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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | November 26, 2018


Artificial intelligence may help reduce gadolinium dose in MRI
Researchers are using artificial intelligence to reduce the dose of a contrast agent that may be left behind in the body after MRI exams, according to a new study.
A new study shows what makes humans look older or younger using artificial intelligence
There are many factors that influence the aging process. Unlocking these factors can lead to valuable insights into what impacts the condition and health of the human body and reveal how to minimize these impacts.
How the Atlantic Ocean became part of the global circulation at a climatic tipping point
A team of scientists, led by Dr Sietske Batenburg at the University of Oxford's Department of Earth Sciences, in close collaboration with German and UK institutions, have discovered that the exchange of water between the North and South Atlantic became significantly larger fifty-nine million years ago.
Weight likely cause for one-fourth of asthma cases in kids with obesity
A study including health data for more than 500,000 children in the US suggests obesity might be to blame for about a quarter (23 to 27 percent) of asthma in children who are obese.
Health surrogates for older adults often don't know their care preferences
When it comes to making health decisions for an older adult, what health surrogates don't know can be harmful, according to new research.
Weight loss procedure shrinks both fat and muscle
Left gastric artery embolization, a novel interventional procedure used to treat obesity, leads to the loss of both fat and muscle, according to a new study.
Few laws to address growing issue of elderly gun owners with dementia
Researchers report that 27 percent of people 65 and older own one or more firearms, and 37 percent live in a home with a firearm present.
Survey finds 94 percent of Americans waste food at home, but simple changes can help
Taking inventory of your refrigerator and buying only what you need at the grocery store can help cut down the amount of food your family throws away, but when there are leftovers, experts say many Americans are too quick to throw good food in the trash.
How common are eating disorders in young children?
The frequency of eating disorder diagnoses was low among US children ages 9 to 10 in an analysis of data from another study.
Alcohol dependence, psychiatric disorders share genetic links
An international team of researchers has identified a gene that regulates how quickly the body metabolizes alcohol as a key risk factor for alcohol dependence.
Largest pediatric study shows obesity increases asthma risk in children
Ten percent of pediatric asthma cases could be avoided if childhood obesity were eliminated, according to research led by Nemours Children's Health System.
Brain responses to language in toddlers with Autism linked to altered gene expression
An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Cyprus and University of California San Diego School of Medicine, have identified a previously unknown, large-scale association between molecular gene expression activity in blood leukocyte cells and altered neural responses to speech in toddlers with autism as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Disordered materials could be hardest, most heat-tolerant carbides
Materials scientists at Duke University and UC San Diego have discovered a new class of carbides expected to be among the hardest materials and the highest melting points in existence.
Draw-your-own electrodes set to speed up development of micro detection devices
Miniature devices for sensing biological molecules could be developed quicker thanks to a rapid prototyping method.
Jurassic integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China
The rudimentary form of ancient continent of China has been formed in the Jurassic, a time being one of the most important coal-forming periods in China, and witnessed the famous Yanshan Movement and the rise of the Yanliao biota.
CAR T studies highlight Abramson Cancer Center research at ASH Annual Meeting
Penn researchers will present findings at the 60th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition in San Diego, including studies that evaluate CAR T combinations, how the timing of CAR T therapy may impact its effectiveness, and which patients who currently aren't eligible for CAR T therapy should have greater access.
Cancer treatments may affect cognitive function by accelerating biological aging
Cancer treatments are suspected to accelerate certain aging processes in the body.
Making it crystal clear: Crystallinity reduces resistance in all-solid-state batteries
Scientists at Tokyo Tech examined the mechanisms behind the resistance at the electrode-electrolyte interface of all-solid-state batteries.
Trazadone associated with similar risk of falls and major fractures as antipsychotics in seniors with dementia
As physicians attempt to decrease antipsychotic use in seniors with dementia, they need to be aware that trazadone, frequently used as an alternative, is associated with a similar risk of falls and major fractures as atypical antipsychotics, according to new research in CMAJ.
