Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 06, 2018
Scientists enter unexplored territory in superconductivity search
Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors -- materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss -- have entered a new regime.

A 3D imaging technique unlocks properties of perovskite crystals
A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date.

Reusable respirators are an effective and viable option for protecting health care personnel
Half-facepiece reusable elastomeric respirators are an effective and viable option for protecting health care workers from exposure to airborne transmissible contaminants or infectious agents -- for example, influenza virus -- during day-to-day work or with a sudden or rapid influx of patients, such as during a public health emergency, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Key to lifelong heart health is childhood intervention
Evolving evidence shows that heart healthy habits in adults are rooted in the environments we live in in early childhood, representing a window of opportunity in young children to focus on health promotion and potentially prevent disease in adulthood, according to a review paper published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Glutamate receptor affects the development of brain cells after birth
It had been previously assumed that this protein is only relevant in adults.

Drawing is better than writing for memory retention
Researchers from the University of Waterloo found that even if people weren't good at it, drawing, as a method to help retain new information, was better than re-writing notes, visualization exercises or passively looking at images.

PET scans to optimize tuberculosis meningitis treatments and personalize care, study finds
Although relatively rare in the United States, and accounting for fewer than 5 percent of tuberculosis cases worldwide, TB of the brain -- or tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) -- is often deadly, always hard to treat, and a particular threat to young children.

Biggest mass extinction caused by global warming leaving ocean animals gasping for breath
By combining ocean models, animal metabolism and fossil records, researchers show that the Permian mass extinction in the oceans was caused by global warming that left animals unable to breathe.

Engineers demonstrate mechanics of making foam with bubbles in distinct sizes
Rice University engineers fine-tune a microfluidic process for producing uniform bubbles to make ordered foams with bubbles in two or three distinct sizes.

Two-dimensional materials skip the energy barrier by growing one row at a time
A new study published in the journal Science, could provide engineers new design rules for creating microelectronics, membranes, and tissues, and open up better production methods for new materials.

Information on reproductive health outcomes lacking in Catholic hospitals
As Catholic health care systems expand nationwide, little is known about the reproductive outcomes of their patients compared to patients in other settings, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

Transforming our food system to ensure a sustainable future
By 2050, the world will have almost 10 billion people.

Agricultural waste drives us closer to greener transport
Composite materials made from agricultural waste could be used to produce sustainable, lightweight and low-cost applications in the automotive and marine industries.

Yin and yang: Opposites in nature, fluoride and lithium, compete for higher energy batteries
The same fluoride in your toothpaste might soon compete with lithium for longer-lasting batteries.

A major feat: room temperature electrochemical cycling of a fluoride-ion battery
Researchers have made notable progress in the ongoing effort to develop high energy-density batteries by demonstrating the room-temperature operation of fluoride-ion based (FIB) energy cells, a new study reports.

Targeted cognitive training benefits patients with severe schizophrenia
Researchers find that patients with severe, refractory schizophrenia benefit from targeted cognitive therapy, improving auditory and verbal outcomes and the way they process information.

Alterations in brain networks explain why some children are resilient to maltreatment
People who experience childhood maltreatment frequently have perturbations in their brain architecture, regardless of whether they develop psychiatric symptoms, but a study in Biological Psychiatry found additional alterations in people who don't develop symptoms.

Study explains how geckos gracefully gallop on water
Geckos are amazingly agile. In addition to running across land and up trees, the animals can prance across the surface of water.

Protecting cell powerhouse paves way to better treatment of acute kidney injury
For the first time, scientists have described the body's natural mechanism for temporarily protecting the powerhouses of kidney cells when injury or disease means they aren't getting enough blood or oxygen.

Remarkably preserved fossil sea reptile reveals skin that is still soft
The remains of an 180 million-year-old ichthyosaur (literally 'fish-lizard') have been analysed, and the fossil is so well-preserved that its soft-tissues retain some of their original pliability.

Acute heart failure patients with 'metabolically healthy obesity' have better survival
Acute heart failure patients with 'metabolically healthy obesity' have better survival than those with 'metabolically unhealthy obesity' or with normal weight regardless of metabolic status, according to a study presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2018.

Regular bedtimes and sufficient sleep for children may lead to healthier teens
Having a regular, age-appropriate bedtime and getting sufficient sleep from early childhood may be important for healthy body weight in adolescence, according to researchers at Penn State.

Scientists found new giant dinosaur
Paleontologists from Russia have described a new dinosaur, the Volgatitan.

A new molecular player involved in T cell activation
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have imaged live T cells to reveal the role of CLIP-170 in T-cell activation, a critical process in the immune response.

