Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 28, 2018
Got menopause? Healthy lifestyle now is crucial for heart health
A healthy lifestyle in middle-aged women was strongly associated with healthier arteries.

Online gaming addiction in men affects brain's impulse control
Researchers using functional MRI (fMRI) have found differences in the brains of men and women who are addicted to online gaming, according to a new study.

New report calls for health monitoring and research program on Gulf War and post-9/11 veterans
To help determine if the descendants of Gulf War and post-9/11 veterans are at risk for health effects resulting from the service members' exposure to toxicants during deployment, a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends the creation of a health monitoring and research program (HMRP).

Blue Brain Project releases first-ever digital 3D brain cell atlas
The Blue Brain Cell Atlas is like ''going from hand-drawn maps to Google Earth'' -- providing previously unavailable information on major cell types, numbers and positions in all 737 brain regions.

American adults have very low rate of metabolic health
A new study found that the prevalence of metabolic health is very low among American adults, even among those who have normal weight.

Cost and weight-loss potential matter most to bariatric surgery patients
New study at Michigan Medicine reveals the most commonly performed bariatric surgery, sleeve gastrectomy, doesn't fit the top qualities that surveyed patients want out of their weight loss journey.

Researchers regrow hair on wounded skin
By stirring crosstalk among skin cells that form the roots of hair, researchers report they have regrown hair strands on damaged skin.

Mental health care increasing most among those with less distress
A new study shows that more Americans are getting outpatient mental health care and the rate of serious psychological distress is decreasing.

At-home HPV tests could be powerful tool for hard-to-reach US women
A new study from The Ohio State University found that mailing at-home HPV tests to hard-to-reach women may be a viable approach, one that could be especially helpful in regions such as Appalachia, where access to women's health care can be limited.

Next step towards replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes
Scientists have discovered the signals that determine the fate of immature cells in the pancreas.

Despite common obesity gene variants obese children lose weight after lifestyle changes
Children who are genetically predisposed to overweight, due to common gene variants, can still lose weight by changing their diet and exercise habits.

Study shows high costs of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a common condition with a high economic impact in both children and adults, concludes an updated review in the Journal of Addiction Medicine, the official journal of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM).

Researchers have found the first risk genes for ADHD
A major international collaboration headed by researchers from the Danish iPSYCH project, the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Massachusetts General Hospital, SUNY Upstate Medical University, and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium has for the first time identified genetic variants which increase the risk of ADHD.

Climate change poses significant threat to nutritional benefits of oysters
The nutritional qualities of shellfish could be significantly reduced by future ocean acidification and warming, a new study suggests.

Virtual library of 1 million new macrolide scaffolds could help speed drug discovery
Researchers from North Carolina State University have created the largest publicly available virtual library of macrolide scaffolds.

AI could help cities detect expensive water leaks
Costly water losses in municipal water systems could be significantly reduced using sensors and new artificial intelligence (AI) technology.

Parkinson's therapy creates new brain circuits for motor function, study finds
Scientists have uncovered that an emerging gene therapy for Parkinson's disease creates new circuits in the brain associated with improved motor movement.

Microscope measures muscle weakness
Biotechnologists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a system to accurately measure muscle weakness caused by structural changes in muscle tissue.

Soil tilling, mulching key to China's potato crop
In the Loess Plateau region of northwestern China, potato is the main food crop.

More Oregonians sharing end-of-life wishes with POLST
More Oregonians are making their end-of-life wishes known through forms known as Physician Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST, according to research in the Journal of Palliative Medicine.

The 'Chinese Pyramids' and the pole star
The mausoleums of the Han Emperors are visible still today within the rapidly developing landscape of the northwestern surroundings of Xian along the Wei River.

Researchers discover why some parts of the body have hair and others don't
Why do humans have hair on our arms and legs but not on the palms of our hands and the soles of our feet?

Genetic mutation drives tumor regression in Tasmanian Devils
Washington State University scientists have discovered genes and other genetic variations that appear to be involved in cancerous tumors shrinking in Tasmanian devils.

