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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | November 30, 2018


App helps breast cancer survivors improve health after treatment
Breast cancer survivors who used a smartphone app created at Houston Methodist consistently lost weight, largely due to daily, real-time interactions with their health care team via the mobile app.
Is being a night owl bad for your health?
In the first ever international review of studies analysing whether being an early riser or a night owl can influence your health, researchers have uncovered a growing body of evidence indicating an increased risk of ill health in people with an evening preference as they have more erratic eating patterns and consume more unhealthy foods.
African-American mothers rate boys higher for ADHD
African-American children often are reported by parents and teachers to display behaviors of ADHD at a higher rate than children from other racial and ethnic groups.
In vitro cell culture findings could lead to novel interventions for Schizophrenia
A recent study has shown how using cultured cells from patients with psychotic disorders to investigate abnormalities in nerve connections in the brain could lead to new treatments.
What are effects of smoked, vaporized marijuana in infrequent adult users?
Researchers compared the effects of smoked versus vaporized cannabis at two different doses and a placebo dose in a small study of 17 healthy adults who weren't regular cannabis users.
UA scientist identifies cellular gene signatures for heart muscle regeneration
A research team led by Jared Churko, PhD, director of the University of Arizona iPSC Core in the UA Sarver Heart Center, used a transcriptomic approach -- studying what genes are expressed -- to identify gene signatures of cell subpopulations identified as atrial-like or ventricular-like.
Light triggers gold in unexpected way
Rice University researchers have discovered a fundamentally different form of light-matter interaction in their experiments with gold nanoparticles.
Scientists reveal substantial water loss in global landlocked regions
A new study involving Kansas State University researchers reveals that water storage declines in global landlocked basins has aggravated local water stress and caused potential sea level rise.
Study shows rising rates of hospitalization in the homeless
Hospitalization rates among homeless adults have increased sharply in recent years, with a very different set of causes from those in non-homeless individuals, reports a study in the January issue of Medical Care.
Rates of chronic kidney disease, deaths outpace other diseases
An abundance of high-sugar, high-salt foods in many American diets and obesity-related health problems such as diabetes are likely driving an increase in kidney disease cases, including in young adults, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Study offers new approach to assess sustainability of reef fish
A new study helping to improve how sustainability is measured for popular reef fish could help better assess the eco-friendly seafood options at the dinner table.
Immunotherapy keeps some advanced head and neck cancer patients alive for over three years
A new immunotherapy can greatly extend the lives of a proportion of people with advanced head and neck cancer, with some living for three years or more, a major new clinical trial reports.
The physics of extracting gas from shale formations
In a recent article published in EPJ E, Natalia Kovalchuk and Constantinos Hadjistassou from the University of Nicosia, Cyprus, have distilled the current state of knowledge regarding the multi-scale flow processes occurring during shale gas extraction.
Researchers alleviate Schizophrenia symptoms in new mouse models
In a recent issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Lin Mei, MD, PhD, asked, does all the tinkering in young mice hamper their brain development, causing schizophrenia-like symptoms?
St. Jude research into leukemia, sickle cell and other blood disorders presented at ASH
The 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology will feature research from St.
To image leaky atmosphere, NASA rocket team heads north
Earth's atmosphere is leaking-but how does oxygen get the energy to escape to space?
Why patients lie to their doctors
Up to 80 percent of those surveyed have lied to their doctor about information that could impact their health, including accurately describing their diet and how often they exercise.
Switch for the regeneration of nerve cell insulation
An international research team has discovered a mechanism that regulates the regeneration of the insulating layer of neurites.
Virtual reality could serve as powerful environmental education tool
Stanford researchers took a virtual reality experience into a variety of educational settings, including high school classrooms, to test the impact on awareness and understanding of ocean acidification.
US image abroad: It's the message not the messenger
Today's political climate in the US is often peppered with animosity from the US president towards other countries but how has the US image fared?
Trees for bees
Planting more hedgerows and trees could hold the key to helping UK bees thrive once again, a new study argues.
