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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | December 18, 2018


Your postal code may influence your health: McMaster University
More than 2,000 on-the-ground assessments conducted in all of the provinces were collected by trained auditors between 2014 and 2016.
Mindfulness training may help support weight loss
Mindfulness training may improve the effectiveness of intensive weight management programs, according to a small study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Editorial: Stop allowing beliefs to get in the way of treating opioid use disorder
Patients face unnecessary barriers to evidence-based treatment from government regulations as well as providers' own beliefs that are not grounded in science, researchers from the Grayken Center for Addiction at Boston Medical Center (BMC) said in an Annals of Internal Medicine editorial.
Using endangered barbary macaques as photo props could negatively impact Moroccan tourism
Wild animals are increasingly exploited for entertainment and photo opportunities.
Genetic cause of ALS and frontotemporal dementia blocked by RNA-binding compound
A new compound blocks the most common genetic cause of familial ALS and frontotemporal dementia.
Physicists found a correlation between the structure and magnetic properties of ceramics
The international scientific group studied a correlation between the structure of ceramic materials based on bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and their magnetic properties.
What prevents remyelination? New stem cell research reveals a critical culprit
New research on remyelination, the spontaneous regeneration of the brain's fatty insulator that keeps neurons communicating, could lead to a novel approach to developing treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) and other inflammatory diseases.
The importance of 'edge populations' to biodiversity
More than two-thirds of Canada's biodiversity is made up of species that occur within the country's borders only at the very northern edge of their range.
Exercise may be as effective as prescribed drugs to lower high blood pressure
Exercise may be as effective as prescribed drugs to lower high (140 mm Hg) blood pressure, suggests a pooled analysis of the available data, in what is thought to be the first study of its kind, and published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Prostate cancer scoring method may underestimate mortality risk in black men
Black men diagnosed with prostate cancer classified as low risk may actually have a more-aggressive form of the disease that is more likely to be fatal than in nonblack men placed in the same prognostic category, a new study suggests.
Mysteries of the primrose unraveled
Plant scientists at the University of East Anglia have succeeded in unraveling the complete genome sequence of the common primrose -- the plant whose reproductive biology captivated the Victorian naturalist Charles Darwin.
Two ways cancer resists treatment are actually connected, with one activating the other
Researcher shows the two most common means of resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors are actually connected processes and can be targeted by other therapies.
Vaccine, checkpoint drugs combination shows promise for pancreatic cancers
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center discovered a combination of a cancer vaccine with two checkpoint drugs reduced pancreatic cancer tumors in mice, demonstrating a possible pathway for treatment of people with pancreatic cancers whose response to standard immunotherapy is poor.
Buruli ulcer: Promising new drug candidate against a forgotten disease
Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) resulting in debilitating skin lesions, disabilities and stigmatisation.
Fossils suggest flowers originated 50 million years earlier than thought
Scientists have described a fossil plant species that suggests flowers bloomed in the Early Jurassic, more than 174 million years ago, according to new research in the open-access journal eLife.
Checkout aisle food policies may change diets, study finds
Policies that limit what types of food can be shelved in the checkout aisles of grocery stores may successfully curb junk food intake in shoppers, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Jean Adams from the University of Cambridge, UK, and colleagues.
Explaining differences in rates of evolution
Scientists look to fossils and evolutionary trees to help determine the rate of evolution -- albeit with conflicting results.
Study of traditional medicine finds high use in Sub-Saharan Africa despite modern medicine
Researchers who have undertaken the first systematic review of into the use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicines (TCAM) in Sub-Saharan Africa found its use is significant and not just because of a lack of resources or access to 'conventional medicine'.
KU Leuven researchers use sound waves to prevent small chemical reactors from clogging up
Companies are keen to use miniature chemical reactors to make pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, but are discouraged by their tendency to clog up.
Brain health not affected by major heart surgery
Patients who undergo heart surgery do not experience major memory changes--either better or worse--when compared with those who have a much less invasive, catheter-based procedure, according to a study published online today in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.
