Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 13, 2018
Ingestible capsule can be controlled wirelessly
MIT researchers have designed an ingestible capsule that can be controlled using Bluetooth wireless technology.

New device could help answer fundamental questions about quantum physics
Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity.

Study reveals how Chinese travellers use technology abroad
Traditional cultural values and government policy influence how Chinese backpackers use technology while travelling, according to new research by the University of East Anglia (UEA).

Revealed by a multidisciplinary effort: History of maize domestication not what we thought
The domestication of maize, a process which began in what is now central Mexico nearly 9,000 years ago, was far more complex and nuanced than once previously thought, a new study finds.

Probiotics could help millions of patients suffering from bipolar disorder
About 3 million people in the US are diagnosed every year with bipolar disorder, a psychiatric condition characterized by dramatic shifts in mood from depression to mania.

An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes
What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes -- while significantly reducing your electric bill and carbon footprint?

Inability to perform basic activities delays mental health patients' discharge
Mental health patients who have difficulty performing daily living tasks are four times more likely to experience discharge delays than someone who can perform those tasks independently.

New drug seeks receptors in sarcoma cells, attacks tumors in animal trials
A new compound that targets a receptor within sarcoma cancer cells shrank tumors and hampered their ability to spread in mice and pigs, a study from researchers at the University of Illinois reports.

Monitoring the environment with artificial intelligence
Microorganisms perform key functions in ecosystems and their diversity reflects the health of their environment.

New research suggests how parents protect children from the long-term effects of stress
When young children experience violence or poverty, the effect can last well into adulthood.

Study shows massage helps ease arthritis pain, improve mobility
Patients with arthritis in their knees experienced significant improvement in pain and mobility after undergoing a weekly, whole-body massage for two months, according to a study led by researchers at Duke Health.

Fitness instructors' comments shape women's body satisfaction
A new Northwestern University study found that while exercise, in this case, a 16-minute conditioning class, generally improved women's mood and body satisfaction, women felt even better if the instructor made motivational comments that focused on strength and health instead of on losing weight or changing the appearance of one's body.

The parable of universal health cover for people on the move
Research published in The Lancet on December 5 revealed that harmful and unfounded myths about migration and health have become accepted and that these are used to justify policies of exclusion.

Collagen nanofibrils in mammalian tissues get stronger with exercise
A recent experimental study conducted by researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Washington University in St.

Video game players frequently exposed to graphic content may see world differently
Disturbing imagery disrupts perception, but not as much among violent video game players, UNSW Sydney psychologists have shown.

New technology paints in-depth picture of organisms' response to climate change
Revolutionary new technology created at the University of Plymouth could fill a major gap in our understanding of how organisms' early development will be impacted by climate change.

Scientists create genomic resource to explore biological underpinnings of brain disorders
A team of researchers, including scientists from UNC School of Medicine, has developed a model of unprecedented sophistication that relates variations in DNA and gene activity to the risk of brain disorders.

Mobile device by UCLA makes the detection of parasitic infections faster and more sensitive
Researchers at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering have developed an inexpensive and portable platform that can rapidly detect motile parasites in bodily fluids automatically.

Exercise-induced hormone irisin triggers bone remodeling in mice
Exercise has been touted to build bone mass, but exactly how it actually accomplishes this is a matter of debate.

Illuminating the brain architecture of neuropsychiatric risk: The latest from PsychENCODE
Neuropsychiatric disorders have highly complex causes that involve hundreds of genes -- a feature that hindered development of related treatments.

Novel mechanisms of dengue and Zika virus infections and link to microcephaly
New insights into how dengue and Zika viruses cause disease reveal strategies the viruses use to successfully infect their host and a link to microcephaly.

Neandertal genes shed light on unique aspects of the modern human brain
A characteristic feature of modern humans is the unusually round skull and brain, in contrast to the elongated shape seen in other human species.

Life expectancy for blacks in US driven down by guns
Young black Americans are two times more likely to die from firearms than whites, according to a new study published in BMJ Evidence-Base Medicine.

