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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 27, 2018


Automated technique for anime colorization using deep learning
Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, IMAGICA GROUP Inc. and OLM Digital, Inc. report the world's first technique for automatic colorization focused on Japanese anime production.
Researchers aim to prevent medical imaging cyberattacks
Researchers and cybersecurity experts have begun to examine ways to mitigate the risk of cyberattacks in medical imaging before they become a real danger.
Medical equipment hacking and defensive solutions presentation by Ben-Gurion U. researcher
The Ben Gurion University proposed system learns to recognize typical imaging scan protocols and to predict if a new, unseen command is legitimate or not.
Undergraduate biology textbooks fail to teach how science can improve industry practice
Undergraduate biology textbooks do little to teach students how science can contribute to successful careers in industry or improved business practices at a time when some fear that science is under attack by corporate interests.
Medical referrals: Closing the communication loop to improve care and avoid delays
A new study from Regenstrief Institute investigators addresses breakdowns in the referral from primary care to medical specialist process and presents a prototype template using evidence-based design to improve communication about referrals among clinicians.
Stigma impairs cognition in men living with HIV
A new study has drawn a direct link between the amount of stigma men with HIV report experiencing and their scores on cognitive tests, measuring abilities such as memory and attention.
Touch can produce detailed, lasting memories
Exploring objects through touch can generate detailed, durable memories for those objects, even when we don't intend to memorize the object's details, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Cancer under pressure: Visualizing the activity of the immune system on tumor development
As tumors develop, they evolve genetically. How does the immune system act when faced with tumor cells?
Reliance on 'YouTube medicine' may be dangerous for those concerned about prostate cancer
The most popular YouTube videos on prostate cancer often offer misleading or biased medical information that poses potential health risks to patients, an analysis of the social media platform shows.
Prehistoric cave art reveals ancient use of complex astronomy
As far back as 40,000 years ago, humans kept track of time using relatively sophisticated knowledge of the stars
Detective mission to characterise and trace the history of a new African meteorite
Researchers from Wits and colleagues from the University of Antananarivo in Madagascar are on a 'detective mission' to describe, classify and trace the history of a meteorite that landed in and around the small town of Benenitra in southwestern Madagascar shortly before the lunar eclipse on July 27, 2018.
Advanced imaging technology measures magnetite levels in the living brain
Investigators at the Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital have used magnetoencephalography -- a technology that measures brain activity by detecting the weak magnetic fields produced by the brain's normal electrical currents -- to measure levels of the iron-based mineral called magnetite in the human brain.
A life cycle solution to fossil fuel impacts
research from the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, published recently in Environmental Science & Technology, found that co-treatment of research from the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering, published recently in Environmental Science & Technology, found that co-treatment of acid mine drainage and produced fracking fluid may not only solve two environmental issues at once, but also reduce the environmental impact of both legacy wastes.
Researchers discover clues to brain changes in depression
In new pre-clinical research, scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM), led by Scott Thompson, PhD, Professor of Physiology, have identified changes in brain activity linked to the pleasure and reward system.
Electrical stimulation in the nose induces sense of smell in human subjects
Physicians at Massachusetts Eye and Ear have, for the first time, induced a sense of smell in humans by using electrodes in the nose to stimulate nerves in the olfactory bulb, a structure in the brain where smell information from the nose is processed and sent to deeper regions of brain.
A starch and graphene hydrogel geared towards electrodes for brain implants is developed
The Materials + Technology research group at the UPV/EHU's Faculty of Engineering -- Gipuzkoa has, in collaboration with the University of Strasbourg, developed some hydrogels with potential biomedical applications.
Improve hand hygiene and patient decolonization to help stem high-risk S. aureus transmission in the operating room
Adherence to proven protocols for disinfecting surgeons' hands, patients' skin, and operating room surfaces could help to halt the spread of dangerous Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pathogens in the operating room and beyond, according to new research published in the American Journal of Infection Control, the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.
