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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 13, 2018


Diabetic foot ulcers heal quickly with nitric oxide technology
Around the world, 425 million people live with diabetes and upwards of 15 percent develop foot ulcers, which increases their risk of death 2.5 times.
New transgenic rat model may enable better understanding of amyloid buildup in cerebral blood vessels
In a report in The American Journal of Pathology investigators describe the generation of a successful novel transgenic rat model that accumulates amyloid specifically in brain blood vessels and strongly mimics many of the associated detrimental changes that are observed in humans - a condition known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which is also commonly observed in Alzheimer disease.
Being overweight likely to cause depression, even without health complications
A largescale genomic analysis has found the strongest evidence yet that being overweight causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.
First blood-based biomarker in response to the treatment of the most aggressive prostate cancer
In castration-resistant prostate cancer, the tumors continue to progress even though testosterone production has been blocked; more than 90% of these patients develop metastasis and the survival rate is one to two years.
Stretchy solar cells a step closer
Rice University scientists develop flexible organic photovoltaics with a chemical additive that mitigates the material's brittle qualities.
Climate change damaging male fertility
Climate change could pose a threat to male fertility -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia.
'Scaring' soybeans into defensive mode yields better plants a generation later
By temporarily silencing the expression of a critical gene, researchers fooled soybean plants into sensing they were under siege, encountering a wide range of stresses.
Purple bacteria 'batteries' turn sewage into clean energy
Purple phototrophic bacteria -- which can store energy from light -- when supplied with an electric current can recover near to 100 percent of carbon from any type of organic waste, while generating hydrogen gas for use as fuel.
If your diet fails, try again; your heart will thank you
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in eating patterns, even only after a month or so.
Suicide risk increases in teens who knew murder victims
Nearly half of black teenagers surveyed in Allegheny County report losing a friend or family member to murder, a disproportionately stark statistic that is associated with suicide attempts and other negative childhood experiences.
New finding of particle physics may help to explain the absence of antimatter
With the help of computer simulations, particle physics researchers may be able to explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the Universe.
Blocking 'secondary cataracts'
Cataracts surgery is a modern-day medical marvel, but even 10 years after a procedure, so-called secondary cataracts can form.
Business as usual for Antarctic krill despite ocean acidification
A new IMAS-led study has found that Antarctic krill are resilient to the increasing acidification of the ocean as it absorbs more C02 from the atmosphere due to anthropogenic carbon emissions.
Pancreatic cancer's addiction could be its end
Researchers at CSHL have discovered that an inappropriately produced protein may be why some pancreatic cancer patients die exceptionally early.
The illusion of multitasking boosts performance
Our ability to do things well suffers when we try to complete several tasks at once, but a series of experiments suggests that merely believing that we're multitasking may boost our performance by making us more engaged in the tasks at hand.
Identification of mechanisms of pesticide resistance in cattle ticks
Losses to herds due to parasites correspond to more than double the value of Brazil's annual beef exports, according to a study by Brazilian researchers published in Scientific Reports.
Novel mechanism of immune activation in HIV-exposed, seronegative people who inject drugs
According to Wistar researchers, the S100A14 protein is expressed at higher levels in people who inject drugs and remain uninfected despite many years of high-risk, needle sharing behavior in areas with high HIV prevalence.
Scientists develop microbiome search engine to assess microbiome novelty and impact
Scientists from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology developed a way to objectively evaluate the novelty and impact of plethora of microbiomes in the vast universe of microbiome big-data, based on an innovative tool called Microbiome Search Engine (MSE).
Feeding trials showed cranberry reduces low fiber, animal-based diet effects on gut health
In a recently published feeding trial in The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, scientists investigated the potential protective effect of cranberries on the gut microbiome with an animal-based diet.
Wishes help keep pediatric patients out of the hospital
In the retrospective study patients granted a wish were 2.5 times more likely to have fewer unplanned hospital admissions and 1.9 times more likely not to have to use the emergency department.
NUS researchers offer solution in fight against fake graphene
A new study by researchers from the National University of Singapore has uncovered a major problem - a lack of graphene production standards has led to many cases of poor quality products from suppliers.
Research suggests coffee associated with approx 25 percent lower risk of type 2 diabetes
A report from the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) titled ' Coffee and type 2 diabetes: A review of the latest research' highlights the potential role of coffee consumption on the reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and the potential mechanisms involved.