Scientists cut main heart disease risk locus out of DNA by genome editing
Scientists have made a major breakthrough in unveiling the major genetic risk factor for heart disease by precisely cutting the DNA culprit from the genome, which prevents blood vessel cell abnormalities related to these devastating diseases.

The Lancet Psychiatry: Novel approach for the treatment of cannabis use disorder shows promise in phase 2 trial
Peer-reviewed / Randomised Controlled Trial / People. Experimental drug reduced cannabis use and withdrawal symptoms compared with placebo.

Media coverage of disasters can have lasting effects on children's mental health
Disaster communication experts at the University of Missouri say disaster media coverage can have lasting effects on children's mental health and suggest teachers and parents be prepared to respond to questions during and after a catastrophe.

Computers can 'spot the difference' between healthy brains and the brains of people with DID
Machine-learning and neuroimaging techniques have been used to accurately distinguish between individuals with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and healthy individuals, on the basis of their brain structure, in new research part funded by the NIHR Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre and published in The British Journal of Psychiatry.

Blood test for tau, Alzheimer's disease under development
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital are working to develop a blood test to accurately diagnose or even predict Alzheimer's disease before symptoms appear.

Putting the brakes on tumor stealth
New research undertaken at Monash University has shed new light on how some cancers are able to escape our immune system.

Providing supervised medical-grade heroin to heavy users can reduce harms
Some nations -- but not the US -- provide heroin-assisted treatment and supervised consumption sites as approaches to reduce the harms caused by addiction to opioids.

Hazelnuts improve older adults' micronutrient levels
Older adults who added hazelnuts to their diet for a few months significantly improved their levels of two key micronutrients.

Lymph node ratio may predict who lives and dies from oral cavity cancer
Patients with lymph node ratio greater than 10 percent had about 2.5 times greater risk of cancer recurrence and 2.7 times greater risk of death than patients with LNR below 10 percent.

New ways to look at protein-RNA networks
For their vital tasks, all RNA molecules in our cells require proteins as binding partners.

New imaging tools that trace key breast cancer enzymes may help guide therapies
A set of emerging diagnostic tools may help identify breast cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from therapies that target important enzymes fueling a range of subtypes, including BCRA-mutated and triple negative cancers.

Cardiac rehabilitation linked to improved sexual functioning and frequency
A new systematic review of the literature comparing the sexual health of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) who attended cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with patients who did not, found that rehab attendance is associated with improved sexual function and sexual frequency.

Interactive size control of catalyst nanoparticles
5, 10, or maybe 15? How many nanometers should nanoparticles of a catalyst be to optimize the course of the reaction?

Hysterectomy may be linked to brain function
Hysterectomy can impair some types of memory in the short term following the surgery, according to a rat study published in the Endocrine Society's journal Endocrinology.

Researchers develop method to transfer entire 2D circuits to any smooth surface
Rice University engineers develop a method to transfer complete, flexible, two-dimensional circuits from their fabrication platforms to curved and other smooth surfaces.

Black women have worse breast cancer outcomes despite receiving similar treatment as white women
Even with equivalent treatments in women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, black women had significantly higher breast cancer recurrence and increased overall mortality compared to white women in a large phase III clinical trial, TAILORx, according to data presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Food system organizations must strengthen their operations to safeguard against potential threats
Food systems face growing threats as extreme weather events become more common and more extreme due to climate change.

What does expanded Medicaid mean for the health & work lives of enrollees? A lot
A new study could help states that will soon expand Medicaid, or may add a work requirement, understand what might be in store.

Kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury suitable for transplant
Organ procurement teams are sometimes leery of accepting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI), fearing they will harm the recipients.

Three quarters of a Quebec population fall short of healthy eating guidelines
In a web-based study reported in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology, more than three quarters of French-speaking adults in Quebec, Canada, fall short of meeting current dietary guidelines regarding consumption of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, sodium, and saturated fats.

Black breast cancer patients have worse outcomes than whites, despite similar treatments
Black women with the most common form of early breast cancer had worse outcomes than white women even after receiving equivalent care, according to a major new study led by Loyola Medicine medical oncologist Kathy Albain.

An exoplanet inflated like a balloon
Although helium is a rare element on Earth, it is ubiquitous in the universe.

Climate players: Animals can swing a landscape's capacity to store carbon
In ecosystems across the world, wild animals trigger feedback effects that can alter a landscape's capacity to absorb, release, or transport carbon, according to a new paper published in Science.

Purdue developing new treatment options for millions with autoimmune diseases
Purdue University researchers have developed a series of molecules that may provide more reliable relief with fewer side effects for people with any of several autoimmune diseases.