Newly discovered deep-sea microbes gobble greenhouse gases and perhaps oil spills, too
Scientists have discovered nearly two dozen new types of microbes, many of which use hydrocarbons such as methane and butane as energy sources--meaning they might be helping to limit the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and might one day be useful for cleaning up oil spills.
Pre-pregnancy health coverage climbs after Medicaid expansion
The number of low-income women enrolled in Medicaid before becoming pregnant rose substantially in states that expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Affordable Care Act.
First ancient DNA from mainland Finland reveals origins of Siberian ancestry in region
Researchers from the Max-Planck-Institute for the Science of Human History and the University of Helsinki have analyzed the first ancient DNA from mainland Finland.
The warm and loving tegu lizard becomes a genetic resource
Researchers have sequenced the genome of the tegu, Salvator merianae: a lizard that has taken an evolutionary step toward warm-bloodedness.
How water fleas detect predators
Water fleas of the genus Daphnia detect via chemical substances if their predators, namely Chaoborus larvae, are hunting in their vicinity.
Pulsed radiofrequency relieves acute back pain and sciatica
A minimally invasive procedure in which pulses of energy from a probe are applied directly to nerve roots near the spine is safe and effective in people with acute lower back pain that has not responded to conservative treatment, according to a new study.
New concept for tractor beam from Star Wars developed
Physicists from ITMO University developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials.
Shedding a new light on optical trapping and tweezing
Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser light, to control and manipulate minute objects such as single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices.
Oxygen could have been available to life as early as 3.5 billion years ago
Microbes could have performed oxygen-producing photosynthesis at least one billion years earlier in the history of the Earth than previously thought.
On the trail of rare genetic disease, scientists uncover key immune regulator
Scientists at Scripps Research have found an important immune system-regulating protein that in principle could be targeted to treat cancers and chronic viral infections.
Lobachevsky University scientists obtain a hexagonal modification of silicon
A team of scientists from Lobachevsky University (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) has obtained a material with a new structure for applications in the new-generation optoelectronics and photonics.
Wriggly, squiffy, lummox, and boobs: What makes some words funny?
Upchuck, bubby, boff, wriggly, yaps, giggle, cooch, guffaw, puffball, and jiggly: the top 10 funniest words in the English language, according to a new study by University of Alberta psychology experts.
Remains of Anglo-Saxon cemetery discovered
Archaeologists from the University of Sheffield have uncovered a previously unknown Anglo-Saxon cemetery.
Scripps Research scientists decode mechanism of remembering -- and forgetting
A team at Scripps Research has shown for the first time the physiological mechanism by which a memory is formed and then subsequently forgotten.
Is your office messy? If so, you may be seen as uncaring, neurotic
An extremely messy personal space seems to lead people to believe the owner of that space is more neurotic and less agreeable, say University of Michigan researchers.
Freeze-dried polio vaccine could spell end of disease
Injectable vaccine, freeze-dried into a powder, kept at room temperature for four weeks and then rehydrated, offered full protection against the polio virus when tested in mice.
Noncompliance thwarts comprehensive background check policy for private-party sales
Of the three states that recently expanded comprehensive background check policies to include all gun transfers, including those among private parties, only Delaware showed an overall increase in firearm background checks.
Endurance but not resistance training has anti-aging effects
Researchers have discovered evidence that endurance exercise, such as running, swimming, cross-country skiing and cycling, will help you age better than resistance exercise, which involves strength training with weights.
Discovery of the first common genetic risk factors for ADHD
A global team of researchers has found the first common genetic risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex condition affecting around one in 20 children.
Early detection of epilepsy in children possible with deep learning computer science technique
Early detection of the most common form of epilepsy in children is possible through 'deep learning,' a new machine learning tool that teaches computers to learn by example, according to a new study that includes researchers from Georgia State University.
Home videos of children can be scored to diagnose autism, Stanford study says
Short home videos can be used to diagnose autism in children, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Newfound mechanism may yield ways to counter mistaken immune attack on body
A newfound genetic regulatory mechanism may shape the immune system's ability to fight viral infections, and play a key role in autoimmune diseases.