New anisotropic conductive film for ultra-fine pitch assembly applications
Researchers have moved to one step closer to realizing ultra-fine resolution for displays with a novel thermoplastic anchoring polymer layer structure.
More adults using complementary and alternative medicine in England but access is unequal
Use of practitioner-led complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as acupuncture, massage, osteopathy and chiropractic treatment, rose from 12 per cent of the population in 2005 to 16 per cent of the population in 2015, according to a survey led by researchers at the University of Bristol.
Autism behaviors show unique brain network fingerprints in infants
A new study has identified unique functional brain networks associated with characteristic behaviors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 12- and 24-month old children at risk for developing ASD.
Most complete enantiornithine bird fossil from North America
A 75-million-year-old bird skeleton from a threatened national monument in Utah represents the most complete skeleton ever found in North America for a long-extinct group of birds called enantiornithines.
Affordable health care means better access to diabetes prevention, management
OHSU study compares rates of health care utilization at Community Health Centers in states with, without Medicaid expansion programs.
The first cave-dwelling centipede from southern China
Chinese scientists report the first cave-dwelling centipede so far known from southern China.
Precision-medicine platform for mild Alzheimer's disease and at-risk individuals
The researchers explored the efficacy of a multi-therapy approach based on the disease risk factor status specific to individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis or concern.
Angiotensin receptor blockers normalize sodium excretion
Drugs that inhibit a hormone that constricts blood vessels also help improve sodium excretion in blacks who hold onto too much sodium in the face of stress, investigators report.
NIH scientists illuminate causes of hepatitis b virus-associated acute liver failure
National Institutes of Health scientists and their collaborators found that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) -- a rare condition that can turn fatal within days without liver transplantation -- results from an uncommon encounter between a highly mutated HBV variant and an unusual immune response in the patient's liver that is mainly sustained by antibody-producing B cells.
Deepwater Horizon oil spill's dramatic effect on stingrays' sensory abilities
Marine fishes rely on their sensory systems to survive. A study is the first to quantify the physiological effects of whole crude oil on the olfactory function of a marine vertebrate -- the Atlantic stingray.
Immunotherapy combination and chemotherapy show encouraging results in Phase II acute myeloid leukemia study
A triple therapy combining two immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) with the standard-of-care chemotherapy, a hypomethylating agent called azacitidine, has shown promising results for treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), according to findings from a Phase II study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Back-to-the-future plants give climate change insights
If you were to take a seed and zap it into the future to see how it will respond to climate change, how realistic might that prediction be?
Anticancer drugs to be delivered directly to cells by magnetic nanospring capsules
A team of scientists from the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and Korea University (Republic of Korea) obtained cobalt and cobalt-iron nanosprings with unique combined magnetic properties and long-lasting elasticity that may be used to develop nanorobots, nanosensors, new types of memory, and targeted drug delivery agents (specifically, for anticancer therapy).
Amazon turtle populations recovering well thanks to local action
The historically over-exploited Giant South American Turtle is making a significant comeback on river beaches in the Brazilian Amazon thanks to local protection efforts, say researchers at the University of East Anglia.
Simulation versus observation
As an indicator of the impacts of climate change, Arctic sea ice is hard to beat.
'Waltzing' nanoparticles could advance search for better drug delivery methods
Indiana University scientists paired drug-delivering nanoparticles like dance partners to reveal that molecules attach to targets on cells differently based upon their position in time.
Climate change likely caused migration, demise of ancient Indus Valley civilization
A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) found evidence that climate change likely drove the Harappans to resettle far away from the floodplains of the Indus.
ID specialist input improves outcomes for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
An infectious diseases specialist should review all orders for outpatient IV antimicrobial therapy and adjust as needed, suggest new guidelines released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).
Your heart hates air pollution; portable filters could help
The fifth-leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, air pollution presents a major heart health risk.
Social relationships more important than hard evidence in partisan politics
Study explains how partisan groupings evolve to become extreme, ultimately resulting in the formation of 'echo chambers' in which political beliefs go unchallenged and increase in strength.
NASA analyzed Tropical Cyclone Alcide's rainfall before dissipation
Tropical Cyclone Alcide dissipated over the weekend of Nov. 11 and 12 in the Southern Indian Ocean.