New traffic rules in 'Graphene City'
In the drive to find new ways to extend electronics beyond the use of silicon, physicists are experimenting with other properties of electrons, beyond charge.

US interstate highways need overhaul, says new report
The future of the US Interstate Highway System is threatened by a persistent and growing backlog of structural and operational deficiencies and by various looming challenges, such as the progress of automated vehicles, developments in electric vehicles, and vulnerabilities due to climate change.

Hot water and hypoxia: 'The Great Dying's' greatest killers
Increased marine temperatures and reduced oxygen availability were the specific environmental features responsible for the extinctions of vast swaths of ancient ocean life -- nearly 96 percent of all marine species -- during the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction event, a new study finds.

Wintertime arctic sea ice growth slows long-term decline: NASA
New NASA research has found that increases in the rate at which Arctic sea ice grows in the winter may have partially slowed down the decline of the Arctic sea ice cover.

AlphaZero AI teaches itself to beat humans at their own complex games
The ability for computers to beat humans at their own games has long been considered a benchmark for advancement in artificial intelligence (AI).

Link between newborns with vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed
Newborns with Vitamin D deficiency have an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life, researchers from Aarhus University and the University of Queensland report.

Interventions in dog populations could reduce rabies in rural China
Domestic dogs play a key role in the transmission and expansion of rabies in rural areas of China, according to a study published Dec.

A mechanistic approach to neuroblastoma prognosis and risk
A new study reveals key molecular indicators that could help doctors select the best form of treatment for patients with neuroblastoma -- the most common type of cancer in infants.

Parrot genome analysis reveals mutations favoring longevity and cognition
A genome analysis of traits in parrots and 26 other bird species revealed that parrots and other long-lived birds share high rates of conserved mutations in genes responsible for supporting an abnormally long lifespan for a small animal.

Axillary RT and lymph node surgery yielded comparable outcomes for patients with breast cancer
Patients with early-stage breast cancer who had cancer detected in a sentinel lymph node biopsy had comparable 10-year recurrence and survival rates following either axillary radiotherapy or axillary lymph node dissection, according to data from the randomized, phase III AMAROS clinical trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

New molecular tool identifies sugar-protein attachments
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have developed a new molecular tool they call EXoO, which decodes where on proteins specific sugars are attached -- a possible modification due to disease.

Scientists discover possible mantle mineral
Whhat mineral hosts Fe3+ had remained a secret. Now scientists have a possible answer: Maohokite, a newly discovered high-pressure mineral.

Profiling a killer in warm blood
Israeli scientists and physicians develop a new technology for profiling the unique genetic makeup of myeloma tumor cells that will allow better diagnosis and treatment.

High-temperature electronics? That's hot
A new organic polymer blend allows plastic electronics to function in high temperatures without sacrificing performance.

'Hangxiety' higher in shy people
Very shy people are more likely to suffer 'hangxiety' -- anxiety during a hangover -- than their extrovert friends, new research shows.

'Chemo brain' caused by malfunction in three types of brain cells, Stanford study finds
In a new study explaining the cellular mechanisms behind cognitive impairment from chemotherapy, scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have demonstrated that a widely used chemotherapy drug, methotrexate, causes a complex set of problems in three major cell types within the brain's white matter.

Performance on exercise test predicts risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer
Performance on an exercise test predicts the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes, reports a study presented today at EuroEcho-Imaging 2018.

Watch how geckos run across water
Geckos run across water at up to almost a meter a second using a unique mix of surface tension and slapping, say researchers reporting Dec.

New approach helps mitigating the effect of climate change on sea turtles
New research has reported effective conservation strategies that can mitigate the impacts of climate warming on sea turtle nesting success.

More patient family-provider communication could mean fewer errors
New research from Boston Children's Hospital finds that harmful medical errors decreased by 38 percent following intervention to improve communication between healthcare providers and patients and families.

Disability among India's elderly much higher than census estimates
New estimates of disability among India's elderly population, based on the ability to carry out three basic living activities -- walking, dressing, and toileting -- show that the scale of the problem is much larger than suggested by the Indian national census.

Parrot genome analysis reveals insights into longevity, cognition
Parrots are famously talkative, and a blue-fronted Amazon parrot named Moises -- or at least its genome -- is telling scientists volumes about the longevity and highly developed cognitive abilities that give parrots so much in common with humans.

Deprescribing can be valuable tool in managing polypharmacy, experts say
Reducing the number of medications older adults use can have surprising benefits, according to research presented in a new issue of the journal Public Policy & Aging Report from The Gerontological Society of America.

