Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 15, 2018
Surgery & combination therapy optimizes results in aggressive prostate cancer management
Results published today in JAMA Oncology suggest post-operative radiation and hormone therapy, before cancer recurrence, as a new prostate cancer treatment option for men with a Gleason Score of 9 or 10.

Can't exercise? A hot bath may help improve inflammation, metabolism, study suggests
Hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and blood sugar (glucose) levels in people who are unable to exercise, according to a new study.

Special issue: Diet and Health
Diet has major effects on human health. In this special issue of Science, 'Diet and Health,' four Reviews explore the connections between what we eat and our well-being, as well as the continuing controversies in this space.

Friends and family increase the risk of children becoming smokers in the UK
Teenagers whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, or whose parents or friends smoke, are more likely to smoke themselves.

Treating the 'bubble babies'
A new study shows that the genotype of a child with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) affects his survival rate after stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor.

Marijuana use has no effect on kidney transplant outcomes
A new study published in Clinical Kidney Journal indicates that the usage of marijuana by kidney donors has no measurable effect upon the outcomes of kidney transplants for donors or recipients.

Dry eye syndrome slows reading rate, study suggests
Johns Hopkins researchers report that chronic dry eye, a condition in which natural tears fail to adequately lubricate the eyes, can slow reading rate and significantly disrupt day to day tasks that require visual concentration for long periods of time.

Killer whales share personality traits with humans, chimpanzees
Killer whales display personality traits similar to those of humans and chimpanzees, such as playfulness, cheerfulness and affection, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.

Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'
Purdue University researchers have developed a technology aimed at making it easier to deliver cancer treatment to the right 'address' in the body while also easing the painful side effects of chemotherapy on patients.

Scientists find mysterious family of proteins are cellular pressure sensors
Scientists at Scripps Research have discovered that a mysterious family of cellular proteins called OSCAs and TMEM63s are a novel class of mechanosensitive ion channels.

Insect antibiotic provides new way to eliminate bacteria
An antibiotic called thanatin attacks the way the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is built.

Toxins override key immune system check
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can cause numerous diseases, such as skin infections, pneumonia and blood poisoning (sepsis).

Can artificial intelligence help victims of abuse to disclose traumatic testimony?
Can artificial intelligence be a useful tool to help young victims tell their stories?

Astronomers find possible elusive star behind supernova
Astronomers may have finally found a doomed star that seemed to have avoided detection before its explosive death.

Trans-galactic streamers feeding most luminous galaxy in the universe
ALMA data show the most luminous galaxy in the universe has been caught in the act of stripping away nearly half the mass from at least three of its smaller neighbors.

'Smart skin' simplifies spotting strain in structures
A 'smart skin' developed at Rice University employs the unique fluorescent characteristics of carbon nanotubes to quickly assess strain in materials.

How science can inform chemical weapons arms control
In 2013, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its work in eliminating many of the declared chemical weapons stockpiles worldwide.

Rutgers study helps city ban large trucks
Researchers team up with residents to provide scientific evidence that heavy truck traffic impacted a neighborhood's air quality and compromised health.

Spending our carbon budgets wisely
Our carbon emissions are much higher than are needed for us to have happy, healthy lives.

Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation identified for Leigh Syndrome
Decades after two brothers died in childhood of a mitochondrial disease, researchers pinpointed the exact cause in a founder mutation among Ashkenazi Jews.

Fullerene compounds made simulation-ready
Hollow football-shaped carbon structures, called fullerenes, have applications in areas ranging from artificial photosynthesis and nonlinear optics, to the production of photoactive films and nanostructures.

Bursting bubbles launch bacteria from water to air
A new MIT study shows how bubbles contaminated with bacteria can act as tiny microbial grenades, bursting and launching microorganisms, including potential pathogens, out of the water and into the air.

What's next for smart homes: An 'Internet of Ears?'
A pair of electrical engineering and computer science professors in Cleveland, Ohio, have been experimenting with a new suite of smart-home sensors.

Researchers in japan make android child's face strikingly more expressive
Android faces must express greater emotion if robots are to interact with humans more effectively.

New promising compound against heart rhythm disorders and clogged arteries
A new pharmacological agent demonstrates promising results for the prevention of a wide range of heart rhythm disorders, including both cardiac and brain injury-induced arrhythmia and the most common and malignant among them: atrial fibrillation.

Population of rare Stone's sheep 20 police smaller than previously thought
The already-rare Stone's sheep of the Yukon is 20 per cent less common than previously thought, according to new research by University of Alberta biologists.