New genetic clues to early-onset form of dementia
In an effort to better understand frontotemporal dementia, an international team of researchers, led by Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Four studies by Mount Sinai investigators featured in upcoming special issue of Science
Publications reflect Mount Sinai Health System's investment in the exploration of brain genome organization and function.

Researchers uncover molecular mechanisms linked to autism and schizophrenia
Two UCLA-led studies published in Science have linked DNA changes to their molecular effects in the brain, uncovering new mechanisms for psychiatric diseases.

Magic number colloidal clusters
Complexity in nature, whether in chlorophyll or in living organisms, often results from self-assembly and is considered particularly robust.

Researchers discover new interactions between Ebola virus and human proteins
Several new connections have been discovered between the proteins of the Ebola virus and human host cells, a finding that provides insight on ways to prevent the deadly Ebola virus from reproducing and could lead to novel ways to fight these lethal viral infections, according to a study led by Georgia State University, the University of California, San Francisco, and the Gladstone Institutes.

UA chemical biologists unearth cause of a rare brain disorder
In pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b, two key biological structures are blocked from binding to one another -- which ultimately stunts critical brain growth.

Researchers peel off slimy biofilms like old stickers
Slimy, hard-to-clean bacterial mats called biofilms cause problems ranging from medical infections to clogged drains and fouled industrial equipment.

Skin game
Medical University of Vienna professor Leopold Eckhart and colleagues have performed one of the largest comparative genomic studies to help determine the key molecular and evolutionary origins of mammalian adaptations seen in skin proteins.

Should Santa wear a flame-retardant suit? (video)
Saint Nick faces a host of hazards during the holiday season, from the calories in cookies to the dying embers in your fireplace.

MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No effects detected on rat health or metabolism
A diet based on MON 810 or NK603 transgenic maize does not affect the health or metabolism of rats, under the conditions of the GMO 90+1 project1.

Study shows in older people, type 2 diabetes is associated with a decline in brain function over 5 years
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) shows that in older people living in the community, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with a decline in verbal memory and fluency over five years.

Regular trips out guard against depression in old age
Regular visits to the cinema, theatre or to museums could dramatically reduce the chances of becoming depressed in older age a new study has found.

Study confirms role of brain's support cells in Huntington's, points to new therapies
New research gives scientists a clearer picture of what is happening in the brains of people with Huntington's disease and lays out a potential path for treatment.

How the brain tells you to scratch that itch
It's a maddening cycle that has affected us all: it starts with an itch that triggers scratching, but scratching only makes the itchiness worse.

How teens deal with stress may affect their blood pressure, immune system
Most teens get stressed out by their families from time to time, but whether they bottle those emotions up or put a positive spin on things may affect certain processes in the body, including blood pressure and how immune cells respond to bacterial invaders, according to Penn State researchers.

Genetically modified pigs resist infection with the classical swine fever virus
Researchers have developed genetically modified pigs that are protected from classical swine fever virus (CSFV), according to a study published December 13 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Hongsheng Ouyang of Jilin University, and colleagues.

Computer chip vulnerabilities discovered by WSU researchers
A Washington State University research team has uncovered significant and previously unknown vulnerabilities in high-performance computer chips that could lead to failures in modern electronics.

Neandertal genes give clues to human brain evolution
A distinctive feature of modern humans is our round (globular) skulls and brains.

Exercise-related hormone irisin found to target key bone cells
Scientists have discovered that irisin, a hormone released by muscles during exercise, directly acts on key regulatory cells that control the breakdown and formation of bone.

In the developing brain, scientists find roots of neuropsychiatric diseases
The most comprehensive genomic analysis of the human brain ever undertaken has revealed new insights into the changes it undergoes through development, how it varies among individuals, and the roots of neuropsychiatric illnesses such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

Noncoding mutations contribute to autism risk
A whole-genome sequencing study of nearly 2,000 families has implicated mutations in 'promoter regions' of the genome -- regions that precede the start of a gene -- in autism.