Fine-tuning cell death: New component of death machinery revealed
An important component of the microscopic machinery that drives cell death has been identified by Australian scientists.
Racing electrons under control
The advantage is that electromagnetic light waves oscillate at petaherz frequency.
'Old-fashioned fieldwork' puts new frog species on the map
Months of old-fashioned fieldwork helped define the range and unique characteristics of the recently discovered Atlantic Coast leopard frog.
Certain dietary or nutritional supplements could improve sperm quality
Infertility affects 15 percent of the world population and is recognized by the WHO as a global health problem.
First genetic map of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
An international study, focused on the analysis of the genome of more than 50,000 people worldwide, has identified twelve specific fragments of DNA related to the vulnerability of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Beware of evening stress
Stressful events in the evening release less of the body's stress hormones than those that happen in the morning, suggesting possible vulnerability to stress in the evening.
Drones offer ability to find, ID and count marine megafauna
New research demonstrates that consumer-grade drones are effective tools for monitoring marine species across multiple sites in the wild.
How ancient viruses got cannabis high
THC and CBD, bioactive substances produced by cannabis and sought by medical patients and recreational users, sprung to life thanks to ancient colonization of the plant's genome by viruses, U of T researchers have found.
Survey of school nurses reveals lack of bathroom policies and bladder health education
In an online survey developed by the Society for Women's Health Research, a majority of school nurses reported that the pre-K-12 schools they work for do not have written policies on student bathroom use and do not have education for students and teachers on bladder health.
Virtual models provide real knowledge in the grass family
The complex flowers of the grass family have enormous economic importance, as their pollination leads to the production of grains such as rice, wheat, and corn.
AI turns mice to men (and women) bridging drug development translation barrier
CytoReason, developer of the world's first machine learning platform for human immune system cell-level simulation, today announces publication of a groundbreaking new model for translating data from mouse models to human disease.
How ancient Mayan shell decor led to a new look at freshwater mussels south of the border
An unlikely collaboration between archaeologists desperate to put names to shells at Mayan dig sites and an ichthyologist led to the first molecular study of Mexican and Central American freshwater mussels.
Parents learn, babies talk: How coaching moms and dads improves infants' language skills
A new study from the University of Washington's Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences (I-LABS) shows that parents who learn how and why to speak 'parentese' can have a direct impact on their children's vocabulary.
Mere sunlight can be used to eradicate pollutants in water
Advances in environmental technology: You don't need complex filters and laser systems to destroy persistent pollutants in water.
Drug use, religion explain 'reverse gender gap' on marijuana
Women tend to be more conservative than men on political questions related to marijuana.
Living electrodes with bacteria and organic electronics
Researchers at the Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Linkoping University, have together with colleagues at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, developed a method that increases the signal strength from microbial electrochemical cells by up to twenty times.
Study in mice suggests drug to turn fat 'brown' could help fight obesity
Our bodies contain two types of fat: white fat and brown fat.
Better statistics for better health for pregnant women and babies in Europe in 2015
The Euro-Peristat network is pleased to announce the publication of a new European Perinatal Health Report, 'Core indicators of the health and care of pregnant women and babies in Europe in 2015'.
How to pay for national pharmacare
A new analysis in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) outlines the potential government cost of a national Canadian pharmacare program and sets out approaches to shifting the funding for drugs in Canada to realize billions in savings.
Targeting MC1R in metastatic melanoma
University of Colorado Cancer Center study describes a molecule that seeks out melanoma cells, for imaging and potentially for therapy.
Complex systems help explain how democracy is destabilised
Complex systems theory is usually used to study things like the immune system, global climate, ecosystems, transportation or communications systems.
Multicenter study supports safety of overlapping orthopaedic surgery
For patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, the use of 'overlapping' procedures -- where the attending surgeon is simultaneously involved in two different surgeries in different operating rooms -- does not lead to an increased risk of complications, reports a study in the Nov.