Novel strategy to transform a commercially available iboga alkaloid to post-iboga alkaloids
KAIST chemists have synthesized seven different iboga and post-iboga natural products from commercially available catharanthine by mirroring nature's biosynthetic post-modification of the iboga skeleton.

A bigger nose, a bigger bang: Size matters for ecoholocating toothed whales
A new study sheds light on how toothed whales adapted their sonar abilities to occupy different environments.

Phenyl addition made a poison useful for a chemical reaction in catalysis
Scientists from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), Japan, have discovered that a catalyst poison, which deactivates homogeneous catalysts, can be converted into an efficient ligand by introduction of a substituent.

Farmers will benefit from a new method of monitoring pasture nutrients
Farmers can now quickly monitor changes in pasture nutrients and adapt their animals' grazing methods accordingly, using a new, real-time method to check nutrient levels in grassland.

Sex Ed before college can prevent student experiences of sexual assault
Students who receive sexuality education, including refusal skills training, before college matriculation are at lower risk of experiencing sexual assault during college.

Auroras unlock the physics of energetic processes in space
A close study of auroras has revealed new ways of understanding the physics of explosive energy releases in space, according to new UCL-led research.

Twitter use influenced by social schedules, not changing seasons and daylight
An analysis of Twitter data from the US shows that social media usage largely mirrors daily work schedules and school calendars.

SwRI scientists map magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail
Analyzing data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, a team led by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has found that the small regions in the Earth's magnetosphere that energize the polar aurora are remarkably calm and nonturbulent.

Solar panels for yeast cell biofactories
In a study in Science, a multidisciplinary team led by Core Faculty member Neel Joshi and Postdoctoral Fellows Junling Guo and Miguel Suástegui at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and John A.

Patients with rare, incurable digestive tract cancers respond to new drug combination
Patients with rare, but incurable cancers of the digestive tract have responded well to a combination of two drugs that block the MEK and BRAF pathways, which drive the disease in some cases.

New inflammation inhibitor discovered
A multidisciplinary team of researchers led from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed an anti-inflammatory drug molecule with a new mechanism of action.

UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving 'magnetic reconnection' -- the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion -- in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Mergers drive a powerful dusty quasar
A galaxy merger provided the raw materials to form a bright and powerful dust-obscured quasar in the early Universe, according to a new imaging analysis.

Transition metal complexes: Mixed works better
A team at BESSY II has investigated how various iron-complex compounds process energy from incident light.

Historian tells new story about England's venerated 'Domesday book'
Nearly a thousand years ago, a famous king created a famous book, later given the title 'Domesday' (pronounced 'doomsday').

Humpback whales arrive in the Mediterranean to feed themselves
Although the presence of humpback whales in the Mediterranean has been considered unusual, it is known that their visits have increased in the last 150 years.

Nightingale's technology links chronic inflammation with disease risk and shorter lifespan
Investigating a new marker for chronic inflammation GlycA, researchers have found that chronic inflammation is linked to increased risk for shorter lifespan and several organ-related diseases.

Bloomberg American Health Initiative releases special public health reports supplement
With US life expectancy now on the decline for two consecutive years, the Bloomberg American Health Initiative is releasing a supplement to Public Health Reports, the scholarly journal of the US Surgeon General.

How sperm find their way
Researchers have found that a protein in the cell membranes of sperm plays a key role in how they find their way to eggs.

Juice displaces milk and fruit in high school lunches
High school students participating in school meal programs are less likely to select milk, whole fruit, and water when fruit juice is available, which on balance may decrease the nutritional quality of their lunches, according to a new study by the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at the University of Connecticut.

College of Medicine at NEOMED takes first place at Directors of Clinical Skills Conference
Northeast Ohio Medical University earned top honors for its poster presentation, 'Teaching and Fostering Empathetic Touch and Eye Gaze,' at the Directors of Clinical Skills (DOCS) Annual Meeting held in Austin, Texas, Nov.

NASA finds a cloud-filled eye in Tropical Cyclone Gaja
Tropical Cyclone Gaja continued to organize in the Bay of Bengal as it made its approach to southeastern India when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and captured an image.

Infinite-dimensional symmetry opens up possibility of a new physics -- and new particles
The symmetries that govern the world of elementary particles at the most elementary level could be radically different from what has so far been thought.

Voters would have forgiven Cameron for failing to hold an EU referendum, study shows
Many voters would have forgiven David Cameron if he had failed to deliver on his campaign promise to hold an EU referendum, a study suggests.