Focus on this: Japanese team increases X-ray laser focusing ability
Osaka University-based researchers fabricated multilayer mirrors that improved the focusing of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beams.
FSU researchers identify ways breast cancer avoids immune system detection
Researchers analyzed data from more than 1,000 breast cancer patients and found that breast cancer behaves differently than other cancers that are currently treated with immunotherapy.
Weight change in middle-aged and elderly Singaporean Chinese linked to increased mortality risk
The Singapore Chinese Health Study has shown that both moderate-to-large weight gain and weight loss in mid-life and old age were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, and particularly for cardiovascular disease mortality.
Dicationic ionic liquid & its application in the synthesis of xanthenediones
An efficient solvent-free method for the synthesis of xanthenediones has been developed in the presence of [(EtNH2)2SO][HSO4]2 as a powerful catalyst with high to excellent yields, and short reaction times.
Pathogen predicament: How bacteria propel themselves out of a tight spot
Scientists have deciphered how some types of 'swimming' bacteria have evolved to be able to escape when trapped in small spaces.
Low-income, rural kids at higher risk for second- or third-hand smoke exposure
Infants and toddlers in low-income, rural areas may be at higher risk for second- and third-hand smoke than previously reported, according to new Penn State-led research.
'Pause' in global warming was never real, new research proves
Claims of a 'pause' in observed global temperature warming are comprehensively disproved in a pair of new studies published today.
Machine-learning research at OSU unlocking molecular cages' energy-saving potential
Nanosized cages may play a big role in reducing energy consumption in science and industry, and machine-learning research aims to accelerate the deployment of these remarkable molecules.
Salmon may lose the ability to smell danger as carbon emissions rise
New research shows that the powerful sense of smell Pacific salmon rely on for migration, finding food and avoiding predators might be in trouble as carbon emissions continue to be absorbed by the ocean.
New genetic testing technology enhances precision of analysis of clinical biomarkers
Estonian scientists have announced the invention of a genetic testing technology that allows the number of clinical biomarkers to be analyzed at the single-molecule level, which enhances the sensitivity of tests in precision medicine and will make them more affordable in future.
The vanished mirror image
Enantiomeric molecules resemble each other like right and left hands.
Artificial intelligence meets materials science
A Texas A&M engineering research team is harnessing the power of machine learning, data science and the domain knowledge of experts to autonomously discover new materials.
Thinking outside the box and outside the tumor to detect lung cancer
A team of researchers at Case Western Reserve University is using 'deep-learning' diagnostic computers to examine the shape of blood vessels feeding a nodule found on a lung CAT scan and in regions surrounding the tumor.
Takeaway containers -- the environmental cost of packing our favorite fast-foods
Scientists say more should be done to tackle the growing environmental impact of takeaway food containers.
Multicultural creatures of habit
Every year trillions of animals migrate for thousands of kilometres between their summer and winter areas.
Unique insights into an exotic matter state
The properties of the matter, which surrounds us in our everyday life, are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons.
Extraordinary 'faithful father' revealed by study of smooth guardian frog of Borneo
New research by an investigator at the University of Kansas shows the male smooth guardian frog is a kind of amphibian 'Mr.
Today's children reach bone maturity earlier, study reveals
Children born in the most recent century have bones that reach full maturity earlier -- by nearly 10 months in girls and nearly seven months in boys -- according to a new study from the University of Missouri School of Medicine.
Research finds rings of Saturn are dying
New research shows Saturn's rings are dying at a worst-case-scenario rate.
How a single faulty gene can lead to lupus
IBS-AIM (Academy of Immunology and Microbiology) research team at Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) in South Korea has discovered the role of a key gene involved in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or lupus for short.
Global warming didn't pause -- researchers disentangle 'hiatus' confusion
The reality of ongoing climate warming might seem plainly obvious today after a summer of weather extremes in the whole northern hemisphere.
Biologists identify promising drug for ALS treatment
A new drug could significantly slow the progression of ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, according to new research by University of Alberta biologists.
