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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | December 07, 2018


Exercise performed during adjuvant breast cancer treatment may improve cardio function
Women who underwent a supervised program of cardiovascular exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment experienced better cardiovascular function than those who were not part of the exercise program, according to results of the EBBA-II trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
Lifestyle intervention helped breast cancer survivors lose weight
Survivors of early-stage breast cancer who participated in a lifestyle intervention on healthy habits lost weight and experienced higher rates of disease-free survival if they completed the program, according to results presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
Vitamin C may reduce harm to infants' lungs caused by smoking during pregnancy
Vitamin C may reduce the harm done to lungs in infants born to mothers who smoke during their pregnancy, according to a randomized, controlled trial published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Mayo-led study: Drug reduces hot flashes, improves breast cancer survivor quality of life
Research led by oncologists Roberto Leon-Ferre, M.D. and Charles Loprinzi, M.D. of Mayo Clinic has found that the drug oxybutynin helps to reduce the frequency and intensity of hot flashes in women who are unable to take hormone replacement therapy, including breast cancer survivors.
Increasing statins dose and patient adherence could save more lives
Thousands of heart attacks and deaths from cardiovascular disease could be prevented by patients taking higher doses of statins and taking the drugs as advised by doctors.
Researchers explore what's behind Mediterranean diet and lower cardiovascular risk
A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and the Harvard T.H.
The privacy risks of compiling mobility data
A new study by MIT researchers finds that the growing practice of compiling massive, anonymized datasets about people's movement patterns is a double-edged sword: While it can provide deep insights into human behavior for research, it could also put people's private data at risk.
DDT in Alaska meltwater poses cancer risk for people who eat lots of fish
Children in Alaska whose diet includes a lot of fish from rivers fed by the Eastern Alaska Mountain Range may have a long-term elevated risk for cancer because of insecticides -- including DDT -- in the meltwater.
More bioplastics do not necessarily contribute to climate change mitigation
Bioplastics are often promoted as an environmentally and climate-friendly alternative to conventional petroleum-based plastics.
Potential seen for tailoring treatment for acute myeloid leukemia
Rapid screening of leukemia cells for drug susceptibility and resistance are bringing scientists closer to patient-tailored treatment for acute myeloid leukemia.
Choice of surgery may affect quality of life for young breast cancer survivors
Even as more young women with breast cancer opt to have mastectomies, many experience a persistent decline in their sexual and psychosocial well-being following the procedure, as detailed in new research by Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center.
GW expert calls for strong, sustainable action to make world roadways safer
According to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) report on road safety, more than 1.3 million people die on the world's roadways each year -- and millions more are injured or disabled.
Seeing and avoiding the 'blind spot' in atomic force measurements
Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy -- a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules.
Being yelled at: Our brain on alert in a flash
What happens within the brain when it perceives a threatening signal, such as an aggressive voice?
Inflammatory bowel disease linked to prostate cancer
Men with inflammatory bowel disease have four to five times higher risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer.
New generation of therapeutics based on understanding of aging biology show promise for Alzheimer's disease
A scientific strategy that explores therapeutic targets based on the biology of aging is gaining ground as an effective approach to prevent and treat Alzheimer's disease, according to research published in the December 7, 2018 online issue of Neurology®.
In times of low unemployment, nursing home quality suffers
The low unemployment rate in the US -- which fell to a 49-year low in September and October -- is good news to many people, but perhaps not to residents of nursing homes.
Molecular insights into spider silk
Spider silk belongs to the toughest fibres in nature and has astounding properties.
Experiments at PPPL show remarkable agreement with satellite sightings
Feature describes striking similarity of laboratory research findings with observations of the four-satellite Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission that studies magnetic reconnection in space.
Milestone for bERLinPro: Photocathodes with high quantum efficiency
A team at the HZB has improved the manufacturing process of photocathodes and can now provide photocathodes with high quantum efficiency for bERLinPro.
How fruit flies ended up in our fruit bowls
Fruit flies can be a scourge in our homes, but to date no-one has known how they became our uninvited lodgers.
Gender bias sways how we perceive competence in faces
Faces that are seen as competent are also perceived as more masculine, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Graphic warnings snuff out cigarettes' appeal to kids
New research from Cornell University suggests graphic warning labels on cigarette ads have the same anti-smoking effect as similar warning labels on cigarette packs.
A new 'spin' on kagome lattices
The kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 exhibits an electronic state that couples unusually strongly to an applied magnetic field that can be rotated to point in any direction of a 3-dimensional space, revealing that magnetization drives -- in quantum scale -- a 'giant' energy shift within the material, an international team of researchers has found.
MIT engineers repurpose wasp venom as an antibiotic drug
MIT engineers have repurposed wasp venom as an antibiotic drug that's nontoxic to human cells.
Closer look at TAILORx confirms lack of chemo benefit regardless of race or ethnicity
Before TAILORx, there was uncertainty about treatment for women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, node-negative breast cancer and a score of 11-25 on a tumor gene test.