Immune checkpoints could be key to treating autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis
The PD-1 immune checkpoint is essential for self-recognition by the immune system, with disruption of the pathway associated with several autoimmune disorders.
A bastard seal from the past reveals the potential for human hybrids
If discovered as fossils, grey and ringed seals are so different that they could be classified as belonging to different families.
IAU astronomers show exceptional involvement in outreach activities
A study of outreach activities published in the journal Nature Astronomy has presented the results of a survey gathered from 2587 IAU members.
Experts present new recommendations on 'overlapping' type of leukemia
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a rare disease with overlapping features of two categories of bone marrow and blood cell disorders that poses challenges in clinical management.
Risk factors like smoking, high BP common among younger patients with repeat heart attacks
Heart attacks reoccurred more frequently in younger patients with several modifiable risk factors, including smoking and high blood pressure.
Searching an artificial bee colony for real-world results
The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is widely applied in many fields, but it suffers from slow convergence, so its solutions perform well in exploration but poorly in exploitation.
Black hole 'donuts' are actually 'fountains'
Based on computer simulations and new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), researchers have found that the rings of gas surrounding active supermassive black holes are not simple donut shapes.
Altered microbiome after caesarean section impacts baby's immune system
Together with colleagues from Sweden and Luxembourg, scientists from the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg have observed that, during a natural vaginal birth, specific bacteria from the mother's gut are passed on to the baby and stimulate the baby's immune responses.
How you respond to drama depends on if you are a holistic or analytical thinker
Aalto University researchers showed volunteers the film My Sister's Keeper on a screen while the research subjects were lying down in an MRI scanner.
More sensitive MRI diagnostics thanks to innovative 'elastic' contrast media
Researchers from the Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) have found a new method for obtaining high-quality images in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that requires less contrast medium compared to current methods.
Focus on resistance to HIV offers insight into how to fight the virus
Researchers have found that genetic mutations affecting the capsid, the structure surrounding the HIV genome, make it possible for a protein called TRIM5α to trigger the immune system of elite controllers.
Tracing iron in the North Pacific
A new Chinese project (2018--2022) will explore the sources and transport of biologically available Fe in the high-nutrient and low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions.
New research questions fish stocking obligations
Fish stocking as a fisheries compensation method in hydropower operations no longer meets latest legal and scientific requirements, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland.
A cancer drug may help treat human papillomavirus infections
Preclinical experiments suggest the cancer drugs vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat might be repurposed to treat infections caused by human papillomaviruses, or HPVs.
A new way to see stress -- using supercomputers
Supercomputer simulations show that at the atomic level, material stress doesn't behave symmetrically.
System can rapidly and accurately detect tumor margins during breast cancer surgery
Scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research (CPR), Osaka University, and collaborators have developed a new rapid and inexpensive way to accurately detect the margins between cancer and non-cancerous tissue during breast surgery.
Table-top experiment flips current understanding of solutal convection
Findings from a table-top experiment have revealed that the primary driver of a type of fluid flow called solutal convection has been overlooked.
Patients with cancer are more at risk of complications following heart procedure
Research led by Keele University suggests that patients with cancer who undergo a common heart procedure have worse short-term clinical outcomes compared to non-cancer patients, in the largest study undertaken to date.
Falls are more likely when you've had a bad night sleep
Disturbances during sleep decreases capability to control posture and balance according to researchers from the Department of Engineering and Warwick Medical School at the University of Warwick who have an article published today in Scientific Reports.
A new light on significantly faster computer memory devices
A team of scientists from ASU's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes.
'Sudoku' X-Ray uncovers movements within opaque materials
Researchers from the University of Sydney have developed a new X-ray method which involves solving a giant 3D Sudoku problem to better understand these granular movements -- and the findings could have a big impact on various industries.
Polio-like illness mostly of children is focus of 3 JAMA Pediatrics articles
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a poorly understood polio-like illness mostly of children characterized by weakness of muscles and limbs and the presence of a spinal cord lesion.