New biocontainment strategy controls spread of escaped GMOs
Hiroshima University researchers successfully developed a biocontainment strategy for GMOs.
Something to chew on
Cows eat grass. It seems simple enough. But just which kind of grass cows and their vegetarian comrades munch on can influence the entire ecosystem.
Intermittent fasting: No advantage over conventional weight loss diets
Intermittent fasting helps lose weight and promotes health. However, it is not superior to conventional calorie restriction diets, scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Heidelberg University Hospital have found out in a study called HELENA -- the largest investigation on intermittent fasting to date.
Postal code area data can help in the planning of cost-effective health care services
When assessing the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities or outcomes of care, it is worthwhile to use small-area-based open data instead of individual SES information, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.
Playing youth football could affect brain development
Young football players may experience a disruption in brain development after a single season of the sport, according to a new study.
Study identifies a genetic driver of deadly prostate cancer
A new study has identified a novel molecular driver of lethal prostate cancer, along with a molecule that could be used to attack it.
NASA sees Tropical Cyclone 33W dissipating
When NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Ca Mau Peninsula it captured a visible image of the dissipating former Tropical Cyclone 33W.
Citrate-based biomaterial fuels bone healing with less rejection
A material based on a natural product of bones and citrus fruit, called citrate, provides the extra energy that stem cells need to form new bone tissue, according to a team of Penn State bioengineers.
Minimally invasive retinal detachment has better outcomes: Clinical trial findings
A minimally invasive treatment for retinal detachment gives patients sharper vision, less distortion and reduced side-effects, according to the findings of a randomized controlled trial performed at St.
New service in south London reduces hospital readmissions for people with bipolar disorder
A new specialist programme at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) has been shown to significantly reduce the rate of hospital readmissions for people with bipolar disorder, in an early-stage audit funded by the NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre.
Drinking water sucked from the dusty desert air
An inexpensive hydrogel-based material efficiently captures moisture even from low-humidity air and then releases it on demand.
A new aspect in Plasmodium falciparum life cycle revealed: 'Express' sexual conversion
Conversion from the asexual to the sexual phase of the malaria parasite is necessary for its transmission to the mosquito.
Fred Hutch at ASH: Press briefing on CAR T-cell therapy, CRISPR for blood disorders, more
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's latest findings on cancer immunotherapies, CRISPR for blood disorders, stem cell transplantation and insights on the immune system and cancer will be featured at the 60th annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, which will be held Dec.
A water treatment breakthrough, inspired by a sea creature
Inspired by Actinia, a sea organism that ensnares its prey with its tentacles, a team of researchers has developed a method for efficiently treating water.
Natural habitats larger than Greece created to offset economic developments
Dr. Joseph W. Bull, a conservation scientist at University of Kent worked with Dr.
Creating rings in natural antibiotic synthesis
Scientists at the University of Bristol have revealed the secrets of the key ring forming cascade in the biosynthesis of a globally used antibiotic.
Climate change could lead to threefold increase in powerful storms across Europe and North America
Powerful storms that cause extreme weather conditions such as flooding across Europe and North America, with the potential to wreak social and economic havoc, could increase threefold by the end of the 21st century due to climate change.
NIH researchers discover neural code that predicts behavior
Scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have found that neurons in the superior colliculus, an ancient midbrain structure found in all vertebrates, are key players in allowing us to detect visual objects and events.
Lung disease in middle age may be a risk factor for dementia later in life
Middle-aged adults with lung disease may be at greater risk of developing dementia or cognitive impairment later in life, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Big study of fishing communities finds good neighbors are hard to come by
A study of 89 fishing communities in East Africa has found that good neighbors who agree with common proposals to improve shared fisheries management are uncommon, illustrating that the 'tragedy of the commons' dilemma is alive for many fisheries facing sustainable use challenges.
The five types of problem drinking are more common at different ages
Alcohol abuse is more complicated than simply drinking too much.