Scientists identify 66 alien species that pose greatest threat to European biodiversity
Scientists have identified 66 alien plant and animal species, not yet established in the European Union, that pose the greatest potential threat to biodiversity and ecosystems in the region.

Vaccine could help address the opioid epidemic
Synthetic psychoactive drugs have become a serious public health threat in recent years.

Moun­tain birds de­clin­ing in Europe
Population data for European mountain birds have been for the first time combined in a recent study, with worrying results: the abundances of mountain-specialist birds has declined by as much as 10% in the 2000s.

Johns Hopkins researchers find the cause of and cure for brain injury associated with gut condition
Using a mouse model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have uncovered the molecular causes of the condition and its associated brain injury.

Potential range for new invasive tick covers much of eastern US
Since the arrival of the Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) in North America was first reported in New Jersey in early 2018, it has been found in eight other states in the US And, by the looks of a new study comparing North American habitat with the invasive tick's native territory, it shouldn't be a surprise if it shows up in many more.

'Imploding' 3D printed nanomaterials in a shrinking gel
By 3d printing nanomaterials inside an 'imploding' hydrogel and shrinking them down to ten times their former size, researchers demonstrate a new method of nanofabrication that overcomes many of the previous' limitations, a new study reports.

USC researchers discover abundant source for neuronal cells
USC researchers seeking a way to study genetic activity associated with psychiatric disorders have discovered an abundant source of human cells -- the nose.

Protein involved in nematode stress response identified
When humans experience stress, their inner turmoil may not be apparent to an outside observer.

Ebola-fighting protein discovered in human cells
Researchers have discovered a human protein that helps fight the Ebola virus and could one day lead to an effective therapy against the deadly disease, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study.

Face masks may protect hog farm workers and their household members from staph bacteria
Face masks appear to provide important protection against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria for hog farm workers and for household members to whom they might otherwise transmit the bacteria, according to a study led by scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Cancer patients face higher risk for shingles, new vaccines hold promise for prevention
People newly diagnosed with cancer, particularly blood cancers, and those treated with chemotherapy have a greater risk of developing shingles, according to a new study in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power
Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and save power for smart devices, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved functionality in a super thin material.

The Lancet Neurology: Cannabis-based drug in combination with other anti-spasticity
Oral spray containing two compounds derived from the cannabis plant reduced spasticity compared with placebo in patients already taking anti-spasticity drugs.

Plants' defense against insects is a bouquet
Michigan State University scholar Andrea Glassmire and her colleagues have revealed how the mixture of chemical weapons deployed by plants keeps marauding insects off base better than a one-note defense.

NSU researchers uncover genetic marker, predictor of early relapse in pediatric ALL
Researchers recently discovered that by testing the level of NER (nucleotide excision repair) gene expression, pediatric oncologists can determine the likelihood of early relapse (less than three years) in their acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.

Santa Claus take note: Winter is coming, but get yourself a raincoat
Climate change in the Arctic means more winter rain, and consequently more rain falling on snow.

Tumor cells conquer territory from their neighbors using a newly discovered mechanism
How do tumoral cells replace healthy cells to promote tumor progression?

Death near the shoreline, not life on land
Our understanding of when the very first animals started living on land is helped by identifying trace fossils--the tracks and trails left by ancient animals--in sedimentary rocks that were deposited on the continents.

Researchers identify widespread brain alterations in children with callousness
Children with elevated levels of callous traits--such as a lack of remorse and disregard for other people's feelings--show widespread differences in brain structure compared with children with lower levels of the traits, according to a new study published in Biological Psychiatry.

First line immunotherapy combination fails to improve overall survival in lung cancer
First line immunotherapy with durvalumab or the combination of durvalumab and tremelimumab does not improve overall survival in unselected patients with lung cancer, according to late breaking results from the MYSTIC trial presented at the ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress.

In search of missing worlds, Hubble finds a fast evaporating exoplanet
Now, astronomers have used Hubble to nab a second 'very warm' Neptune (GJ 3470b) that is losing its atmosphere at a rate 100 times faster than that of GJ 436b.