Ambulance response times are worse for low-income people
In what is believed to be the first national study evaluating disparities in 911 responses for cardiac arrest in high-income and low-income neighborhoods, a team led by researchers at UC San Francisco examined whether socioeconomic disparities were associated with longer ambulance responses and transport times for cardiac arrests occurring outside hospital premises.
Great strides for carbon capture using earth-abundant elements as photocatalytic system
Researchers at Tokyo Tech have designed a CO2 reduction method based only on commonly occurring elements.
Babies kicking in the womb are creating a map of their bodies
The kicks a mother feels from her unborn child may allow the baby to 'map' their own body and enable them to eventually explore their surroundings, suggests new research led by UCL in collaboration with UCLH.
Do poorer neighborhoods experience longer ambulance times?
Patients from the poorest neighborhoods who had cardiac arrest had longer total ambulance times than those from the wealthiest neighborhoods.
Towards a treatment for gluten intolerance
Celiac disease is a severe autoimmune disorder of the intestine.
Study discovers over 6,000 antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria that inhabit the human gut
A study carried out in collaboration with the University of Birmingham has used an innovative approach to identify thousands of antibiotic resistance genes found in bacteria that inhabit the human gut.
Brilliant iron molecule could provide cheaper solar energy
For the first time, researchers have succeeded in creating an iron molecule that can function both as a photocatalyst to produce fuel and in solar cells to produce electricity.
Light pollution may cause insomnia in older adults
A new study is the first population-based investigation to report a significant association between artificial, outdoor light exposure at night and insomnia, as indicated by older adults' use of hypnotic drugs.
Can a smart app encourage HIV-self testing in Canada?
HIV self-testing strategies have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2016, as they empower people to find out HIV their status at their convenience.
Many diseases increase the risks of hip fracture surgery
Parkinson's disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatic diseases, alcoholism and mental health disorders increase the risk of surgical complications after a hip fracture surgery, a new Finnish study analysing nationwide registers finds.
How microscopic machines can fail in the blink of an eye
NIST researchers have developed a method for more quickly tracking microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as they work and, just as importantly, as they stop working.
Force Push VR brings Jedi powers to life
Force Push provides a more physical, nuanced experience than traditional hand controllers allow in VR.
Study reveals new information about infant brain structure
Infant brain development is still poorly understood. Thus, research on the topic is vital as developing brains are sensitive to early environmental factors.
Free, publicly available health data proves to be research gold mine
Immunotherapy has become a popular treatment for some cancers. University of Calgary researchers discover how a set of genes, those associated with the extracellular matrix, had a direct connection to how cancer patients respond to immunotherapy.
Greenhouse gas 'detergent' recycles itself in atmosphere: NASA study
A simple molecule in the atmosphere that acts as a 'detergent' to breakdown methane and other greenhouse gases has been found to recycle itself to maintain a steady global presence in the face of rising emissions, according to new NASA research.
Bigger brains are smarter, but not by much
Using a large dataset and controlling for a variety of factors, including sex, age, height, socioeconomic status, and genetic ancestry, Gideon Nave of the Wharton School and Philipp Koellinger of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam found that people with larger brains rated higher on measures of intelligence and educational attainment.
Study sheds light on alcohol misuse among never-deployed reservists
In a study of 174 Army Reserve and National Guard soldiers who hadn't been deployed, University at Buffalo researchers found that more negative non-deployment emotions were associated with a range of alcohol use outcomes.
Study: Immunotherapy better than chemotherapy for subtype of head and neck cancer
A randomized clinical trial involving 97 medical centers in 20 countries, including Moores Cancer Center at UC San Diego Health, found that treating patients with head and neck cancer with the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab is more effective and less toxic than standard chemotherapy.
Historical climate important for soil responses to future climate change
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Amsterdam, examined how 18 years of drought affect the billions of vital bacteria that are hidden in the soil beneath our feet.

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