New device could monitor anticoagulant treatments with to deliver personalized therapies
Researchers of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2) and CIBER Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) have developed a biosensor device which allows the monitoring of anticoagulants such as Sintrom® (acenocoumarol) to deliver a personalized therapy in which the patient or doctor can adjust the drug dose to achieve the optimal effect.
Parents: To prepare kids financially, give them practice with money
Providing children with hands-on experience with money is essential to preparing them for financial success, a new study suggests.
Light-activated, single-ion catalyst breaks down carbon dioxide
A team of scientists has discovered a single-site, visible-light-activated catalyst that converts carbon dioxide (CO2) into 'building block' molecules that could be used for creating useful chemicals.
Six feet under, a new approach to global warming
A Washington State University researcher has found that one-fourth of the carbon held by soil is bound to minerals as far as six feet below the surface.
Quantum computing at scale: Australian scientists achieve compact, sensitive qubit readout
A group led by Australian of the Year, Professor Michelle Simmons, has overcome another critical technical hurdle for building a silicon-based quantum computer.
Environment turns molecule into a switch
For the first time, physicists from the University of Würzburg have successfully positioned an organic molecule on a substrate realizing two stable configurations.
Does teen cannabis use lead to behavior problems -- or vice versa?
New research led by the Annenberg Public Policy Center finds that cannabis use among teens doesn't appear to lead to greater conduct problems or greater affiliation with other teens who smoke cannabis.
Cancer researchers ID 'Achilles heel' of drug-resistant tumors
UC San Francisco scientists have figured out why some lung cancers become drug-resistant after initially responding to targeted therapies.
Microbes 'MacGyver' membrane transport
A general concept in biology is that cells use two different systems to transport substances across their membrane: selective pores, which allow passive transport driven by a concentration gradient, and active transport complexes, which use energy to transport substances against a gradient.
Sunset crater, San Francisco volcanic field
The San Francisco Volcanic Field is a 4,700 square kilometers (1,800 square miles) area in the southern boundary of the Colorado Plateau.
Hacking the aging code: Big data to the rescue
Big data from human medical studies combined with analytical approaches from physics of complex dynamic systems offer a whole new way to understand and defeat aging.
Paving the way: An accelerator on a microchip
Darmstadt, Germany, November 26, 2018. Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip.
Stress-induced effects on heart blood flow differ for men versus women
Some patients with coronary artery disease have inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle during periods of mental/emotional stress.
Some research may be encouraging ineffective prescriptions, says new study
A new paper published by McGill University researchers in JAMA Internal Medicine suggests that some clinical trials may promote the use of ineffective and costly treatments.
Emotional suppression has negative outcomes on children
'Not in front of the kids' is an age-old plea for parents to avoid showing conflict and strong negative emotions around their children.
The persistence of pesticides threatens European soils
A study developed by researchers from the Diverfarming project finds pesticide residues in the soils of eleven European countries in six different cropping systems
The age of puberty for Danish children appears to continue to fall
The age at which children enter puberty has fallen in a large number of Western countries, including Denmark.
Study identifies sepsis symptoms that lead to death
The data analysis, pulled from more than 200,000 hospital visits, could help clinicians to more quickly identify -- and treat- the patients who are at the greatest risk of dying from the common, and often insidious, condition.
Smarter AI: Machine learning without negative data
A research team from the RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project (AIP) has successfully developed a new method for machine learning that allows an AI to make classifications without what is known as 'negative data,' a finding which could lead to wider application to a variety of classification tasks.
NIST simulations suggest graphene can stretch to be a tunable ion filter
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have conducted simulations suggesting that graphene, in addition to its many other useful features, can be modified with special pores to act as a tunable filter or strainer for ions (charged atoms) in a liquid.
Drying Canadian wetland drives muskrat decline
Over the last half-century, Canada's Peace-Athabasca Delta has been slowly drying.