Half of the world's annual precipitation falls in just 12 days, new study finds
Currently, half of the world's measured precipitation that falls in a year falls in just 12 days, according to a new analysis of data collected at weather stations across the globe.

A new 'buddy system' of nurse education gets high marks from students
A new 'buddy system' of nursing education -- in which two students work together as one nurse to share ideas, set priorities and make clinical decisions for patient care in the 'real world' of nursing -- is effective, according to a study by Baylor University's Louise Herrington School of Nursing.

Social media is affecting the way we view our bodies -- and not in a good way
Young women who actively engage with social media images of friends who they think are more attractive than themselves report feeling worse about their own appearance afterward, a York University study shows.

NASA keeps watch over space explosions
NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission has been observing a type of space explosion called magnetic reconnection for three years.

Animal populations are shrinking due to their high-risk food-finding strategies
A study using animal-attached technology to measure food consumption in four very different wild vertebrates has revealed that animals using a high-risk strategy to find rarer food are particularly susceptible to becoming extinct, as they fail to gather food for their young before they starve.

What did birds and insects do during the 2017 solar eclipse?
In August of 2017, millions peered through protective eyewear at the solar eclipse -- the first total eclipse visible in the continental United States in nearly 40 years.

Why we shouldn't like coffee, but we do
The more sensitive people are to the bitter taste of caffeine, the more coffee they drink, reports a new study.

Why women rarely reach top positions in government
Gender stereotypes are the main reason why women rarely take up senior positions in the civil service, according to researchers from the Higher School of Economics Olga Isupova and Valeriya Utkina.

New research finds omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of premature birth
A new Cochrane Review published today has found that increasing the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) during pregnancy reduces the risk of premature births.

Dietary fat is good? Dietary fat is bad? Coming to consensus
Which is better, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet -- or is it the type of fat that matters?

To monitor 'social jet lag,' scientists look to Twitter
Social jet lag -- a syndrome related to the mismatch between the body's internal clock and the realities of our daily schedules -- has been tied to obesity and other health problems.

DICE: Immune cell atlas goes live
Scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) are sharing a trove of data that will be critical for deciphering how this natural genetic variation shapes the immune system's ability to protect our health.

Drug candidate may recover vocal abilities lost to ADNP syndrome
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that the drug candidate CP201, also known as NAP, may improve vocal communication abilities in patients with ADNP syndrome, a rare genetic condition.

DNA-encoded PCSK9 inhibitors may provide alternative for treating high cholesterol
Wistar researchers have developed novel synthetic DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) directed against PCSK9, a protein key to regulating cholesterol levels in the bloodstream.

New study reveals connection between climate, life and the movement of continents
A new study by The University of Texas at Austin has demonstrated a possible link between life on Earth and the movement of continents.

HIV latency differs across tissues in the body
Mechanisms that govern HIV transcription and latency differ in the gut and blood, according to a study published Nov.

Brewing high-value chemicals using yeast fueled by light-harvesting nanoparticles
A genetically programable strain of yeast powered by light-harvesting nanoparticles can make high-value chemicals from simple and renewable carbon sources, according to a new report.

Metallic nanoparticles light up another path towards eco-friendly catalysts
Scientists at Tokyo Technology produced subnano-sized metallic particles that are very effective as catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons.

Infants born to obese mothers risk developing liver disease, obesity
Infant gut microbes altered by their mother's obesity can cause inflammation and other major changes within the baby, increasing the risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease later in life, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

Race plays role in regaining weight after gastric bypass surgery
African Americans and Hispanic Americans who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are at greater risk to regain weight as compared to Caucasians.

Cotton-based hybrid biofuel cell could power implantable medical devices
A glucose-powered biofuel cell that uses electrodes made from cotton fiber could someday help power implantable medical devices such as pacemakers and sensors.

Arming drug hunters, chemists design new reaction for drug discovery
Colorado State University organic chemists have forged a powerful new tool for drug hunters -- a simple, elegantly designed chemical reaction that could fling open an underexplored wing of biologically relevant chemistry.

New maps hint at how electric fish got their big brains
Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis have mapped the regions of the brain in mormyrid fish in extremely high detail.

Drop your weapons!
It takes energy to make weapons, but it may take even more energy to maintain them.

No link between 'hypoallergenic' dogs and lower risk of childhood asthma
Growing up with dogs is linked to a lower risk of asthma, especially if the dogs are female, a new study from Karolinska Institutet and Uppsala University in Sweden shows.

Feeling the pressure with universal tactile imaging
Osaka University researchers developed a universal tactile imaging technology for pressure distribution measurement using a coupled conductor pair.