Sharing benefits of digitized DNA
Today, scientists can sift through quadrillions of genetic sequences in open-access databases, searching (free-of-charge) for new ways to engineer crops, develop medicines or even create synthetic organisms.

New study supports mammography screening at 30 for some women
A new, large-scale study of more than 5 million mammograms found that annual mammography screening beginning at age 30 may benefit women with at least one of three specific risk factors: dense breasts, a personal history of breast cancer or a family history of breast cancer.

Study reveals why older women are less healthy than older men
Genes that act late in life could explain why women have poorer health than men in older age, according to new research.

When a city feels good, people take more risks
What makes people take risks? Not stunt women or Formula 1 drivers.

Baby up at night? Inactivity may be a culprit
New Michigan State University research suggests babies who are less active get less sleep, something new parents may want to consider when looking for possible solutions for the long, sleepless nights.

Researchers reveal link between job titles and gender equality
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics (MPI) have revealed a link between role-nouns (e.g. job titles) in gendered languages and gender equality.

Great apes and ravens plan without thinking
Planning and self control in animals do not require human-like mental capacities, according to a study from Stockholm University.

Cardiac stem cells integrated into microneedle patches to treat heart attack
Scientists seeking to improve stem cell-related treatment options for heart attack survivors have engineered a patch that can better integrate stem cells into viable heart tissue.

A new drug to prevent life-threatening swelling attacks
Patients with hereditary angioedema experience recurrent and sometimes life-threatening swelling attacks.

New HIV diagnoses at high levels in the European Region but progress in EU
With nearly 160,000 new HIV diagnoses, 2017 marked another year of alarming numbers of HIV diagnoses in the WHO European Region.

'Mini-placentas' could provide a model for early pregnancy
Researchers say that new 'mini-placentas' -- a cellular model of the early stages of the placenta -- could provide a window into early pregnancy and help transform our understanding of reproductive disorders.

Earth's polar regions communicate via oceanic 'postcards,' atmospheric 'text messages'
Scientists have documented a two-part climatic connection between the North Atlantic Ocean and Antarctica, a fast atmospheric channel and a much slower oceanic one, that caused rapid changes in climate during the last ice age -- and may again.

The potentially deadly bacterium that's on everyone's skin
Forget MRSA and E. coli, there's another bacterium that is becoming increasingly dangerous due to antibiotic resistance -- and it's present on the skin of every person on the planet.

New stem-cell therapy to improve fight against leukemia
Stem-cell transplantation is an effective form of therapy to fight leukemia.

91 percent response rate for venetoclax against newly diagnosed AML in older adults
Clinical trial results published in the journal Nature Medicine and being presented this weekend at the American Society for Hematology Annual Meeting show 91 percent response rate to the combination of venetoclax with azacitidine in older adults newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Reading rats' minds
Place cells in the hippocampus fire when we are in a certain position -- this discovery by John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser brought them the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2014.

Transfusions with older blood linked to adverse events, death, new study finds
Major trauma victims who receive transfusions of packed blood 22 days old or older may face increased risk of death within 24 hours, according to a new study in Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Marine species quickly revealed by new 'Go Fish' tool, highlights potential of emerging eDNA science
Initiating eDNA as a coordinated US research theme, standardized eDNA sampling and reporting protocols, agreed baseline monitoring sites, and prioritizing ocean habitats for exploration, are among the aims of the First National Conference on Marine Environmental DNA (The Rockefeller University, N.Y., Nov.

US groundwater in peril: Potable supply less than thought
Many rural areas in parts of the US rely exclusively on groundwater for both agricultural and domestic use.

UK's reliance on unpaid carers is unsustainable, research warns
New Work Foundation research highlights the profound impact caring responsibilities have on a person's employment with those providing 50 hours or more care per week being 36 percent less likely to be employed compared to non-carers.

Single cell sequencing sheds light on why cancers form in specific cell types
Researchers build, then use single cell sequencer to identify and characterize a subpopulation of cells in the eye where cancer originates.