UA researchers help discover genetic factor that can help or hurt risk for heart disease
Individuals with a particular genetic factor may be more resistant to plaque build-up and have a reduced risk for coronary artery disease.
Keep it complex: Study shows that previous research oversimplified Schizophrenia symptoms
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia can be so disabling that they interfere with a person's ability to attend school, begin a fulfilling career, and even live independently.
Early-life stress hinders development of neurons in mice, causing attention disorders
Researchers at Brown University found that stress early in the life of female mice leads to fewer 'tuning' neurons in the part of the brain responsible for making sense of emotions and following rules.
WSU researcher creates first model of how plastic waste moves in the environment
A Washington State University researcher for the first time has modeled how microplastic fibers move through the environment.
AI system may accelerate search for cancer discoveries
Searching through the mountains of published cancer research could be made easier for scientists, thanks to a new AI system.
Insight into the brain's hidden depths: Jena scientists develop minimally invasive probe
This could be a major step towards a better understanding of the functions of deeply hidden brain compartments, such as the formation of memories, as well as related dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease.
An understudied form of child abuse and intimate terrorism: Parental Alienation
According to Colorado State University social psychologist Jennifer Harman, about 22 million American parents have been the victims of behaviors that lead to something called parental alienation.
Phase 3 trial shows lanadelumab to be effective in reducing hereditary angioedema attacks
A phase 3 clinical trial led by a Massachusetts General Hospital physician, finds that injections of the monoclonal antibody drug lanadelumab reduced attacks of hereditary angioedema -- a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder.
Research pioneers
Five UC Santa Barbara professors join the ranks as Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) for 2018.
Researchers successfully train computers to identify animals in photos
Researchers trained a deep neural network to classify wildlife species using 3.37 million camera-trap images of 27 species of animals obtained from five states across the United States.
Mapping of cells in the early human placenta may shed light on problem pregnancies
Scientists have made the first comprehensive inventory of cells present in the human placenta of the first trimester, a stage when many pregnancy complications are thought to arise.
Photonic radiation sensors survive huge doses undamaged
NIST researchers have published landmark test results that suggest a promising class of sensors can be used in high-radiation environments and to advance important medical, industrial and research applications.
Single-cell asymmetries control how groups of cells form 3D shapes together
Scientists have developed a mathematical model showing that two types of cellular asymmetry, or 'polarity,' govern the shaping of cells into sheets and tubes, according to an article in eLife.
Enzyme discovery points researchers toward starving lung cancer as a potential treatment
UT Southwestern researchers have found that an enzyme on the surface of some lung cancer cells helps feed the cancer, making it a tempting treatment target.
Veterans study points to suicide risk from multiple brain injuries
A Veterans Affairs study finds that post-9-11 veterans with a history of repeated traumatic brain injuries -- versus none -- are at much greater risk for considering suicide.
How antibiotics help spread resistance
Bacteria can become insensitive to antibiotics by picking up resistance genes from the environment.
Discovery opens new opportunities to slow or reverse MS
Nerve cells stripped of their insulation can no longer carry vital information, leading to the numbness, weakness and vision problems often associated with multiple sclerosis.
No clear evidence that diverting patients from emergency departments curbs overcrowding
There's no clear evidence that diverting patients, who are not seriously ill, away from emergency departments, in a bid to curb overcrowding, is either safe or effective, reveals research published online in Emergency Medicine Journal.
Threatened tropical coral reefs form complex, ancient associations with bacteria
In a comprehensive study of healthy corals published Nov. 22 in the journal Nature Communications, a team of scientists from the University of Washington Bothell, Pennsylvania State University and Oregon State University report that coral bacteria are a surprisingly diverse bunch -- and that different sections of the coral body can host unique communities of bacteria.
Study explains waterhemp's metabolic resistance to topramezone
Corn naturally tolerates certain herbicides, detoxifying the chemicals before they can cause harm.