Anti-Malaria drugs have shown promise in treating cancer, and now researchers know why
Anti-malaria drugs known as chloroquines have been repurposed to treat cancer for decades, but until now no one knew exactly what the chloroquines were targeting when they attack a tumor.

Stress of stretching solids: 3D image shows how particles distribute in metals
Observing the behavior of the particles in the composite metals helps to understand the mechanism of losing its strength and ductility, which makes possible to design the composites metals with higher strength and ductility.

Large, good-quality, monatomic sheets of germanene grown simply using annealing
Nagoya University-led researchers have found an easier, scalable way to produce high-quality 2D sheets of germanium, possibly paving the way to industrial-scale production and the advent of the next generation of electronics.

Clams and cockles, sentinels of the environmental status of Nicaraguan coasts
In collaboration with the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua, a research group from the UPV/EHU's Plentzia Marine Station has studied the bivalves in the mangroves on both coasts of Nicaragua in order to analyse how they are affected by the pollution brought down by the rivers.

Human activity may influence the distribution and transmission of Bartonella bacteria
A study in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases by Hannah Frank and colleagues at Stanford University, California suggests that humans play an important role in disease risk, infection patterns, and distribution of Bartonella, advancing current understanding of Bartonella's evolutionary history and how the bacteria may be transmitted between humans and other animal species.

New study sheds light on norovirus outbreaks, may help efforts to develop a vaccine
Outbreaks of norovirus in health care settings and outbreaks caused by a particular genotype of the virus are more likely to make people seriously ill, according to a new study in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Seeing and smelling food prepares the mouse liver for digestion
The sight or smell of something delicious is often enough to get your mouth watering, but the physiological response to food perception may go well beyond your salivary glands.

Agile Implementation reduced central line-associated blood stream infections by 30 percent
A new study has found that Agile Implementation, an easy to localize and apply change methodology that enables fast, efficient, effective, scalable and sustainable implementation of evidence-based healthcare solutions, reduced central-line associated blood stream infections by 30 percent.

New guidelines for early detection and treatment of sarcopenia
Newcastle University experts are chairing a national session on new guidelines for the early detection and treatment of sarcopenia -- a loss of muscle strength that affects many older people in the UK.

UB study describes presence of textile microfibers in south European marine floors
A study led by researchers of the UB quantifies the presence of textile microfibers in south European marine floors.

UMN researchers discover important connection between cells in the liver
University of Minnesota Medical School researchers have made a discovery which could lead to a new way of thinking about how disease pathogenesis in the liver is regulated, which is important for understanding the condition nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is incredibly common and growing.

Insomniac prisoners sleeping better after one-hour therapy session
Three-quarters of prisoners struggling to sleep have reported major improvements after receiving cognitive behavioural therapy to treat their insomnia.

Devonian integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China
Studies on the Devonian of China have lasted for about 170 years, and important progress has been made recently.

Brain, muscle cells found lurking in kidney organoids grown in lab
New research has identified rogue cells -- namely brain and muscle cells -- lurking within kidney organoids.

Human excrement efficiently converted to hydrochar -- World Toilet Day Nov. 19
The discovery addresses two challenges prevalent in the developing world: sanitation and growing energy needs.

Electronic skin points the way north
Researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in Germany have developed an electronic skin (e-skin) with magnetosensitive capabilities, sensitive enough to detect and digitize body motion in the Earth's magnetic field.

Stroke: Preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment?
To protect neurons and limit the damage after a stroke, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Caen-Normandie, University Paris-Est Créteil, and the company OTR3 have pursued an innovative path: targeting the matrix that surrounds and supports brain cells.

Enzymes in the cross-hairs
More and more bacteria are resistant to available antibiotics. A team of chemists from the Technical University of Munich now presents a new approach: they have identified important enzymes in the metabolism of staphylococci.

Variance in gut microbiome in Himalayan populations linked to dietary lifestyle
The gut bacteria of four Himalayan populations differ based on their dietary lifestyles, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators.

Vietnam veterans and agent orange exposure -- new report
The latest in a series of congressionally mandated biennial reviews of the evidence of health problems that may be linked to exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides used during the Vietnam War found sufficient evidence of an association for hypertension and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

Climate change/biodiversity loss: Inseparable threats to humanity that must be addressed together
Demand for biofuels to fight climate change clouds the future for biodiversity, says the Executive Secretary of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).

Which physical mechanism is responsible for magnetic properties of cuprates upon doping?
The international team of researchers has identified and proved that adding impurities with a lower concentration of electrons stabilizes the antiferromagnetic state of cuprates, high-temperature superconducting compounds based on copper.