The virus detectives
Every summer in Southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland, tons of brown trout perish.

Vaccination may reduce the severity of the flu in vaccinated but still infected patients
When influenza vaccination is ineffective in preventing the flu, it could have an additional effect reducing the severity of the infection, according to an epidemiological study which has the participation of members of the research group Epidemiology, Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases led by Professor Angela Domi­nguez, from the Department of Medicine of the UB- and the Epidemiology and Public Health Networking Research Center (CIBERESP), from the Health Institute Carlos III.

Mechanism safeguarding unique epigenome of oocytes and maternal fertility
Recently, a joint research group led by Dr. ZHU Bing from the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reveals that Stella sequestered UHRF1 from the nucleus through an active nuclear export process, and the dysregulation of UHRF1 by loss of Stella resulted in an accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation during postnatal oogenesis.

New study finds racial disparities in oral anticoagulant use
Black patients with atrial fibrillation are significantly less likely to receive oral anticoagulants -- particularly newer, more effective versions -- than white and Hispanic patients.

Fires fueled spread of grasslands on ancient Earth
Ancient wildfires played a crucial role in the formation and spread of grasslands like those that now cover large parts of the Earth, according to scientists at Penn State and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.

Nanoscale blood test technique set to springboard cancer discoveries
A technique to get more information from the blood of cancer patients than previously possible has been developed.

How much do you trust Dr. Google?
Women experiencing signs of breast cancer vary in how they value, use, and trust 'Dr.

Antibiotic could protect against neurodegenerative diseases during aging
An antibiotic, minocycline, can increase the lifespan of roundworms by preventing the build-up of proteins during aging, a study in the open-access journal eLife reports.

Understanding Down syndrome opens door to Alzheimer's prevention trials
Clinical trials for preventing Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome may soon be possible thanks to new research from King's College London.

Researchers map light and sound wave interactions in optical fibers
Earlier this year researchers developed sensing protocols that allow optical fibers to 'listen' outside an optical fiber where they cannot 'look', based on an interplay between light waves and ultrasound.

Healthy blood stem cells have as many DNA mutations as leukemic cells
Researchers from the Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology have shown that the number of mutations in healthy and leukemic blood stem cells does not differ.

Innate fingerprint could detect tampered steel parts
Researchers using magnetic signals have found unique 'fingerprints' on steel, which could help to verify weapons treaties and reduce the use of counterfeit bolts in the construction industry.

Hard limits on the postselectability of optical graph states
Since the discovery of quantum mechanics, in the early 20th century, physicists have relied on optics to test its fundamentals.

Jumpin' droplets! Researchers seek to improve efficiency of condensers
A team at Colorado State University has figured out how to keep condensed droplets from coalescing into a film, and to make the droplets jump high enough to move away from the condenser surface.

North American checklist identifies the fungus among us
Some fungi are smelly and coated in mucus. Others have gills that glow in the dark.

Checkmating tumors
Chess and cancer research have one thing in common: one must act strategically to defeat the opponent.

New device widens light beams by 400 times
NIST scientists have now developed a highly efficient device that enlarges the diameter of a light beam by 400 times.

Fossil algae reveal 500 million years of climate change
Scientists at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and Utrecht University succeeded in developing a new indicator (proxy) of ancient CO2 levels, using the organic molecule phytane, a debris product of chlorophyll.

Whale songs' changing pitch may be response to population, climate changes
Blue whales have been dropping pitch incrementally over several decades, but the cause has remained a mystery.

Beyond bone mineral density: Additional bone traits predict risk for fracture
In the largest prospective study of its kind, researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the Institute for Aging Research at Hebrew SeniorLife used high-resolution tomography imaging to assess whether bone characteristics besides bone mineral density can predict risk of fracture.

Resource-based communities: Not just all work and no play
A new study by University of Alberta scientists explores how leisure and recreation access can improve social connections in resource-based communities like Fort McMurray.

Ointment to counter the effects of brown recluse spider bites is tested on humans
Brazil reports more than 7,000 cases a year of poisoning as a result of the bite of the brown recluse spider; there are also reports of occurrences in North America and Europe.

