.
A magnetic method to control the transport of chiral Majorana fermions
Majorana fermion with antiparticle being itself, was originally introduced as a putative elementary particle by Ettore Majorana in 1937, and the chiral Majorana fermion was experimentally observed in topological superconductors in 2017.
In live brain function, researchers are finally seeing red
For years, green has been the most reliable hue for live brain imaging, but after using a new high-throughput screening method, researchers at the John B.
Cancer stem cells get energy from protein, and it's proving to be their Achilles' heel
CU Cancer Center study shows that cancer stem cells switch from metabolizing sugar to metabolizing protein.
'Strongest evidence yet' that being obese causes depression
New research released today from the University of South Australia and University of Exeter in the UK has found the strongest evidence yet that obesity causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.
A novel strategy to potentially reduce breast cancer bone metastasis
Uncovering a novel mechanism that promotes growth of breast cancer bone metastasis has revealed a potential Achilles' heel for these cancer cells.
Beneficial gut bacteria metabolize fiber to improve heart health in mice
In support of a microbial connection between fiber and heart health, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have identified a particular fatty acid as the mechanism behind certain protective effects of a high-fiber diet in a mouse model.
Exosomes 'swarm' to protect against bacteria inhaled through the nose
A research team from Massachusetts Eye and Ear describes a newly discovered mechanism in a report published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI).
Kawasaki disease: One disease, multiple triggers
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and international collaborators have evidence that Kawasaki Disease (KD) does not have a single cause.
Traditional eutectic alloy brings new hope for high energy density metal-O2 batteries
A research team led by ZHANG Xinbo from the Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (CIAC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, YAN Junmin from Jilin University, ZHANG Yu from Beihang University Beijing developed a long-life AM-O2 battery using Li-Na eutectic alloy as novel metal anode for the first time.
Scientists debunk potential link to crop cold tolerance
New research debunks a long-held theory that corn and other grass crops are susceptible to cold because they lack the space in their leaves needed to boost photosynthetic efficiency in low temperatures.
From beaker to solved 3-D structure in minutes
A new method for learning the structures of small molecules, such as hormones, is 'like science fiction.'
Primates of the Caribbean: Ancient DNA reveals history of mystery monkey
Analysis of ancient DNA of a mysterious extinct monkey named Xenothrix -- which displays bizarre body characteristics very different to any living monkey -- has revealed that it was in fact most closely related to South America's titi monkeys (Callicebinae).
Mutations, CRISPR, and the biology behind movement disorders
Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan have discovered how mutations related to a group of movement disorders produce their effects.
New strategy discovered toward possible prevention of cancers tied to mono
Researchers have discovered a possible path forward in preventing the development of cancers tied to two viruses, including the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis --more commonly known as mono or the 'kissing disease' -- that infects millions of people around the globe each year.
Breakthrough in understanding how deadly pneumococcus avoids immune defences
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered a new and important function of a toxin produced by disease-causing bacteria that could have significant implications for future vaccine design.
Hepatitis C treatment can be shortened in 50 percent of patients, study finds
Hepatitis C drugs cure more than 90 percent of patients, but can cost more than $50,000 per patient.
Ultra-thin transparent silver films for solar cells
A new fabrication process for transparent ultra-thin silver films has been developed by researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum and the University of Wuppertal.
How mitochondria deploy a powerful punch against life-threatening bacteria
Researchers discover that mitochondria play an important role in supporting the immune system's response against MRSA infection.
Surfaces with controlled wettability to trap & identify molecules at trace concentrations
An international group of physicists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Swinburne University of Technology (Australia) developed a technology for trapping and chemical analysis of organic and non-organic molecules at ultra low concentrations.
Con­ser­va­tion areas help bird­life ad­apt to cli­mate change
A warming climate is pushing organisms towards the circumpolar areas and mountain peaks.
Obesity both feeds tumors and helps immunotherapy kill cancer
A groundbreaking new study by UC Davis researchers has uncovered why obesity both fuels cancer growth and allows blockbuster new immunotherapies to work better against those same tumors.