Weightlifting is good for your heart and it doesn't take much
Lifting weights for less than an hour a week may reduce your risk for a heart attack or stroke by 40 to 70 percent, according to a new Iowa State University study.
NASA-NOAA Satellite finds a large Tropical Cyclone Gaja
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean and captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Gaja.
Study examines opioid use among Massachusetts adolescents, trends in opioid prescriptions
I wanted to alert you to two interesting papers from our researchers on opioid use.
Scientists identify potential new treatment strategy for kidney cancer
Researchers have provided new insight on the mechanisms behind the development of clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), according to new findings published in eLife.
DNA structure impacts rate and accuracy of DNA synthesis
DNA sequences with the potential to form unusual conformations, which are frequently associated with cancer and neurological diseases, can in fact slow down or speed up the DNA synthesis process and cause more or fewer sequencing errors.
New methods to identify Alzheimer's drug candidates with anti-aging properties
Old age is the greatest risk factor for many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer.
Ancient flower fossil points to Core Eudicot Boom 99 million years ago
A group led by Professor WANG Xin from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (NIGPAS) describe a flower, Lijinganthus revoluta, embedded in Burmese amber dating to 99 million years ago.
Genomics provide hope for those with 'one in a million' cancer diagnosis
New research has shown that many people with rare cancers can benefit from genomic profiling.
Pressure helps to make better Li-ion batteries
Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12, LTO), a ''zero-strain'' anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), exhibits excellent cycling performance.
Mathematical understanding of Bell nonlocality and quantum steering
Bell nonlocality and quantum steering are the two most important quantum properties.
Doubly-excited electrons reach new energy states
Sabyasachi Kar from the Harbin Institute of Technology, China, and Yew Kam Ho from the Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, have now characterised the higher energy levels reached by electrons in resonance in three-particle systems, which are too complex to be described using simple equations.
Large babies born to mothers with diabetes have a near-trebled risk of obesity
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that children who are larger than average at birth (large for gestational age or LGA) and born to mothers with gestational diabetes are almost three times as likely to be obese as children born a normal size to diabetes-free mothers.
Immunity connects gut bacteria and aging
EPFL scientists have discovered how a dysfunction in the immune system can cause an overload of a gut bacterium.
Probiotics increase bone volume in healthy mice
A widely used probiotic stimulates bone formation in young female mice, according to a study published Nov.
Rare fossil bird deepens mystery of avian extinctions
Today's birds descend from a small number of bird species living before the dinosaur extinction.
Obesity and food restrictions proven to be associated with less food enjoyment
A study carried out by UGR scientists shows that obesity and food restrictions -even trivial ones- such as temporary diets are associated with a reduction in enjoyment For this research, food-related emotions were analyzed in 552 adolescents aged 11 to 17 belonging to several high schools from Granada.
Women favor daughters, men favor sons despite socioeconomic status
A Rutgers-led experimental study found that women prefer and invest more in daughters, while men favor and invest more in their sons.
The dawn of a new era for genebanks
One important aspect of biodiversity is genetic variation within species.
Neural nets supplant marker genes in analyzing single cell RNA sequencing
Computer scientists at Carnegie Mellon University say neural networks and supervised machine learning techniques can efficiently characterize cells that have been studied using single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq).
Moths and magnets could save lives
Rice University bioengineers have combined a virus that infects moths with magnetic nanoparticles to create a potential new therapy for inherited genetic diseases like muscular dystrophy, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy and some forms of cancer.
Osteopontin: A new emerging role in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma
A research team based in Japan led by Kanazawa University has demonstrated the effect of osteopontin on hepatitis C virus replication and interferon signaling in cancer stem cells.
Captive-breeding will not save wild Asian Houbara without regulation of hunting
The survival of the heavily exploited Asian Houbara depends on the regulation of trapping and hunting, according to research led by the University of East Anglia (UEA).
New scheduling system could help reduce flight delays
Scheduling and coordinating air traffic can be difficult, but taking the airlines' and passengers' delay costs into account can actually save airlines money and result in fewer delays, according to a new study from Binghamton University, State University of New York.
The unintended consequences of dams and reservoirs
An international team of drought scientists show that while many dams and reservoirs are built, or expanded, to alleviate droughts and water shortages, they can paradoxically contribute to make them worse.