Special topic: Superconductivity and magnetism in transition-metal compounds
SCIENCE CHINA Physics Mechanics Astronomy recently publishes a topical issue, in which eight articles are collected to touch some of the frontier studies of this field.

A new way to provide cooling without power
A system developed at MIT can provide passive cooling without the need for power, and could be used to preserve food or vaccines in hot, off-grid locations.

Easy to use 3D bioprinting technique creates lifelike tissues from natural materials
Bioengineers have developed a 3D bioprinting technique that works with natural materials and is easy to use, allowing researchers of varying levels of technical expertise to create lifelike tissues, such as blood vessels and a vascularized gut.

Gold nanoparticle microsecond tracking with atomic-level localization precision achieved
Gold nanoparticles have been used as an optical probe of high-localization precision, high-speed single-molecule tracking of protein molecular motors.

The protein with the starting gun
Whether dormant bacteria begin to reproduce is no accident. Rather, they are simply waiting for a clear signal from a single protein in the cell interior.

Indian peafowls' crests are tuned to frequencies also used in social displays
Indian peafowl crests resonate efficiently and specifically to the same vibration frequencies used in peacock social displays, according to a paper published November 28, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Suzanne Amador Kane from Haverford College, USA, and colleagues.

FIONA measures the mass number of 2 superheavy elements: Moscovium and Nihonium
A Berkeley Lab-led team has directly measured the mass numbers of two superheavy elements: moscovium (element 115), and nihonium (element 113).

'Stash your trash,' say rat researchers
Rat complaints are indicators of rat abundance, finds a new study -- as are the availability of uncontained garbage and neighborhoods with a high rate of rental units (vs. owned).

Potential arthritis treatment prevents cartilage breakdown
In an advance that could improve the treatment options available for osteoarthritis, MIT engineers have designed a new material that can administer drugs directly to the cartilage.

Authenticating the geographic origin of hazelnuts
Hazelnuts, like olive oil, cheese and other agricultural products, differ in flavor depending on their geographic origin.

Swapping bacteria may help 'Nemo' fish cohabitate with fish-killing anemones
The fish killer and the fish live in harmony: But how the clownfish thrive in the poisonous tentacles of the anemone remains a mystery.

Artificial joint restores wrist-like movements to forearm amputees
A new artificial joint restores important wrist-like movements to forearm amputees, something which could dramatically improve their quality of life.

Flexible electronic skin aids human-machine interactions (video)
Human skin contains sensitive nerve cells that detect pressure, temperature and other sensations that allow tactile interactions with the environment.

Surgical adhesions can be treated, prevented in mice, Stanford researchers find
A cellular culprit -- as well as a possible treatment -- for a common, sometimes life-threating post-surgical complication has been identified by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

High-throughput platform enables activity mapping of emerging cancer drug targets
A powerful new biochemical platform is fueling the study of a family of enzymes that are promising targets for cancer treatment.

Scientists direct bacteria with expanded genetic code to evolve extreme heat tolerance
Scripps Research scientists have shown that synthetic bacteria with expanded genetic codes can evolve proteins in the laboratory with enhanced properties using mechanisms that might not be possible with nature's 20 amino acid building blocks.

Food webs essential for nature conservation efforts in the future
Nature conservation should not focus on individual species but on whole food webs, because the protection of their functioning is important for the predictability of species, especially when global warming is increasing environmental variability.

The secret to better berries? Wild bees
New research shows wild bees are essential for producing larger and better blueberry yields - with plumper, faster-ripening berries.

Resilience may be neurobiological
Neighborhood violence has been associated with adverse health effects on youth, including sleep loss, asthma and metabolic syndrome.

Scientists solve longtime mystery in innate immunity
Scientists have long wondered how one protein, NLRP3, can promote inflammation in response to a wide range of seemingly unrelated stimuli.

New study explores ecosystem stability
A new study explores ecosystem stability. Its findings raise questions about the stability of our modern global system.