Swarming behavior discovered in fish-dwelling parasite
Johns Hopkins researchers have observed a previously unrecognized behavior in a single-celled parasite called Spironucleus vortens, which infects ornamental fish such as angelfish: The protozoans swarm.

When heat ceases to be a mystery, spintronics becomes more real
The development of spintronics depends on materials that guarantee control over the flow of magnetically polarized currents.

NYU researchers pioneer machine learning to speed chemical discoveries, reduce waste
Researchers have combined artificial neural networks with infrared thermal imaging to control and interpret chemical reactions with new precision and speed.

Biologists turn eavesdropping viruses into bacterial assassins
Molecular biologist Bonnie Bassler and graduate student Justin Silpe found a bacteria-killing virus that can listen in on bacterial conversations -- and then they made it attack diseases including salmonella, E. coli and cholera.

Gold recycling
'Urban mining', the recycling of precious metals from electronic gadgets, becomes ever more important, although processes that are both efficient and environmentally benign are still scarce.

Scientists crack the CRISPR code for precise human genome editing
Scientists at the Francis Crick Institute have discovered a set of surprisingly simple rules that determine the precision of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human cells.

The immune system's supercell -- how it matures
NK cells, or natural killer cells, play an important role in the body's defences against cancer and various infections.

Where did the hot Neptunes go? A shrinking planet holds the answer
'Where did the hot Neptunes go?' This is the question astronomers have been asking for a long time, faced with the mysterious absence of planets the size of Neptune.

Operation mechanism of ferroelectric HfO2-based transistor and memory has been elucidated
Ferroelectric HfO2-based transistor and memory are expected to realize ultralow power electronics; however, their operation mechanism and scalability were not clarified yet.?Physical mechanism of low voltage operation of a transistor with ferroelectric-HfO2 gate insulator has been experimentally clarified.

Physical activity in the evening does not cause sleep problems
Contrary to popular belief, there is no reason to avoid exercising in the evening, an analysis of the scientific literature has revealed.

Snow over Antarctica buffered sea level rise during last century
A new NASA-led study has determined that an increase in snowfall accumulation over Antarctica during the 20th century mitigated sea level rise by 0.4 inches.

New study says scientific basis for EPA's Endangerment Finding is stronger than ever
New study published in Science this week has found that the evidence used to support the EPA's 2009 Endangerment Finding on greenhouse gases is even stronger and more conclusive now.

Scientists create most accurate tool yet developed to predict asthma in young children
Scientists at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have created and tested a decision tool that appears to be the most accurate, non-invasive method yet developed to predict asthma in young children.

Mass spectrometry sheds new light on thallium poisoning cold case
In 1994, Chinese university student Zhu Ling began experiencing stomach pain, hair loss and partial paralysis.

Study scrutinizes hidden marketing relationships on social media
Federal regulators require social media personalities to alert their viewers to promotional payments for products and gadgets shown on their channels, but an analysis by Princeton University researchers shows that such disclosures are rare.

Parents' brain activity 'echoes' their infant's brain activity when they play together
Research shows for the first time that when adults are engaged in joint play together with their infant, the parents' brains show bursts of high-frequency activity, which are linked to their baby's attention patterns and not their own.

More than air: Researchers fine-tune wind farm simulation
A collaborative research team based in Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences is working to better understand the effect wind farms have locally and globally by examining the performance of predictive models currently being used to forecast their effect.

Fifty years of decline in Queensland's coastal sharks
Queensland's coastal shark numbers are continuing a 50-year decline, in sharp contradiction of suggestions of 'exploding' shark populations, according to an analysis of Queensland Shark Control Program data.

Ionosphere plasma experiments reviewed in a new Kazan University publication
There are only a few so-called 'heaters' in the world -- special facilities which create artificial plasma processes in the upper atmosphere by heating them.

Using EHR-linked medication reminders for glaucoma patients
Mobile device reminders have been associated with better medication adherence and linking reminders to patient electronic health records (EHRs) could potentially allow some oversight by clinicians.