Pot withdrawal eased for dependent users
A new drug can help people diagnosed with cannabis use disorder reduce withdrawal symptoms and marijuana use, a new Yale-led study published Dec.

New model for assessing the effect of ionizing radiation on microelectronic devices
The main trend in the development of hardware components for digital and analog electronic equipment is to reduce the size of the active regions of diode and transistor structures.

Elevated hormone flags liver problems in mice with methylmalonic acidemia
NHGRI researchers have discovered a hormone in a mouse study that can be used immediately to can help doctors predict how severely patients with the rare disease methylmalonic acidemia are affected and when to refer them for liver transplants.

Another Medical cold case cracked by the MUHC's 'Dr. House'
A team from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) led by Dr.

Rules to boost fuel economy for vehicles will do more good than harm, new study shows
Leading scholars in the field of auto fuel efficiency say Trump administration manipulated a cost-benefit analysis to justify rollback of US CAFE standards.

AMNOG as a learning system: New study on ingenol mebutate in AK shows added benefit
Following a negative G-BA decision due to a lack of data in 2013, the drug manufacturer now presented a suitable, albeit very short study.

How do schools address self-harm in adolescents?
In a survey-based study of 153 secondary schools in England and Wales, staff stated that adolescent self-harm is an important concern, but emotional health and wellbeing is the primary health priority for schools.

Focusing on the negative is good when it comes to batteries
Fluoride-based batteries have the potential to last up to eight times longer than those in use today.

Mom, I can't recognize your face from profile view!
Babies recognize faces from profile view in the second half of the first year of life.

What can a snowflake teach us about how cancer spreads in the body?
What can seashells, lightning and the coastline of Britain teach us about new drugs for cancer?

Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target?
Researchers from the CNRS, the University of Orléans, and the company Artimmune, in collaboration with Turkish clinicians from Atatürk University, have identified a key mechanism of lung inflammation induced by silica exposure, which leads to silicosis, an incurable disease.

Why Tehran is sinking dangerously
Researchers from the Remote Sensing Section of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam used data from radar satellites to measure the subsidence of the Earth's surface in the Tehran region in Iran.

Radiation therapy's pivotal role in treating breast cancer featured at SABCS 2018
This year's San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) features a record number of radiation oncology trials among its oral presentations.

Liquid biopsies in SOLAR-1 trial predict benefit of Alpelisib in PIK3CA-mutant breast cancer
Liquid biopsy-based assessment of PIK3CA mutational status served as a better indicator of progression-free survival compared with analysis of tissue biopsy in breast cancer patients enrolled in the phase III clinical trial SOLAR-1, according to data presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Missing the forest for the trees: An unexpected picture of New York City forests
An inventory of New York City's expansive yet overlooked 'forested natural areas' reveals that, contrary to previous reports, native species still comprise about 82 percent of the city's forest stands.

Obesity intervention needed before pregnancy
New research from the University of Adelaide's Robinson Research Institute supports the need for dietary and lifestyle interventions before overweight and obese women become pregnant.

Predicting the transmission of rare, genetically based diseases
A McGill-led research team traced the gene mutations underlying a rare genetic disease back to two European founding families who arrived in the province in the 17th century.

WSU researchers create 3D-printed glucose biosensors
A 3D-printed glucose biosensor for use in wearable monitors has been created by Washington State University researchers.

Houston Methodist launches real-time flu tracker website
Pathologists at Houston Methodist developed a real-time website to track flu cases, just in time to assist physicians, the CDC and patients for the fall 2018 flu season.

Researchers investigate why older people read more slowly
One of the most obvious changes that comes with ageing is that people start doing things more slowly.

Wild African fruit flies offer clues to their modern-day domestic life
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is quite possibly the most studied organism on the planet.

Eliminating the latent reservoir of HIV
A new study suggests that a genetic switch that causes latent HIV inside cells to begin to replicate can be manipulated to completely eradicate the virus from the human body.

Industrial fisheries are starving seabirds all around the world
Industrial fisheries are starving seabirds like penguins and terns by competing for the same prey sources.

Helium exoplanet inflated like a balloon, research shows
Astronomers have discovered a distant planet with an abundance of helium in its atmosphere, which has swollen to resemble an inflated balloon.

Fighting smog supports solar power
Model calculations by ETH researchers show that if China fought smog more aggressively, it could massively increase solar power production.

Hybrid prevalence estimation: Method to improve intervention coverage estimations
LSTM's Professor Joseph Valadez is senior author on a new study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, which outlines proposals for a more accurate estimator of health data.