Resistant bacteria: Can raw vegetables and salad pose a health risk?
Salad is popular with people who want to maintain a balanced and healthy diet.

'Edited' plant-based toxin possesses anti-tumor characteristics
Researchers at Shinshu University in Japan have discovered that editing the chemical properties of fusicoccins, a kind of toxic organic compound produced by fungus to blight plants, can transform them into chemicals with anti-tumor properties in cells.

Women build less effective professional networks than men as they underestimate self-worth
A study, published by SAGE Publishing today in the journal Human Relations, contributes to this ongoing discussion, revealing that it is not only exclusion by men, but also self-imposed barriers including hesitation and gendered modesty that prevent women from networking as effectively as their male counterparts.

Making moves and memories, are they connected?
Researchers report the first direct evidence that the cerebellum does more than just control muscle activity.

How is leather made? (video)
The chemical process of tanning turns animal hides into durable, supple leather.

Scorpion venom to shuttle drugs into the brain
The Peptides and Proteins lab at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) has published a paper in Chemical Communications describing the capacity of a small protein (a peptide) derived from chlorotoxin, found in scorpion venom (Giant Yellow Israeli scorpion), to carry drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

Ulcers from diabetes? New shoe insole could provide healing on-the-go
Purdue University researchers have developed a shoe insole that could help make the healing process more portable for the 15 percent of Americans who develop ulcers as a result of diabetes.

Protein central to immune system function new target for treating pulmonary hypertension
A protein with a role in sensing cell damage and viral infections is a new target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, or increased blood pressure in the lungs, according to research led by Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom.

Songbirds set long-distance migration record
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have studied flight routes to determine how far willow warblers migrate in the autumn.

New 'SLICE' tool can massively expand immune system's cancer-fighting repertoire
UC San Francisco researchers have devised a CRISPR-based system called SLICE, which will allow scientists to rapidly assess the function of each and every gene in 'primary' immune cells -- those drawn directly from patients.

Patchy distribution of joint inflammation resolved
Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondylo-arthritis (SpA) are chronic disabling diseases that have a poor outcome on loco-motoric function, if left untreated.

Faecal transplant may protect premature babies from fatal bowel disease
Children born prematurely often experience serious problems with the gastrointestinal tract and therefore have increased risk of developing life-threatening bowel infection.

Nanofiber carpet could lead to new sticky or insulating surfaces
Inspired by the extraordinary characteristics of polar bear fur, lotus leaves and gecko feet, engineering researchers have developed a new way to make arrays of nanofibers that could bring us coatings that are sticky, repellant, insulating or light emitting, among other possibilities.

Preventing chemical weapons as sciences converge
Scientists from Bradford warn of increased chemical weapons risk during a period of very rapid scientific change.

Recent study documents damage to rice crops by three fall-applied residual herbicides
Fall-applied residual herbicides are a commonly used control for glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass -- one of the most troublesome weeds in Mid-South row crops.

Diagnostic tool helps engineers to design better global infrastructure solutions
Designing safe bridges and water systems for low-income communities is not always easy for engineers coming from highly industrialized places.

Joint pain and swelling -- when symptoms masquerade as arthritis
The article highlights several conditions presenting with similar signs and symptoms to those of arthritis which may offer diagnostic confusion.

Cosmic fireworks
It's not every day you get to observe a gamma-ray binary system.

Flaws in industry-funded pesticide evaluation
Academic researchers have examined raw data from a company-funded safety evaluation of the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

Gut hormone and brown fat interact to tell the brain it's time to stop eating
Researchers from Germany and Finland have shown that so-called 'brown fat' interacts with the gut hormone secretin in mice to relay nutritional signals about fullness to the brain during a meal.

ECDC calls for continued action to address antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings
On European Antibiotic Awareness Day, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) publishes the results of two point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in hospitals and in long-term care facilities in the EU/EEA.

Does having 'lazy eye' affect a child's self-esteem?
Academic performance, interactions with peers, and athletic ability are factors connected to self-esteem in school children.

Disrupting parasites' family planning could aid malaria fight
Malaria parasites know good times from bad and plan their offspring accordingly, scientists have found, in a development that could inform new treatments.

Should you eat a low-gluten diet?
When healthy people eat a low-gluten and fiber-rich diet compared with a high-gluten diet they experience less intestinal discomfort including less bloating which researchers at University of Copenhagen show are due to changes of the composition and function of gut bacteria. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to