Thanks, statistics! A faster way to improve mobile apps
A Cornell statistician and his colleagues have found a faster way for developers to improve mobile apps, with a new text-mining method that aggregates and parses customer reviews in one step.
New insights into the aging brain
A group of scientists at the Gladstone Institutes investigated why the choroid plexus contains so much more klotho than other brain regions.
New Research: Streamside forests store tons of carbon
In a new effort from Point Blue Conservation Science and Santa Clara University, researchers led by Dr.
New study sheds light on medicines storage practices on UK dairy farms
Researchers at the University of Bristol, supported by the British Veterinary Association, the British Cattle Veterinary Association and the Responsible Use of Medicines in Agriculture (RUMA) Alliance, are calling for veterinary surgeons in the UK to work together with their farmer clients to remove expired and inappropriate veterinary medicines from farms and dispose of them appropriately.
Fecal transplant effective against immunotherapy-induced colitis
For the first time, transplanting gut bacteria from healthy donors was used to successfully treat patients suffering from severe colitis caused by treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Spread of deadly eye cancer halted in cells and animals
By comparing genetic sequences in the eye tumors of children whose cancers spread with tumors that didn't spread, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report new evidence that a domino effect in cells is responsible for the cancer spreading.
Trends in opioid prescriptions in children, adolescents
Prescription opioids dispensed to children and adolescents have steadily decreased since 2012 in an analysis of data from a large commercial insurance provider.
Synthetic molecule invades double-stranded DNA
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed a synthetic molecule that can recognize and bind to double-stranded DNA or RNA under normal physiological conditions.
New records in perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells through improved light management
Using microstructured layers, an HZB team has been able to increase the efficiency of perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells, achieving 25.5 %, which is the highest published value to date.
RIP1 Kinase identified as promising therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer
An experimental drug may be effective against a deadly form of pancreatic cancer when used in combination with other immune-boosting therapies, according to a cover study publishing online Nov.
Artificial intelligence to accelerate malaria research
Insilico Taiwan, a Taipei-based subsidiary of Insilico Medicine, publishes a new research paper titled 'In Silico Study Reveals How E64 Approaches, Binds to, and Inhibits Falcipain-2 of Plasmodium falciparum that Causes Malaria in Humans' in Scientific Reports.
Frail seniors going without desperately needed in-home healthcare, study finds
There is a tremendous disparity between the need for home-based medical care and the number of frail seniors actually receiving it, a new study finds.
Study opens route to ultra-low-power microchips
MIT researchers have developed a new way of controlling magnetism in materials, which could lead to new low-power technologies for memory, computing, and sensing devices.
Two-pronged device enables maverick immune cells to identify and kill cancers
Immune cells called Gamma Delta T cells can act independently to identify and kill cancer cells, defying the conventional view of the immune system.
New physical activity guidelines for Americans released
Updated physical activity guidelines released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) tell Americans to get moving, and for how long, with aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities.
Atomic parity violation research reaches new milestone
Physicists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have recently succeeded in observing parity violation in ytterbium atoms with different numbers of neutrons.
Better way to transplant human stem cells
A tissue-like structure created from human stem cells and implanted into a damaged region of the mouse brain improves cell survival and differentiation relative to conventional, cell-based methods.
Combination therapy promising against blindness-causing bacterial keratitis
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the cornea are a leading cause of blindness and cannot be effectively managed with current ophthalmic antibiotics.
No cooperation without open communication
In models that explore how humans act when their reputation is at stake, usually assumptions were made that are at odds with reality.
Natatanuran frogs used the Indian Plate to step-stone disperse and radiate across the Indian Ocean
The evolutionary history of near-cosmopolitan Natatanuran frogs involved using the Indian Plate as a stepping-stone to disperse between Africa, Asia and Madagascar.
Fish's brain size influenced by habitat, new University of Guelph study reveals
This is the first known study to connect habitat with varying brain size in a single lake fish population.
High availability of tobacco raises smoking rates in mothers-to-be
Pregnant women are more likely to smoke if they live in an area in which tobacco is widely sold, research has shown.