Red wolf DNA found in mysterious Texas canines
Princeton biologists Bridgett vonHoldt and Elizabeth Heppenheimer discovered that a mysterious group of canines spotted on Galveston Island, Texas, share DNA with both coyotes and a captive breeding group of red wolves from North Carolina.
ECDC: Influenza vaccination coverage rates insufficient across EU member states
None of the European Union (EU) Member States could demonstrate that they reach the EU target of 75 percent influenza vaccination coverage for vulnerable groups, according to a new report from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).
Upwind wind plants can reduce flow to downwind neighbors
New National Science Foundation and Department of Energy-funded research highlights a previously unexplored consequence of the global proliferation of wind energy facilities: a wake effect from upwind facilities that can reduce the energy production of their downwind neighbors.
With a focus on high-risk patients, SLU researcher eyes eliminating TB for good
A focus on high-risk tuberculosis patients may be the answer to stalled progress in stamping out the illness in the United States.
Split liver transplants could safely help sickest children
In a review of registry data for more than 5,300 liver transplants performed in children nationwide, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers identify the type of patient who is most likely to survive a split liver transplant -- receiving only part of a donor's liver -- with no additional long-term health risks, which could allow for an increase in the availability of organs.
Study examines effects of taking ondansetron during first trimester of pregnancy
A new study conducted by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital has analyzed data from more than 88,000 pregnancies in which pregnant women had taken ondansetron during the first trimester to examine risk of cardiac malformations or oral clefts.
Optimizing restoration can deliver an eightfold increase in cost-effectiveness
A new study published in Nature Ecology and Evolution presents a novel approach to identify optimal priority areas for restoration, considering multiple criteria such as biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation and reduction of costs.
Hurricane Maria gave ecologists rare chance to study how tropical dry forests recover
To counteract the damage hurricanes have caused to their canopies, trees appear to adjust key characteristics of their newly grown leaves, according to a year-long field study presented at the British Ecological Society's annual conference today.
Flowers originated 50 million years earlier than previously thought
Scientists from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology reported that analysis of fossil specimens of a flower called Nanjinganthus from the Early Jurassic (more than 174 million years ago) suggests that flowers originated 50 million years earlier than previously thought.
Experts identify 'tipping point' in tree disease outbreaks
Experts have found a way to model disease progression and predict the 'tipping point' of a disease, providing early warning indicators that an epidemic is imminent and action needs to be taken.
Technique allows integration of single-crystal hybrid perovskites into electronics
An international team of researchers has developed a technique that, for the first time, allows single-crystal hybrid perovskite materials to be integrated into electronics.
Flexible thermoelectric generator module: A silver bullet to fix waste energy issues
Researchers developed an inexpensive large-scale flexible thermoelectric generator (FlexTEG) module with high mechanical reliability for highly efficient power generation.
Widespread, occasional use of antibiotics in US linked with resistance
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the U.S. appears more closely linked with their occasional use by many people than by their repeated use among smaller numbers of people, according to a large new study from Harvard T.H.
Three generations, 1,000s of miles: Scientists unlock mystery of a dragonfly's migration
New research describes the annual life cycle of the common green darner dragonfly, finding that it takes three generations and two long-distance migrations to complete one year in the life of this species.
Gut microbiome regulates the intestinal immune system, researchers find
A new study in mice unveils the role of vitamin A in immune system regulation, a finding that could assist in developing treatments for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as well as vitamin A deficiency.
Removing sweets from checkouts linked to dramatic fall in unhealthy snack purchases
Policies aimed at removing sweets and crisps from checkouts could lead to a dramatic reduction to the amount of unhealthy food purchased to eat 'on the go' and a significant reduction in that purchased to take home, suggests new research led by the University of Cambridge.
Reduce energy costs and social isolation to support older adults in extreme weather
The cost of heating and cooling the home, and increasing social isolation are significant factors in health risk of older adults during extreme weather, according to a new study by the University of Warwick.