Putting hybrid-electric aircraft performance to the test
Although hybrid-electric cars are becoming commonplace, similar technology applied to airplanes comes with significantly different challenges.
Biologists discover an unusual hallmark of aging in neurons
MIT biologists have discovered that oxidative damage by free radicals produces an unusual pileup of short snippets of RNA in some neurons.
How changing labs revealed a chemical reaction key to cataract formation
Researchers working to understand the biochemistry of cataracts have made a surprising finding: A protein that was long believed to be inert actually has an important chemical function that protects the lens of the eye from cataract formation.
Hidden history of Rome revealed under world's first cathedral
An international team of archaeologists has revealed new insights into the history of Rome following years of work under the Archbasilica of St John Lateran in Rome.
Microplastics pollution in Falklands as high as UK
The first study to investigate microplastics around Ascension Island and the Falkland Islands -- two of the most remote locations in the South Atlantic Ocean -- has found levels of contamination comparable with the waters around the UK.
Challenges for sex workers in holding the line in condom use in Western Australia
A study of sex workers finds unexpectedly low rates of reported condom use for all forms of penetrative sex -- and particularly oral sex.
Why small size matters: Tiny mitochondria stimulate brain cell connections
This research, published online today in Nature Communications, suggests that these unusually small, squat mitochondria help neurons grow and make proper connections in the developing brain.
New method for studying gene expression could improve understanding of brain disease
By analyzing gene expression patterns, researchers have identified previously unknown distinctions between mouse and human neurons.
Largest study of CRISPR-Cas9 mutations creates prediction tool for gene editing
The largest study of CRISPR action to date has developed a method to predict the exact mutations CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing can introduce to a cell.
Researchers restore breathing, partial forelimb function in rats with spinal cord injuries
a breakthrough study has demonstrated, in animal models of chronic injury, that long-term, devastating effects of spinal cord trauma on breathing and limb function may be reversible.
Psychological intervention proves 'life-changing' for women experiencing domestic abuse
Training domestic violence and abuse (DVA) advocates to deliver psychological support to women experiencing DVA could significantly improve the health of those affected.
Lack of sleep intensifies anger, impairs adaptation to frustrating circumstances
Losing just a couple hours of sleep at night makes you angrier, especially in frustrating situations, according to new Iowa State University research.
ASH releases new clinical practice guidelines for venous thromboembolism
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a term referring to blood clots in the veins, is a highly prevalent and far-reaching public health problem that can cause disability and death.
Newly discovered wasp turns social spiders into zombies
It sounds like the plot of the world's tiniest horror movie: deep in the Ecuadorian Amazon, a newly discovered species of wasp transforms a 'social' spider into a zombie that abandons its colony to do the wasp's bidding.
First calf born following IVF embryo breakthrough
Scientists at the University of Kent have successfully applied a new way to screen the genetics of cattle embryos, based on technology originally developed for human IVF.
State pension age increase causing huge uncertainty for older workers, especially females
The alignment of state pension ages for women and men -- while in some senses a milestone for gender equality -- has created very real difficulties for those whose who will now not receive their State Pension when they had originally expected to.
USPSTF recommendation statement on interventions to prevent child maltreatment
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) finds limited or inconsistent evidence on the benefits of primary care interventions to prevent child maltreatment (defined as abuse, neglect or both).
Telemedicine use increases but still uncommon
Laws passed in 32 states promote the use of telemedicine by mandating coverage and reimbursement.
10 percent of bowel cancer patients can wait more than a year to start treatment
It can take up to a year for some bowel cancer patients in the UK to start treatment, according to international research coordinated by Cancer Research UK and published in BMJ Open today.
Study reveals how a small molecule promotes removal of excess cholesterol
Scientists have determined the structure of the activated form of an enzyme that helps to return excess cholesterol to the liver, a study in eLife reports.
Music supports the auditory skills of hearing-impaired children
Researchers at University of Helsinki, Finland, and University College London have found evidence that children with hearing impairment and cochlear implants can benefit from hobbies involving music and especially singing.