Overlooked trends in annual precipitation reveal underestimated risks worldwide
University of Maine researchers have reanalyzed global annual precipitation using quantile regression to reveal overlooked trends.
Pain can be a self-fulfilling prophecy
A new brain imaging study of 34 people found that when people expect to feel intense pain, they do, even if they aren't subjected to painful stimuli.
Carbon goes with the flow
Many people see the carbon cycle as vertical -- CO2 moving up and down between soil, plants and the atmosphere.
So, you think you're good at remembering faces, but terrible with names?
The cringe-worthy experience of not being able to remember an acquaintance's name leads many of us to believe we are terrible with names.
First microarrayed 3D neuronal culture platform developed
Neuronal development is often regulated by the graded distribution of guidance molecules, but many details about the process is largely unexplored.
Popular science helps to discover the abundance of this jellyfish
When the Rhizostoma luteum jellyfish was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century in the waters of the Strait of Gibraltar, only nine specimens were identified.
Carbon emissions will start to dictate stock prices
Companies that fail to curb their carbon output may eventually face the consequences of asset devaluation and stock price depreciation, according to a new study out of the University of Waterloo.
Drug designed to boost radiotherapy for hard-to-treat cancers taken safely by patients
A new drug designed to make radiotherapy more effective in treating cancer has been given to patients while they are receiving radiation and shown to be safe, according to research presented at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland.
Stealth-cap technology for light-emitting nanoparticles
Scientists from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), in collaboration with the Monash University Australia, have succeeded in significantly increasing the stability and biocompatibility of special light-transducing nanoparticles.
Brain changes found in self-injuring teen girls
The brains of teenage girls who engage in serious forms of self-harm, including cutting, show features similar to those seen in adults with borderline personality disorder, a severe and hard-to-treat mental illness, a new study has found.
Tailoring the surface of carbon may hold the key to monitoring patient blood in real-time
Machine learning is increasing the pace of development of customised carbon surfaces with a wide variety of applications
UTA researchers find cheaper, less energy-intensive way to purify ethylene
Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington have filed a provisional patent application on a new copper compound that can be used to purify ethylene for use as a raw material in the production of plastics such as polyethylene or PVC, as well as other industrial compounds.
Optimization of alloy materials: Diffusion processes in nano particles decoded
Research team at TU Graz discovers atomic-level processes which can provide new approaches to improving material properties.
Scientists shed light on semiconductor degradation mechanism
SiC-based electrical devices degrading will be improved by controlling the semiconductor material deformation with atomic level.
Chinese satellites provide advanced solutions to modeling small particles
The assimilation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) observational data from the Chinese satellite Fengyun-3A (FY-3A) can significantly improve the ability to model aerosol mass.
Cognitive decline -- radiation -- brain tumor prevented by temporarily shutting down immune response
In a new study published Nov. 13 in the journal eLife, UC San Francisco scientists report the first animal model of glioma -- the most aggressive and most common form of brain cancer in the US -- that can also be used to study the long-term effects of radiation therapy in tumor-bearing brains.
Structure of fossil-fuel source rocks is finally decoded
A team of researchers in France and at MIT has taken the first three-dimensional images of kerogen's internal structure, with a level of detail more than 50 times greater than has been previously achieved.
Health costs of ageism calculated at $63 billion annually, study finds
Ageism -- a widespread form of prejudice that is directed at older persons -- led to excess costs of $63 billion for a broad range of health conditions during one year in the United States, a new study by the Yale School of Public Health has found.
Studies examine availability of opioid-overdose antidote at pharmacies
Two studies looked at the availability of naloxone, an antidote for opioid overdoses, from pharmacies in two states that have passed legislation to allow pharmacists to dispense the medication without a physician's prescription.
An enzyme in immune cells plays essential role in host defense against tuberculosis
Using freshly resected lung tissue from 21 patients and two distinct mouse models, tuberculosis researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Africa Health Research Institute, or AHRI, have identified a protein that plays an essential role in host defense against this deadly disease.
Violent crime rates rise in warmer winters
As global temperatures climb, warmer winters in parts of the country may set the scene for higher rates of violent crimes such as assault and robbery, according to a new CIRES study published in AGU's GeoHealth.
Fish recognize their prey by electric colors
The African elephantnose fish generates weak electrical pulses to navigate its environment.