New megalibrary approach proves useful for the rapid discovery of new materials
Identifying the best material for a given application -- catalysts, light-harvesting structures, biodiagnostic labels, pharmaceuticals and electronic devices -- is traditionally a slow and daunting task.
Predicting inhibitor for multidrug resistance associated protein-2 transporter
The aim of the present work was to develop a machine learning predictive model to classify inhibitors and non-inhibitors of multidrug resistance associated protein-2 transporter using a well refined dataset.In this study, the various algorithms of machine learning were used to develop the predictive models i.e. support vector machine, random forest and k-nearest neighbor.
TiO2 NP & catalyst for the synthesis of benzopyrano benzopyranone and xanthenol in water
In this research, TiO2-CNTs were used as an efficient recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of [1]benzopyrano[b][1]benzopyran-6-ones and xanthenols by the pseudo three-component reaction of salicylaldehydes with active methylene compounds including 4-hydroxycoumarin (4- hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) or 3,4-methylenedioxyphenol.
What causes extreme heat in North China?
A collaborative research team from China has published a new analysis that shows the horizontal heat flux in the mixed layer plays a crucial role in extreme heat events in the North China Plain region.
Scientists gain insights into traffic cop function of gene expression protein
Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have discovered a crucial quality-control mechanism inside cells that, when it fails, might contribute to major diseases including cancers.
Recruiting ants to fight weeds on the farm
Harvester ants that eat weed seeds on the soil's surface can help farmers manage weeds on their farms, according to an international team of researchers, who found that tilling less to preserve the ants could save farmers fuel and labor costs, as well as preserve water and improve soil quality.
Research finds opioids may help chronic pain, a little
In a study published today by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), McMaster University researchers reviewed 96 clinical trials with more than 26,000 participants and found opioids provide only small improvements in pain, physical functioning and sleep quality compared to a placebo.
Serious loneliness spans the adult lifespan but there is a silver lining
Moderate to severe loneliness can persist across adult lifespans, but UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers found it is particularly acute in three age periods: late-20s, mid-50s and late-80s.
Inclusive primary care improves people's health, finds UBC-Western study
Respectful, inclusive practices in primary care clinics can significantly improve the health of low-income, marginalized people who may have previously experienced trauma or discrimination, a new study from the University of British Columbia and Western University has found.
Dive-bombing for love: Male hummingbirds dazzle females with a highly synchronized display
Male Broad-tailed Hummingbirds perform dramatic aerial courtship dives to impress females.
Convincing Chinese smokers to kick the habit -- by text
Among smokers receiving a 12-week-long mobile phone-based intervention encouraging them to quit, up to 6.5 percent of participants stopped smoking by the end of the study, according to a research article published this week in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Jinsong Tang of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in China, and colleagues.
A new model of ice friction helps scientists understand how glaciers flow
Despite the looming ecological consequences, glacier motion remains poorly understood.
Targeting chemical signals between the gut and brain could lead to new treatment for obesity
New research published in the Journal of Physiology has shed light on how to disrupt chemical signals that affect how much someone eats, which could lead to a method for helping manage obesity.
HKU fossil imaging helps push back feather origins by 70 million years
In a new study published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, an international team led by Professor Baoyu Jiang of Nanjing University and including Dr Michael Pittman of the Department of Earth Sciences, the University of Hong Kong, shows that pterosaurs had at least four types of feathers in common with their close relatives the dinosaurs, pushing back the origin of feathers by some 70 million years.
HPV discovery raises hope for new cervical cancer treatments
Researchers have made a discovery about human papillomavirus (HPV) that could lead to new treatments for cervical cancer and other cancers caused by the virus, the most common sexually transmitted disease.
Broading the biodiversity catalogue of spider populations in the Iberian Peninsula
The biodiversity catalogue of the Iberian Peninsula spiders is now adding the discovery of a dozen new species -from seven different families- that are mainly found in edaphic environments (soil), according to an article led by Professor Miquel Àngel Arnedo, from the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) of the University of Barcelona.