Virus- and oncogene-free reprogramming method for the production of iPSCs published in the journal
Regenerative Medicine is delighted to publish open access original research demonstrating the first virus- and oncogene-free induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to produce safer pluripotent stem cells from cord blood and peripheral blood.

Could algae that are 'poor-providers' help corals come back after bleaching?
How much of a reef's ability to withstand stressful conditions is influenced by the type of symbiotic algae that the corals hosts?

Circulating tumor cell count could help choose treatment for metastatic breast cancer patients
Circulating tumor-cell (CTC) count could be used to choose hormone therapy or chemotherapy as frontline treatment for patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), HER2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer, according to data from the phase III STIC CTC clinical trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Simple steps to climate-proof farms have big potential upside for tropical farmers
Climate-smart agriculture boosts yields, mitigates extreme weather impact and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

Low-dose tamoxifen reduced recurrence and new disease for patients with DCIS, LCIS, and ADH
Treatment with a low dose of tamoxifen (5 mg per day) halved the risk of disease recurrence and new disease for women who had been treated with surgery following a diagnosis of breast intraepithelial neoplasia compared with placebo, and it did not cause more serious adverse events, according to data from the randomized, phase III TAM-01 clinical trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

VCU researchers test effectiveness of anti-opioid vaccine
Virginia Commonwealth University researchers are testing a vaccine against opioid abuse developed by the Scripps Research Institute in California.

USGS identifies largest continuous oil and gas resource potential ever
USGS announces an assessment of continuous oil and gas in Texas and New Mexico's Delaware Basin, the largest USGS has ever conducted, with an estimate of 46.3 billion barrels of oil and 281 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

Half a million tests and many mosquitoes later, new buzz about a malaria prevention drug
Researchers spent two years testing chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the malaria parasite at an earlier stage in its lifecycle than most current drugs, revealing a new set of chemical starting points for the first drugs to prevent malaria instead of just treating the symptoms.

Accelerated PBI close but not equivalent to WBI to control ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence
Data from the NRG (NSABP B-39/RTOG 0413) trial indicated that ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rates 10 years after treatment could not reject the hypothesis that accelerated partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy was inferior to whole breast irradiation (WBI), according to a presentation at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

Subtype of immune B cells can delay type 1 diabetes onset in mice
A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Michigan Medical School reports that a subset of immune B cells, known as CD19+IgM+ B cells, can delay the onset of type 1 diabetes in a mouse model of the condition.

Pumping up fitness app features may add muscle to workout commitment
Fitness apps are easy to download and can help motivate people to start workout routines, but that may not be enough to sustain those routines in the long run.

Link between neonatal vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed
Newborns with vitamin D deficiency have an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life, a team of Australian and Danish researchers has reported.

Stanford researchers use zinc to target insulin-producing cells with regenerative drug
A team of Stanford University endocrinologists and chemists has taken a step toward targeting the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin more precisely, using a property that researchers have long known about but never exploited for treatment: Beta cells, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, have a particularly strong taste for zinc.

Acrobatic geckos, highly maneuverable on land and in the air, can also race on water
Asian geckos were observed running over water at nearly a meter per second, as fast as on land.

An exoplanet loses its atmosphere in the form of a tail
A new study, led by scientists from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), reveals that the giant exoplanet WASP-69b carries a comet-like tail made up of helium particles escaping from its gravitational field propelled by the ultraviolet radiation of its star.

Unknown treasure trove of planets found hiding in dust
The first unbiased survey of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars in the Taurus star-forming region turned up a higher-than-expected number of disks with features suggesting nascent planets, according to a study by an international team of astronomers involving researchers at the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory.

An ancient strain of plague may have led to the decline of Neolithic Europeans
A team of researchers from France, Sweden, and Denmark have identified a new strain of Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes plague, in DNA extracted from 5,000-year-old human remains.

Statins overprescribed for primary prevention
Taking cholesterol-lowering drugs, or statins, as a preventive measure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The naked eye alone is not enough to ensure the accurate diagnosis of skin cancer, say experts
The visual inspection of a suspicious skin lesion using the naked eye alone is not enough to ensure the accurate diagnosis of skin cancer, a group of experts have concluded.

Infectivity of different HIV-1 strains may depend on which cell receptors they target
Distinct HIV-1 strains may differ in the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which they bind, affecting which cells they can infect and their ability to enter cells, according to a study published Dec.

Developing new materials for the fusion reactor
At National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) we have newly developed vanadium alloys that is strong at high temperatures and is appropriate for manufacturing and welding.

Study among first to describe work environments for nurses in Mexico
A study of nurses in Mexico identifies both positive and problematic areas of their work environments, with age, experience, and education level influencing nurses' perceptions of their workplaces. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to