Patients' own cells and materials used to create personalized tissue implants of any kind
In a new study, Tel Aviv University researchers reveal how they invented the first fully personalized tissue implant, engineered from a patient's own materials and cells.
At African Ministerial Summit, IPBES experts detail continent's critical biodiversity challenges
The threat today to African plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and large mammals is unprecedented, caused by a range of both human-induced and natural causes, leading scientists warned African ministers meeting on the eve of major global biodiversity talks.
Can scientists change mucus to make it easier to clear, limiting harm to lungs?
For people with conditions such as cystic fibrosis and COPD, mucus can get too thick and sticky; coughing alone can't clear it.
Pulling the genome apart: Chromosome segregation during mitosis explained
Osaka University researchers shed light on the protein complexes and processes that enable microtubules to bind to the centromeres of chromosomes and redistribute them to the daughter cells during mitosis.
Spectrum of cardiovascular toxicities with immune checkpoint inhibitors revealed
The study, published online Nov. 12 in The Lancet Oncology, augments previous work by Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) researchers who first reported in 2016 rare but fatal cardiac side effects from the most widely prescribed class of immunotherapies.
Which outreach method encourages patients overdue for cancer screening to get tested?
Phone calls are more effective reminders for patients to book cancer screening appointments than mailed letters but are also more costly, suggests a new study from St.
Poxvirus hijacks cell movement to spread infection
Vaccinia virus, a poxvirus closely related to smallpox and monkeypox, tricks cells it has infected into activating their own cell movement mechanism to rapidly spread the virus in cells and mice, according to a new UCL-led study published in Nature Microbiology.
Those using psychotropic drugs in suicide attempts more likely to have had prescriptions
As prescriptions for psychotropic drugs increase, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found that prescribed access to anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic medications may make it easier for some patients to use the drugs in attempted suicides.
Less surveillance needed for simple ovarian cysts
Simple ovarian cysts are extremely common in women and do not require additional ultrasound surveillance or surgical removal, according to a new study of more than 72,000 women and close to 119,00 pelvic ultrasound exams over a dozen years.
Drug matched to patients according to tumour gene testing shows signs of being effective
Treatment with capivasertib, a drug designed to work against a particular gene mutation found in some tumours, shows signs of being effective in a trial of 35 patients presented at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland.
Family, school support makes kids more likely to stand up to bullying
A recent study finds young people with good family relationships are more likely to intervene when they witness bullying or other aggressive behavior at school -- and to step in if they see victims planning to retaliate.
Scientists bring polymers into atomic-scale focus
A Berkeley Lab-led research has adapted a powerful electron-based imaging technique to obtain a first-of-its-kind image of atomic-scale structure in a synthetic polymer.
Patients with common heart failure more likely to have lethal heart rhythms
New Smidt Heart Institute Research shows that patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) are more likely to have lethal heart rhythms.
Racial disparities in sudden cardiac death rates cannot be explained by known risk factors
A Penn Medicine study, published online today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, showed that even after controlling for risk factors like income, education, smoking, exercise, and bad cholesterol, among others, black patients remained at significantly higher risk for sudden cardiac death than white patients.
Decrease in specific gene 'silencing' molecules linked with pediatric brain tumors
Experimenting with lab-grown brain cancer cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a shortage of specific tiny molecules that silence certain genes is linked to the development and growth of pediatric brain tumors known as low-grade gliomas.
New concussion recommendations for kids
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated its concussion recommendations to support children and teens engaging in light physical activity and returning to school as they recover.
Resonant mechanism discovery could inspire ultra-thin acoustic absorbers
New research led by academics at the University of Bristol has discovered that the scales on moth wings vibrate and can absorb the sound frequencies used by bats for echolocation (biological sonar).
Nitrogen fixation in ambient conditions
EPFL scientists have developed a uranium-based complex that allows nitrogen fixation reactions to take place in ambient conditions.
Failure to discontinue medications can contribute to inappropriate prescribing
The continuation of drugs that are not intended to be taken indefinitely is a substantial and common problem that could contribute to over-medication, particularly in the elderly.