New insight on inflammatory regulation could inform future pain drug development
A novel way in which the inflammatory response to pain is regulated has been described in the open-access journal eLife.
CU Anschutz researchers discover important breakthrough in pulmonary fibrosis
A team of investigators led by members of the University of Colorado School of Medicine faculty at CU Anschutz Medical Campus has identified a connection between mucus in the small airways and pulmonary fibrosis.
Gene identified with a key role in plant adaptation to fluctuating soil salinity levels
UAB researchers have identified modifications in a sodium transporter gene with key consequences for plants needing to adapt to fluctuating soil salinity.
Internet-based interventions can help reduce problem drinking
Internet-based interventions may be effective in curbing various patterns of adult problem drinking in both community and health care settings, according to a study published Dec.
Amphetamine use, abuse and dependence claim lines increased over 3,000 percent in 10 years
The period from 2007 to 2017 marks the time from just before and since the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (Mental Health Parity Act).
Uncovering a key mechanism in assembly of Avian Sarcoma Virus, a relative of HIV-1
Researchers used NMR to detail how the matrix domain of the Avian Sarcoma Virus Gag protein binds to certain phospholipids.
Scientists develop method to visualize a genetic mutation
A team of scientists has developed a method that yields, for the first time, visualization of a gene amplifications and deletions known as copy number variants in single cells.
The CNIO and Hospital 12 de Octubre find a potential new combination therapy against a rare disease
Myelofibrosis is a very rare serious disease that affects bone marrow stem cells.
NASA-NOAA satellite tracking Tropical Cyclone Kenanga
Tropical Cyclone Kenanga was at hurricane-force when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite grabbed a visible image of the storm in the Southern Indian Ocean on Dec.
Sofosbuvir rids organism of chikungunya and yellow fever viruses
Sofosbuvir is already used to treat hepatitis C and has passed all human use approval tests, so it can be fairly easily deployed if the chikungunya epidemic forecast for the next two years materializes.
A versatile vaccine that can protect mice from emerging tick-borne viruses
A group of researchers led by Michael Diamond of Washington University in St.
Does political party trump ideology?
With party and ideology so closely intertwined, the question has in the past been nearly impossible to pin down, but a new study shows that a person's policy positions are quite malleable when told that leaders of their political party support a different position.
Get a warrant: researchers demand better DNA protections
New laws are required to control access to medical genetic data by law enforcement agencies, an analysis by University of Queensland researchers has found.
Ancient Japanese pottery includes an estimated 500 maize weevils
Researchers have discovered an ancient Japanese pottery vessel from the late Jomon period (4500-3300 BP) with an estimated 500 maize weevils incorporated into its design.
Childhood blindness therapy shows 'very promising' results
A new therapy aimed at improving the sight of people with one of the most common forms of childhood blindness, has shown 'very promising' initial results, according to a study involving UCL researchers.
Assessing the promise of gallium oxide as an ultrawide bandgap semiconductor
In microelectronic devices, the bandgap is a major factor determining the electrical conductivity of the underlying materials, and a more recent class of semiconductors with ultrawide bandgaps are capable of operating at much higher temperatures and powers than conventional small-bandgap silicon-based chips.
System monitors radiation damage to materials in real-time
A new system allows detailed real-time observations of how materials are affected by a high-radiation environment.
Oroville Dam earthquakes in February 2017 related to spillway discharge
A closer look at small earthquakes that took place at the Oroville Dam in California's Sierra Nevada foothills in February 2017 -- near the time when the dam's spillway failed -- suggest that the seismic activity was related to reservoir discharge that opened and closed fractures in the rock below the spillway.
Researchers find gender separation affects sense of smell
Olfactory sensory receptors in mice change as a function of exposure to odors emitted from members of the opposite sex, University of Wyoming researchers have discovered.
Eye-opening study differentiates iPS cells into various ocular lineages
Osaka University researchers revealed that culturing human induced pluripotent stem cells with different isoforms of the extracellular component laminin led to the creation of cells specific to different parts of the eye, including retinal, corneal, and neural crest cells.