Scientists identify potential target for treating rare cancer
Researchers have pinpointed a protein that plays a key role in a type of rare cancer often leading to tumours around joints and tendons, according to new findings in eLife.
Sugars and microbiome in mother's milk influence neonatal rotavirus infection
An international team of researchers reveals that complex interactions between sugars and the microbiome in human milk influence neonatal rotavirus infection and identifies maternal components that could improve the performance of live, attenuated rotavirus vaccines.
Using fine-tuning for record-breaking performance
Materials scientists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have achieved a new record in the performance of organic non-fullerene based single-junction solar cells.
Solving a 75-year-old mystery might provide a new source of farm fertilizer
The solution to a 75-year-old materials mystery might one day allow farmers in developing nations to produce their own fertilizer on demand, using sunlight and nitrogen from the air.
Study affirms challenges in managing severe pain of sickle cell disease
In a study tracking the severe crisis pain of sickle cell disease and its management in 73 adults over a period of a year, Johns Hopkins researchers found that even among those on high doses of daily at-home opioids, a persistent subset was more likely to seek emergency hospital care for crisis pain and was less likely to have the pain controlled by intensive treatment.
Lipid that aids normal skin turnover may help psoriasis
Topical application of the lipid phosphatidylglycerol, or PG, on a mouse model of psoriasis reduced inflammation as well as characteristic, raised skin lesions, they report in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.
SwRI's James Dante receives SERDP/ESTCP Project of the Year Award
James Dante, a manager in the Mechanical Engineering Division at Southwest Research Institute, has received a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) award.
Why screen time can disrupt sleep
For most, the time spent staring at screens -- on computers, phones, iPads -- constitutes many hours and can often disrupt sleep.
Pitt engineer-clinician team uses 'active wrinkles' to keep synthetic grafts clean
To improve the success rate of synthetic grafts, a research team led by the University of Pittsburgh are investigating whether the 'active wrinkles' on the interior surface of arteries may help improve synthetic graft design and create a better alternative to autologous grafts for bypass surgery.
Ambulances in Syria deliberately and repeatedly targeted as part of war tactics
Syrian government and Russian armed forces have deliberately and repeatedly targeted ambulances in Syria as part of the Assad regime's strategy to destabilise and intimidate through the 'weaponisation of healthcare,' reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Global Health.
Exposure to e-cigarette adverts linked to teenagers using e-cigarettes and smoking
The more often adolescents say they have seen adverts for e-cigarettes, the more often they use both e-cigarettes and smoke tobacco cigarettes, according to a study published in ERJ Open Research.
New methods help identify what drives sensitive or socially unacceptable behaviors
Conservation scientists and statisticians at Colorado State University have teamed up to solve a key problem for the study of sensitive behaviors like poaching, harassment, bribery, and drug use.
DNA with a twist: Discovery could further antibiotic drug development
Scientists reveal how a 'molecular machine' in bacterial cells prevents fatal DNA twisting, which could be crucial in the development of new antibiotic treatments.
Not just a pretty face: Botulinum toxin shows promise in trials to reduce post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in cardiac surgery patients
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication, affecting one quarter to one half of all patients following cardiac surgery.
Study: Public transportation use linked to better public health
Promoting robust public transportation systems may come with a bonus for public health -- lower obesity rates.
Fitbits go the distance in running study
La Trobe University researchers have put one of the world's most popular activity trackers to the test.
New technique for identifying small molecules may speed up drug discovery, manufacturing
A UCLA-led team of scientists has developed a new technique that will enable researchers to easily and quickly determine the structures of organic molecules using very small samples.
Predators drive Nemo's relationship with an unlikely friend
Predators have been identified as the shaping force behind mutually beneficial relationships between species such as clownfish and anemones.
'Dancing' hyperon in pear-shaped hypernuclei
Hypernuclei provide the information to understand fundamental interaction in nature, new state of nuclear matter, and the structure of neutron stars.

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