New discovery improves use of optical tweezers
This year's Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded for discoveries in laser physics, recognizes optical tweezers.

New scientific evidence builds a stronger case for the Endangerment Finding
In the years since the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2009 (EPA) establishment of the 'Endangerment Finding,' a landmark redefinition of harmful greenhouse gasses to pollution, scientific information concerning the impacts and risks of climate change has continued to accumulate.

CRISPR joins battle of the bulge, fights obesity without edits to genome
A weighty new study shows that CRISPR therapies can cut fat without cutting DNA.

Slicing optical beams: Cryptographic algorithms for quantum networks
The mathematical models can be used not only for quantum networks and authentication but also for full-scale quantum computing.

Organic food worse for the climate
Organically farmed food has a bigger climate impact than conventionally farmed food, due to the greater areas of land required.

Book publications still going strong in humanities and social sciences
As it appeared, not many countries maintain statistics of such ratios in their scholarly publications.

Study compares dialysis reimbursement around the globe
Dialysis reimbursement policies in most countries are focused on conventional in-center hemodialysis, although home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis might contribute to quality of life and cost savings.

Recent advances and challenges of the drugs acting on monoamine transporters
The human monoamine transporters (hMATs) primary including hSERT, hNET and hDAT are important targets for the treatment of depression and other behavioral disorders with more than the availability of 30 approved drugs.This paper is to review the recent progress in the binding mode and inhibitory mechanism of hMATs inhibitors with the central or allosteric binding sites, for the benefit of future hMATs inhibitor design and discovery.

IPCC to take greater account of carbon storage by agroforestry systems
Researchers from CIRAD and the FAO establish coefficients for carbon storage in the soil and aboveground and belowground biomass of different agroforestry systems.

The splendid generative potential of the Sierpinski triangle
One transistor, just a pair of inductors and capacitors. Such a simple electronic circuit can become an oscillator with a surprising richness of behavior.

To repair DNA damage, plants need good contractors
Researchers at the Salk Institute report which genes are turned on or off, and in which order, to orchestrate the cellular processes required to protect and repair the genome in response to DNA damage.

For a longer battery life: Pushing lithium ion batteries to the next performance level
Conventional lithium ion batteries have reached performance limits. Freddy Kleitz from the University of Vienna and international colleagues have developed a new nanostructured anode material for lithium ion batteries, which extends the capacity and cycle life of the batteries.

MIT team invents method to shrink objects to the nanoscale
MIT researchers have invented a new way to fabricate nanoscale 3D objects of nearly any shape.

High-efficiency discovery drives low-power computing
Challenge any modern human to go a day without a phone or computer, and you'd be hard pressed to get any takers.

Research team discovers oldest known plant virus at ancient settlement
Researchers studying ancient corncobs found at a Native American archeological site have recovered a 1,000-year-old virus, the oldest plant virus ever reported.

Chinese scientists get first look at geometric phase effect in a chemical reaction
Researchers from the University of Science and Technology of China and the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics carried out a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the H+HD to H2+D reaction.

New findings on concussion in football's youngest players
New research from Seattle Children's Research Institute and UW Medicine's Sports Health and Safety Institute found concussion rates among football players ages 5-14 were higher than previously reported, with five out of every 100 youth, or 5 percent, sustaining a football-related concussion each season.

NASA's GPM observes heavy rainfall in intensifying Tropical Cyclone Owen
As expected, tropical cyclone Owen recently intensified as it moved over the Gulf of Carpentaria and NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's GPM core satellite found very heavy rainfall occurring within the revived storm.

Scientists overhaul corn domestication story with multidisciplinary analysis
Scientists are revising the history of one of the world's most important crops.

Neuroscientists uncover sensory switches controlling infanticide and parental behavior
Many species of mammals have evolved what appear to be paradoxical behaviors towards their young.