Using microcredit to increase rice yield in Bangladesh
In a collaborative study, Kyoto University researchers conducted a study examining the impact of agricultural microcredits on the livelihood of tenant farmers in Bangladesh, and find that small loans lead to numerous benefits
Successful second round of experiments with Wendelstein 7-X
The experiments conducted until November at the Wendelstein 7-X fusion device at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany, have achieved higher values for the density and the energy content of the plasma and long discharge times of up to 100 seconds -- record results for devices of the stellarator type.
Effort clarifies major branch of insect tree of life
The insects known as Hemiptera are not a particularly glamorous bunch.
Coordinated development could help wind farms be better neighbors
New research led by the University of Colorado Boulder highlights a previously underexplored consequence: A wake effect from upwind wind farms that can reduce the energy production of their downwind neighbors.
Mutations boost immunity: Toward a cancer vaccine
In a new study, Stephen Albert Johnston and his colleagues describe a method for pinpointing tumor-specific factors in blood that can elicit a protective immune response in the body and may one day be harnessed to produce an effective vaccine against the disease.
Sequential imaging of Zika-exposed fetuses reveals most have normal brain development
Ultrasound imaging performed during pregnancy and after childbirth revealed most Zika-related brain abnormalities experienced by infants exposed to the Zika virus during pregnancy, according to a prospective cohort study published online Nov.
Zebrafish help unlock mystery of motor neurone disease
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have successfully created zebrafish that carry the complex genetic change known to cause the most common genetic form of motor neurone disease (MND).
Blood-sucking flies have been spreading malaria for 100 million years
The microorganisms that cause malaria, leishmaniasis and a variety of other illnesses today can be traced back at least to the time of dinosaurs, a study of amber-preserved blood-sucking insects and ticks show.
The complexity of the commons: Scientists recast social dilemmas
A new classification system adds real-world complexity to social dilemmas like the paradigmatic 'tragedy of the commons.'
Combined local and global actions could lessen impacts of change in marine environment
Increased oil and gas activities could combine with ocean warming and acidification to have a significant negative impact on marine organisms, a new study suggests.
Neurobiologists from Sechenov University specified functions of a gene autism-associated
Neurobiologists confirmed that stress in early age affects the mice with activated and deactivated CDH13 gene in different ways.
Parents: Take a timeout before you force your child to apologize
Parents who force unremorseful kids to apologize to others before they're truly sorry may do more harm than good.
The tragedy of the commons -- minus the tragedy
Sometimes, there is no 'tragedy' in the tragedy of the commons, according to a new analysis that challenges a widely accepted theory.
Researchers advance role of circulating tumor DNA to detect early melanoma growth
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have added to evidence that measuring and monitoring tumor DNA that naturally circulates in the blood of melanoma patients can not only reliably help reveal the early stages of cancer growth and spread but also uncover new treatment options that tumor genetic analysis alone may not.
FEFU archaeologists have found the oldest burials in Ecuador
Archaeologists of the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) found three burials of the ancient inhabitants of South America aged from 6 to 10 thousand years.
Scientists discover a new route to antibiotics using gene editing
Scientists have discovered a new chemical process -- also known as a biosynthetic pathway -- in bacteria which could lead to a new generation of antibiotics being produced and manufactured.
Good help in primary care for children with obesity
Children treated for obesity in primary or outpatient care have a relatively good chance of fending off weight problems over the next few years as well, a study published in Acta Paediatrica shows.
NASA's GPM shows small area of heavy rain in Tropical Storm Man-yi
Once a typhoon, Man-yi has weakened to a tropical storm as it continues to track through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, far to the east of Taiwan.
Scientists uncovered the mechanism of fungal luminescence and created luminescent yeasts
Russian scientists together with colleagues from UK, Spain, Brazil, Japan and Austria have fully described the mechanism of fungal luminescence.
A fresh look at winter footprints: Environmental DNA improves tracking of rare carnivores
A new project shows that animal footprints contain enough DNA for species identification.