Vaccine signatures in humanized mice point to better understanding of infectious diseases
Researchers at Princeton have developed a systematic way to compare the immune responses of humanized mice versus humans.

BU study: Modified malaria drug proven effective at inhibiting Ebola
Robert Davey, professor of microbiology at Boston University School of Medicine and researcher at Boston University's National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL), discovered that certain derivatives of amodiaquine, a medication typically used to treat malaria, could provide a new therapeutic approach to treating patients infected with Ebola virus disease by blocking the viruses from entering cells.

Defective protein factories in disease
Ever since the 1960s, the medical world has wondered why some patients who suffer from illnesses resulting from inadequate cell division are much more susceptible to cancer which is conversely characterized by excessive cell division.

Camphorsulfonic acid-catalyzed Michael reaction of indoles with enones
Michael addition reaction is one of the most important and widely used reactions for making carbon-carbon or carbon-hetero bonds in organic synthesis.

Global warming increases the risk of an extinction domino effect
The complex network of interdependencies between plants and animals multiplies the species at risk of extinction due to environmental change.

Extract from soursop leaves can prevent the symptoms of fibromyalgia
The consumption of extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in pharmaceutical form and in the correct dosage can reduce the chronic pain, anxiety and depression that accompany this disease.

Flounder now tumor-free in Boston Harbor
In the late 1980s, more than three-quarters of the winter flounder caught in Boston Harbor -- one of the most polluted harbors in America -- showed signs of liver disease, many of them with cancerous tumors.

A big step toward the practical application of 3D holography with high- performance computers
Japanese computer scientists have succeeded in developing a special purpose computer that can project high-quality 3D holography as a video.

Do magazine-ranked hospitals for cardiovascular care have better outcomes?
Whether hospital rankings by US News & World Report magazine reflect quality of care has been debated.

Climate refugee cod
The latest research conducted by AWI experts that the chances of survival for the offspring of important fish species will dramatically worsen, if the 1.5 ° C target of the Paris Climate Agreement is not achieved.

Going from negative to positive in the treatment of osteoarthritis
A scientific team has designed a charged molecule that improved the delivery of osteoarthritis drugs to knee joint cartilage in rodent models of the debilitating joint disorder.

Researchers examine trends in opioid prescriptions in children and adolescents
The researchers observed a downward shift in opioid prescriptions in children and adolescents, which aligns with previously reported trends in adult populations.

A terrible choice: Cancer treatment or hospice care, but not both
Colorado studies explore costs, benefits, and experiences of veterans receiving concurrent cancer treatment and hospice care; their findings may provide the basis for wider adoption of this nonstandard practice.

Platelets grown from stem cells may be alternative to donated platelets
Researchers have developed a way to grow human platelets in the laboratory from stem cells derived from fat tissue.

New method automatically computes realistic movement with friction from 3D design
Researchers from Inria, the French National Institute for computer science and applied mathematics, have developed a novel algorithm that computes the shape of the surface at rest, that is, without any external force, and when this shape is deformed under gravity, contact and friction, it precisely matches the shape the user has designed.

RCSI research reveals that 1 in 4 suicide attempts are associated with perceptual difficulties
Researchers at RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland) have revealed that one quarter of suicide attempts are associated with dysfunction in how the brain interprets basic perceptual information, such as what we see, hear and think.

Altering cancer metabolism helps treatments attack tumors
Restricting the ability of cancer cells to metabolize sugar could make oncolytic viruses more effective at attacking them, suggests a study published today in the journal Cancer Research.

Study finds biases in widely used dementia identification tests
Quick tests used in primary care settings to identify whether people are likely to have dementia may often be wrong, according to a study published in the Nov.

Skin cancer rates far higher than previously thought, according to new national database
Data from a newly established UK skin cancer database, the largest of its kind in the world, has revealed that there are over 45,000 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas every year in England, 350 percent more than previous estimates suggested.

NIST atomic clocks now keep time well enough to improve models of Earth
Experimental atomic clocks at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have achieved three new performance records, now ticking precisely enough to not only improve timekeeping and navigation, but also detect faint signals from gravity, the early universe and perhaps even dark matter.