Higher dietary quality associated with improved glycemic control in women with GDM
A new study has found that higher dietary quality was associated with improved overall glycemic control and postprandial glycemic control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Renewable energy cooperatives, an opportunity for energy transition
Three researchers from the UPV/EHU's Faculty of Engineering -- Bilbao and the University of Valladolid have explored how renewable energy cooperatives have evolved.
A step closer to 'design on demand' scaffolds for tissue regeneration
Lehigh University chemical engineer Kelly Schultz was part of a special session of the American Institute of Chemical Engineering (AIChE) Annual Meeting in Pittsburgh last month, where she was invited to present her lab's work determining how increasing the concentrations of polymers in solution changes the structure of cross-linked gels.
Researchers identify risk factors of advanced liver disease in cystic fibrosis patients
Children's Hospital Colorado (Children's Colorado) pediatric gastroenterologist, Michael Narkewicz, MD, recently shared results of the Prospective Study of Ultrasound to Predict Hepatic Cirrhosis in Cystic Fibrosis (PUSH), which sought to determine if liver ultrasounds could identify children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis who are at greater risk of developing advanced liver disease.
Planetary boundaries for antibiotic and pesticide resistance identified
Researchers have now published the first estimates of antibiotic and pesticide 'planetary boundaries' in the journal Nature Sustainability.
Dynamic audiovisuals increase spectator attention, but inhibits conscious processing
According to a study conducted by the UAB and the UPO, scene changes diminish a spectator's blink rate, producing an increase in attention.
Combining hospital, police data to better understand violence
This research letter suggests that combining hospital and police data might provide a more complete picture of violence in a community because some hospital-treated injuries result from violent incidents unreported to police.
Suicide handshakes kill precursor T cells that pose autoimmune dangers
The mechanisms that trigger the elimination of T cells that pose autoimmune dangers work very mechanically via physical forces.
Concussion associated with suicide risk
Experiencing concussions or mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with increased risk of suicide in a new analysis but the absolute risk was small because nearly all patients diagnosed with concussion or TBI didn't die by suicide.
Short stature in rainforest hunter-gatherers potentially linked to cardiac adaptations
African and Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers share short stature, and now an international team of researchers has shown that this is an example of convergent adaptation that may also be linked to changes in cardiac development pathways.
Alpine ice shows three-fold increase in atmospheric iodine
Analysis of iodine trapped in Alpine ice has shown that levels of atmospheric iodine have tripled over the past century, which partially offsets human-driven increases in the air pollutant, ozone.
Largest ever study of psychological sex differences and autistic traits
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have completed the world's largest ever study of typical sex differences and autistic traits.
AI capable of outlining in a single chart information from thousands of scientific papers
NIMS and the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago have jointly developed a Computer-Aided Material Design (CAMaD) system capable of extracting information related to fabrication processes and material structures and properties--factors vital to material design--and organizing and visualizing the relationship between them.
From the cosmos to fusion plasmas, PPPL presents findings at global APS gathering
Piece summarizes invited PPPL talks ranging from fusion to astrophysics at 60th APS-DPP annual meeting.
Escape responses of coral reef fish obey simple behavioral rules
The escape response to evade perceived threats is a fundamental behavior seen throughout the animal kingdom, and laboratory studies have identified specialized neural circuits that control this behavior.
How plants evolved to make ants their servants
Plants have evolved ways to make ants defend them from attacks and spread their seeds, and this new study shows how it happened.
Global warming has never stopped in the past hundred years
The global warming has never stopped in the past hundred years, with maximum rate of change after Second World War II and almost constant rate during the latest three decades.
New framework pushes the limits of high-performance computing
Virginia Tech researchers found a way to give high-performance computing data systems the flexibility to thrive with a first-of-its-kind framework called BespoKV, perhaps helping to one day achieve the HPC goal of performing at the exascale, or a billion billion calculations per second.
Nationality likely a key factor in life-and-death decisions
People making decisions about life-and-death situations consider individuals' nationalities when deciding who should be sacrificed to save others, according to a study out of the University of Waterloo.

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