Argonne scientists maximize the effectiveness of platinum in fuel cells
In new research from the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and published in Science, scientists have identified a new catalyst that uses only about a quarter as much platinum as current technology by maximizing the effectiveness of the available platinum.

The 'greying' of T cells
Research in mouse cells identifies defective metabolic pathway in aging immune T cells.

The home healthcare frontier: new study explores nurses' knowledge attitudes toward infection control
Home healthcare workers' beliefs about infection prevention influence whether they comply with prevention protocols more than their actual knowledge of how to comply, according to new research published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).

The long dry: why the world's water supply is shrinking
A global study has found a paradox: our water supplies are shrinking at the same time as climate change is generating more intense rain.

Study shows prevention, treatment of ICU acquired delirium requires personalized approach
The results of first study to evaluate use of the antipsychotic drug haloperidol to reduce post-operative delirium in elderly patients undergoing elective non-cardiac thoracic surgery indicate the need for a personalized approach to delirium in the ICU.

New study: Average outpatient visit in US approaching $500
The average outpatient visit in the United States costs nearly $500, according to a new scientific study.

Impairment rating of injured workers depends on the when and where of assessment
A comparison of a group of injured workers assessed using the two most recent editions of the AMA guides revealed that usage of the sixth edition resulted in significantly lower impairment ratings than the fifth edition.

Study finds sewage bacteria lurking in Hudson river sediments
A new study shows that fecal bacteria from sewage are living in far greater quantities in near-shore sediments of the Hudson River than in the water itself.

Puzzle solving in school-level mathematics studied in cross-regional project
The research has proven that pupils who engage in puzzle solving consistently show higher aptitude in IQ tests.

Watching brain cells fire
Brain scientists have plenty of ways to track the activity of individual neurons in the brain, but they're all invasive.

CETSA HT in early drug discovery through screening against B-Raf and PARP1
A new study published ahead-of-print by SLAS Discovery describes an evaluation of microplate-based high-throughput cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA HT) performed at AstraZeneca to assess its suitability and reliability for application to early drug discovery campaigns.

Megacity traffic soot contributes to global warming
Soot from road traffic in emerging countries can reach high altitudes, where it can be transported over long distances and thus contributes to global warming.

Amyloid pathology transmission in lab mice and historic medical treatments
A UCL-led study has confirmed that some vials of a hormone used in discontinued medical treatments contained seeds of a protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease, and are able to seed amyloid pathology in mice.

New study investigates treatments for prurigo nodularis
A team from the GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences found emerging treatments, such as neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, were the most promising against prurigo nodularis.

Tangled magnetic fields power cosmic particle accelerators
Magnetic field lines tangled like spaghetti in a bowl might be behind the most powerful particle accelerators in the universe.

Drug targets for Ebola, Dengue, and Zika viruses found in lab study
No drugs are currently available to treat Ebola, Dengue, or Zika viruses, which infect millions of people every year and result in severe illness, birth defects, and even death.

Tale of two trees: New web tool estimates gene trees with ease
Scientists introduce ORTHOSCOPE, a new web-based tool capable of inferring gene function, estimating gene trees and identifying sets of ancestral genes in just minutes.

Septin proteins act as cellular police to identify, imprison and kill 'superbug' Shigella
A protein family found naturally in our cells could help stop the spread of dangerous drug resistant infections by using 'detective' like powers to collect evidence of bacterial infection and imprison it, according to new research published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe.

Unpredictable food sources drive some bats to cooperatively search for food
With the help of novel miniature sensors, an international group of biologists that included University of Maryland Biology Professor Gerald Wilkinson found that bat species foraged socially if their food sources were in unpredictable locations, such as insect swarms or fish schools.

New techniques better determine how ancient viral DNA influences human genes
New laboratory techniques can identify which of our genes are influenced by DNA snippets that are left behind in our genetic code by viruses.

Hubble finds far-away planet vanishing at record speed
In their quest to learn more about faraway planets, astronomers discovered that a medium-sized planet roughly the size of Neptune is evaporating at a rate 100 times faster than a previously discovered planet of similar size. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to