Some people uncomfortable discontinuing cancer screening even when benefit is low
A new study finds 29 percent of veterans who underwent recommended screening colonoscopies were uncomfortable with the idea of stopping these screenings when the benefit was expected to be low for them personally.
New algorithm provides a more detailed look at urban heat islands
Urban areas are warmer than the adjacent undeveloped land, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island effect.
Double the stress slows down evolution
Bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics more slowly if they also have to defend themselves against predators.
Study upends timeline for Iroquoian history
New research from Cornell University raises questions about the timing and nature of early interactions between indigenous people and Europeans in North America.
Study: Damning evidence of dam's impacts on rainforest birds
A study by an international team of conservation scientists found that a dam built in Thailand 31 years ago has caused the local bird population to collapse.
How ice particles promote the formation of radicals
The production of chlorofluorocarbons, which damage the ozone layer, has been banned as far as possible.
One out of three rivers in the Iberian Peninsula is affected by salinization
One out of three rivers in the Iberian Peninsula has salinization mainly due the impact of agricultural activity and territory urbanization.
Oxybutynin decreased frequency of hot flashes, improved QOL for breast cancer survivors
Treatment with oxybutynin helped reduce the frequency and intensity of hot flashes for women who could not take hormone replacement, including breast cancer survivors, according to results of a trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.
Supercomputers without waste heat
Physicists from the University of Konstanz explore superconductivity for information processing.
Faulty sensing: Cellular energy sensor linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with energy depletion in kidney cells, resulting in reduced kidney function.
ETRI exchanged quantum information on daylight in a free-space quantum key distribution
The Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) has reported a successful free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) in daylight with the self-developed polarization encoding chip for the first time.
Nearly two-thirds of people at high risk of heart disease and stroke have excess belly fat
Nearly two-thirds of people at high risk of heart disease and stroke have excess belly fat, according to results of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) EUROASPIRE V survey presented today at the World Congress of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Health in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Harnessing the power of 'spin orbit' coupling in silicon: Scaling up quantum computation
Research teams from UNSW are investigating multiple pathways to scale up atom-based computing architectures using spin-orbit coupling -- advancing towards their goal of building a silicon-based quantum computer in Australia.
Elucidating protein-protein interactions & designing small molecule inhibitors
To carry out wide range of cellular functionalities, proteins often associate with one or more proteins in a phenomenon known as Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI).
Researchers evaluate pMSCs sheets for engineered repair and regeneration of heart tissue
The placenta offers an abundant source of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs), which a new study has shown can readily form cell sheets that could be implanted in children with congenital heart defects and offer benefits for heart repair and regeneration compared to commonly used synthetic material-based scaffolds.
Bacterial 'sleeper cells' evade antibiotics and weaken defence against infection
New research, from scientists at Imperial College London, unravels how so-called bacterial persister cells manipulate our immune cells, potentially opening new avenues to finding ways of clearing these bacterial cells from the body, and stopping recurrence of the bacterial infection.
Carnegie Mellon researchers probe hydrogen bonds using new technique
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have used nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy to probe the hydrogen bonds that modulate the chemical reactivity of enzymes, catalysts and biomimetic complexes.
News about a plant hormone
The plant hormone jasmonic acid also performs a function that was previously unknown.
A code for reprogramming immune sentinels
For the first time, a research team at Lund University in Sweden has successfully reprogrammed mouse and human skin cells into immune cells called dendritic cells.
Risk Analysis releases special issue on communicating about Zika virus
Today, Risk Analysis, an International Journal, published a special issue, 'Communicating About Zika,' which features several articles that were originally presented as works-in-progress at the Zika Communication Summit convened in March 2017 by the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.
Planning processes for Chicago's 606 Trail spawned gentrification, study finds
In a paper published in the journal Cities, Alessandro Rigolon, a professor of recreation, sport and tourism at the University of Illinois, and University of Colorado urban and regional planning professor Jeremy Nemeth examined the planning processes associated with the 606 Trail and conclude that these processes may have made gentrification the most likely outcome.
Study highlights correlations between violent death and substance use
Consumption of alcohol or at least one drug was associated with over half the violent deaths that occurred in São Paulo City in the period analyzed.
Are amorphous solids elastic or plastic?
How do amorphous solids respond to a small deformation? Can standard elasticity describe amorphous solids?
Ultrarestrictive opioid prescribing strategy associated with fewer pills dispensed
An ultrarestrictive opioid prescribing strategy was associated with a reduction in the number of pills dispensed in a study of patients having surgery for gynecologic cancer, without changes in postoperative pain scores, complications or increases in prescription refill requests.
Iron-rich lamellae in the semiconductor
There is often a pronounced symmetry when you look at the lattice of crystals: the atoms are uniformly arranged.
Study confirms: Multigene test is a useful decision making tool in breast cancer treatment
Multigene tests have been used in breast cancer treatment to assess the risk of metastasis for several years.

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