Mystery of coronae around supermassive black holes deepens
Researchers have used observations from the ALMA radio observatory to measure, for the first time, the strength of magnetic fields near two supermassive black holes at the centers of an important type of active galaxies.
Nearly one in five Tibetan refugee schoolchildren has tuberculosis infection, Johns Hopkins study finds
In a tuberculosis screening and treatment initiative covering the entire population of Tibetan refugee schoolchildren in northern India, a team directed by researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine and the University of Wisconsin says it has found not only a startlingly high prevalence of TB disease and infection, but also a potentially workable strategy to eliminate the disease in a large, high-risk group.
Machine learning-detected signal predicts time to earthquake
Machine-learning research published in two related papers today in Nature Geosciences reports the detection of seismic signals accurately predicting the Cascadia fault's slow slippage, a type of failure observed to precede large earthquakes in other subduction zones.
Peering into Little Foot's 3.67 million-year-old brain
MicroCT scans of the Australopithecus fossil known as Little Foot shows that the brain of this ancient human relative was small and shows features that are similar to our own brain and others that are closer to our ancestor shared with living chimpanzees.
Workplace 'resilience' programs might not make any difference
Workplace resilience programmes, designed to bolster mental health and wellbeing, and encourage employees to seek help when issues arise, might not make any difference, suggests research published online in Occupational & Environmental Medicine.
A new way to use CRISPR
CRISPR allows scientists to precisely target and edit DNA within living cells, which could help them correct anomalies that cause inherited diseases.
Southwest forest trees will grow much slower in the 21st century
Southwest forests may decline in productivity on average as much as 75 percent over the 21st century as climate warms.
Criminal history strong indicator for future violent crime
New research shows offenders convicted of a violent crime or other serious felonies will likely commit the same crime again.
Clemson researchers: Trees grow more efficient leaves to compensate for hurricane damage
When Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico last year, ecologists at Clemson's Belle W.
Study suggests shifts in Afghan attitudes towards increased education and delayed marriage
In Afghanistan's most underdeveloped regions, attitudes towards education and child marriage appear to have changed significantly since the overthrow of the Taliban government in 2002, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
FSU researcher: Unfair treatment by police linked to physiological impacts among black men
In a new study published in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior, FSU researchers found a strong link between unfair treatment by police and telomere length, a biological indicator of psychological stress.
Graphene's magic is in the defects
A team of researchers at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering and NYU Center for Neural Science has solved a longstanding puzzle of how to build ultra-sensitive, ultra-small electrochemical sensors with homogenous and predictable properties by discovering how to engineer graphene structure on an atomic level.
Opioids vs. placebo, nonopioid alternatives for chronic noncancer pain
An estimated 50 million adults in the United States were living with chronic noncancer pain in 2016 and many of them were prescribed opioid medications, even though a clinical benefit is uncertain.
Understanding dynamic stall at high speeds
Although many fixed-wing aircraft can withstand similar rapid pitch-up maneuvers, a vehicle subject to this dynamic stall process is not reliably controllable.
Childbirth delivery methods and risk of incontinence, overactive bladder
Pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (when one or more of the pelvic organs drop from their normal position) are associated with childbirth and affect millions of women in the United States.
Greener days ahead for carbon fuels
A discovery by researchers at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis shows that recycling carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels can be economical and efficient -- all through a single copper catalyst.
Deciphering infanticide
It may seem like one of the cruelest aspects of the natural world, but a new study is pinpointing the suite of factors, including the shape of the pup and a specific set of olfactory signals, or pheromones, that trigger infanticide in mice.
Food allergies linked to increased disease activity in multiple sclerosis
Food allergies are associated with heightened levels of disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), shows research published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.
Getting a glimpse inside the moon
New research from University of Alberta physicists provides the first-ever model of our Moon's rotational dynamics, taking into consideration its solid inner core.
High survival rate among children who have suffered from growth restriction
Almost all children live to see their eighteenth birthday despite a severe growth restriction, as long as they have survived their first month during infancy.

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