Strong painkillers increase the risk of hip fracture among persons with Alzheimer's disease
People using strong painkillers, opioids, have twice the risk of hip fracture compared to non-opioid users, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.
New way to analyze metagenome
New online service 'Knomics-Biota' allows for a comprehensive study of intestinal microbiome genetic data.
Researchers find more recently diagnosed cancer survivors likely to drink, smoke
Recently diagnosed cancer survivors are more likely to drink alcohol, use tobacco, and frequent tanning beds than people in later stages of recovery, according to a research team from the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center.
How does potassium enter cells?
For decades it was assumed that protein channels and protein pumps fulfilled completely different functions and worked independently of each other.
Childhood physical inactivity reaches crisis levels around the globe
Children around the world are not moving enough to maintain healthy growth and development, according to a new global report.
Study reveals mechanisms that promote icing responsible for power disruptions
Chinese scientists shed light on the meteorological conditions responsible for the rate of icing growth on electric power transmission lines.
Sexist men underestimate their power in romantic relationships
Heterosexual men with sexist attitudes may underestimate how much power they actually have in their romantic relationships, which could lead to increased aggression toward their female partners or wives, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Scripps Research scientists unveil promising new HIV vaccine strategy
A new candidate HIV vaccine from Scripps Research surmounts technical hurdles that stymied previous vaccine efforts, and stimulates a powerful anti-HIV antibody response in animal tests.
Do you have a healthy personality? Researchers think they can tell you
Researchers from the University of California, Davis, have identified a healthy personality prototype in a recent study using a contemporary trait perspective.
Gut microbiota-derived D-serine protects against acute kidney injury
Gut microbiota-derived metabolites play important roles in health and disease.
Urgent need to reduce meat and dairy consumption to meet climate targets, says expert
The livestock sector could use almost half of the 1.5 degree C greenhouse gas emission budget allowed by 2030, so addressing this should be a key part of the strategy to hit climate targets, according to a new study published in Climate Policy.
New technique to make objects invisible proposed
Researchers at the University of Extremadura have demonstrated the electromagnetic invisibility of objects using an alternative technique, based on filler cloaking.
Extreme heat increasing in both summer and winter
A new study shows extreme heat events both in the summer and in the winter are increasing across the US and Canada, while extreme cold events in summer and winter are declining.
Research helps in understanding the dynamics of dune formation
Studies by Brazilian researchers could have applications in crude oil pumping and missions to Mars, among others.
Steroid synthesis discovery could rewrite the textbooks
Steroids are essential molecules for life in all complex organisms such as animals and plants.
Impact on the collective behavior of animal groups
Study from Konstanz demonstrates: If animal groups are disturbed this will have an impact on their collective behavior -- results may be transferable to other social units.
UNH researchers discover new materials to generate solar fuel production
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have identified new, readily available materials that convert sunlight and carbon dioxide (CO2) into building blocks for liquid fuels that could one day heat homes and power cars.
Patients with rare natural ability to suppress HIV shed light on potential functional cure
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have identified two patients with HIV whose immune cells behave differently than others with the virus and actually appear to help control viral load even years after infection.
LGB students at higher risk of self-harm
University students who are Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) are at higher risk of self-harm and attempting suicide than their heterosexual counterparts say researchers.
Gene study boosts bid to keep British bees safe from disease
Efforts to protect the UK's native honey bees could be helped by research from the University of Edinburgh that maps their entire genetic make-up.
Extremely strong and yet incredibly ductile multicomponent alloys developed
A research team led by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has developed a novel strategy to develop new high-strength alloys which are extremely strong and yet also ductile and flexible.
Alcohol use may increase among Hispanic Americans as they become more 'Americanized'
Data from over 68,000 Hispanic Americans, including first-generation immigrants and native-born individuals, indicate that people in this group who are more 'Americanized' are more likely to be drinkers, consume alcohol at greater intensity, experience more negative consequences associated with alcohol use and affect women more than men.

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