Vapers can avoid relapsing to smoking, even after the odd cigarette
New research finds vapers can avoid relapsing back into smoking, even after the odd cigarette.

To replicate physical objects for virtual reality, just turn on your smartphone
A global team of computer scientists have developed a novel method that replicates physical objects for the virtual and augmented reality space just using a point-and-shoot camera with a flash, without the need for additional, and oftentimes expensive, supporting hardware.

Cryoablation shows promise in treating low-risk breast cancers
Cryoablation -- the destruction of cancer cells through freezing -- shows early indications of effectiveness in treating women with low-risk breast cancers, according to new.

Post-urban development
A contemporary city expands; it is stitched together with communications, but lacks integrity.

Computer hackers could be thwarted by new 'deception consistency' method
Can you deceive a deceiver? That's the question that computer scientists at Binghamton University, State University of New York have recently been exploring.

Views of ideal female appearance in China are changing
A University of Delaware researcher found that young women in China, living in a rapidly changing society with more personal independence, disposable income and exposure to Western media than ever before, are also altering their views of female beauty.

Growing pile of human and animal waste harbors threats, opportunities
Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are highlighting another effect from animals raised for food and the humans who eat them: the fecal matter they all leave behind.

Rewriting the brain pathway for consciousness
Overturning decades of neuroanatomy dogma, a new University of Iowa study shows that the thalamus is not a critical part of the brain pathway involved in keeping humans awake and conscious.

Self-assessing back pain by app just as effective as traditional methods, study shows
Patients can assess their own back pain using an app on their phone or tablet as effectively as current paper methods, a new study from the University of Warwick has shown.

Researchers rise to challenge of predicting hail, tornadoes three weeks in advance
A prediction lead time of about 2 to 5 weeks is sorely lacking in current forecasting capabilities for severe weather.

Intelligent framework aims to optimize data transfer in 5G networks
New technology is designed to allow cellular communication nodes in 5G systems to partition bandwidth more efficiently in order to improve end-to-end data transmission rates.

Re-programming the body's energy pathway boosts kidney self-repair
A team of researchers led by Jonathan Stamler, MD, of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, has discovered a pathway for enhancing the self-repair efforts of injured kidneys The finding may pave the way for new drugs to stop or even reverse the progression of serious kidney disease in humans -- and other potentially lethal conditions of the heart, liver, and brain as well.

Scientists achieve direct electrocatalytic reduction of CO2, raising hopes for smart carbon capture
Chemists at Tokyo Tech propose an innovative way to achieve carbon capture using a rhenium-based electrocatalytic system that is capable of reducing low-concentration CO2 (even 1 percent) with high selectivity and durability, which is a new potential technology to enable direct utilization of CO2 in exhaust gases from heavy industries.

Promising new imaging method aids fracture prediction
A study published today in the Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology reports that high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) represents an effective tool in predicting an individual's fracture risk.

Why do some plants live fast and die young?
An international team led by researchers at the University of Manchester have discovered why some plants 'live fast and die young' whilst others have long and healthy lives.

A golden age for particle analysis
Process engineers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a method which allows the size and shape of nanoparticles in dispersions to be determined considerably quicker than ever before.

Atomic jet -- the first lens for extreme-ultraviolet light developed
Scientists from the Max Born Institute have developed the first refractive lens that focuses extreme ultraviolet beams.

Scientists discovered a set of enzymes to create glowing organisms
There are over 100 species of mushrooms that emit light.

Only 12 percent of American adults are metabolically healthy, study finds
The prevalence of metabolic health in American adults is 'alarmingly low,' even among people who are normal weight, according to a new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Gillings School of Global Public Health.

Researchers develop tool for speedy diagnosis of bacterial infections
Using a small and inexpensive biosensor, researchers at UBC Okanagan, in collaboration with the University of Calgary, have built a diagnostic tool that provides health care practitioners almost instant diagnosis of a bacterial infection. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to