NASA-NOAA satellite catches short-lived Tropical Cyclone Bouchra
Tropical Cyclone Bouchra formed on Nov. 10, 2018 in the Southern Indian Ocean and was already on its way to dissipation when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead on Nov.
How can hospitals keep doctors positively engaged with their work?
Individual and work-related factors may be helpful in promoting positive engagement with work among hospital physicians, according to a study in the December issue of Medical Care.
When boy fish build castles to impress girls, boy genes get 'turned on' and 'tuned in'
What if we could observe genes firing off signals to cause some behaviors?
Solving the mystery of NPM1 in acute myeloid leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells expressing the NPM1 mutant gene are highly dependent on continued export of protein NPM1c to proliferate.
USPSTF recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce unhealthy alcohol use in adolescents and adults
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening adults 18 and older, including pregnant women, for unhealthy alcohol use in primary care settings.
Synthetic DNA-delivered antibodies protect against Ebola in preclinical studies
Wistar scientists and collaborators have successfully engineered novel DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) targeting Zaire Ebolavirus that were effective in preclinical models.
Detecting light in a different dimension
Scientists from the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)--a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory--have dramatically improved the response of graphene to light through self-assembling wire-like nanostructures that conduct electricity.
Visualizing 'unfurling' microtubule growth
Living cells depend absolutely on microtubules that form a scaffolding for moving materials inside the cell.
Prenatal food insecurity associated with severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome
A new study shows that food insecurity in pregnant women being treated for opioid use disorder may be associated with increased risk for their infants receiving pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome.
Warmer winter temperatures linked to increased crime, study finds
Milder winter weather increased regional crime rates in the United States over the past several decades, according to new research that suggests crime is related to temperature's effect on daily activities.
Study finds that in treating obesity, one size does not fit all
Understanding the very different characteristics of subgroups of obese patients may hold the key to devising more effective treatments and interventions, new research from Brown University found.
Combination gene therapy more effective in cartilage preservation in osteoarthritis
A combinatorial gene therapy approach -- one designed to inhibit inflammation and one targeting protection against cartilage degeneration -- was shown to preserve articular carti-lage better than each approach alone in animal models of both moderate and severe post-traumatic osteoarthritis.
Emotional intelligence: A new criterion for hiring?
The cognitive skills of a future employee are examined during a job interview.
Scientists uncover crucial biological circuits that regulate lipids and their role in overall health
Tiny microscopic worms, invisible to the naked eye, are helping scientists to better understand an extraordinarily complex biological pathway that connects fat to overall health and aging in humans.
Penn Study shows regular behavioral counseling leads to clinically significant weight loss
Intensive behavioral therapy (IBT), which provides diet and physical activity counseling, is proven to help adults with obesity achieve meaningful weight loss in six to 12 months.
Rising sea levels may build, rather than destroy, coral reef islands
Rising global sea levels may actually be beneficial to the long-term future of coral reef islands, such as the Maldives, according to new research published in Geophysical Research Letters.
Scientists engineer a functional optical lens out of 2D materials
In a paper published Oct. 8 in the journal Nano Letters, a team from the University of Washington and the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan announced that it has constructed functional metalenses that are one-tenth to one-half the thickness of the wavelengths of light that they focus.
Vapers do not undermine desire to quit smoking
Smokers who regularly spend time with vapers (people who use e-cigarettes) are more likely to try quitting smoking, according to a new study carried out by UCL.
Microorganisms help production
Oil is still the most economically attractive resource for fuels and basic chemicals that can be used to manufacture everyday products such as plastic bottles and detergent.
Meningitis progress lags substantially behind that of other preventable diseases
The global disease burden of meningitis remains unacceptably high, and progress lags substantially behind that of other vaccine-preventable diseases.
Patients with cancers of the gullet, stomach and bowel respond well to new anti-HER2 drug
An antibody that binds simultaneously to two distinct regions of the HER2 receptor to block the growth of cancer cells has shown promising signs of anti-tumor activity in a number of cancers including those of the gullet (esophagus), stomach and bowel.
Football coaches between victories, defeats and emotions
Football coaches who have their emotions under control are more successful.
Why your number of romantic partners mirrors your mother
A new national study shows that people whose mothers had more partners -- married or cohabiting -- often follow the same path.

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