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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 21, 2018


Large-scale study identifies shared genetic architecture for polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis
An international consortium of researchers identify genetic underpinnings associated with PCOS to understand and better diagnose it.
Influences of maternal diabetes on fetal heart development
In a comprehensive review recently published in Birth Defects Research, Vidu Garg, MD, and Madhumita Basu, PhD, offer a ''state of the science'' look at the impact of maternal diabetes, and potential gene-environmental influences in that context, on fetal heart development.
Lean electrolyte design is a game-changer for magnesium batteries
Researchers from the University of Houston and the Toyota Research Institute of America have discovered a promising new version of high-energy magnesium batteries, with potential applications ranging from electric vehicles to battery storage for renewable energy systems.
Research highlights what helps people live well with dementia
Psychological aspects, such as optimism, self-esteem, loneliness and depression were closely linked to ability to optimise quality of life and wellbeing in both people with dementia and carers.
Baby star's fiery tantrum could create the building blocks of planets
A massive stellar flare on a baby star has been spotted by University of Warwick astronomers, shedding light on the origins of potentially habitable exoplanets.
A safe, wearable soft sensor
Harvard University researchers have developed a soft, non-toxic wearable sensor that unobtrusively attaches to the hand and measures the force of a grasp and the motion of the hand and fingers.
Droughts boost emissions as hydropower dries up
Recent droughts caused increases in emissions of carbon dioxide and harmful air pollutants from power generation in several western states as fossil fuels came online to replace hampered hydroelectric power.
College binge drinkers are posting while drunk, 'addicted' to social media
College students who binge drink are frequently posting on social media while intoxicated and show signs of social media ''addiction,'' according to a new study.
North-star perspectives for Actinium-225 production at commercial scale
Resolution of both supply and cost issues allows clinical research to proceed through clinical trials and potentially produce one or more effective therapies for cancer or infectious diseases that could benefit the public.NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, has investigated several routes that could lead to commercial scale production of actinium-225.The outlook for future supplies of actinium-225 from multiple sources to support clinical needs is encouraging.
Interpreting emotions: A matter of confidence
We are exposed to the facial expressions of the people.
Strong interactions produce a dance between light and sound
Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step.
Fire air pollution weakens forest productivity
Fire impacts on global carbon cycle. The damage to ecosystem productivity not only occurs in fire regimes, but also over the downwind areas through long-range transport of air pollution.
Two Type 2 diabetes drugs linked to higher risk of heart disease
Two drugs commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 diabetes carry a high risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure or amputation, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study.  The drugs are commonly prescribed to patients after they have taken metformin but need a second-line medication.
Air pollution in Mexico City is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease
A new study by researchers at the Universities of Montana, Valle de México, Boise State, Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría and Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain Research heightens together with German company Analytik Jena concerns over the evolving and relentless Alzheimer's pathology observed in young Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) urbanites.
Pediatric leukemia 'super drug' could be developed in the coming years
Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered two successful therapies that slowed the progression of pediatric leukemia in mice, according to three studies published over the last two years in the journal Cell, and the final paper published Dec.
Structure and function of photosynthesis protein explained in detail
An international team of researchers has solved the structure and elucidated the function of photosynthetic complex I.
How dietary fiber and gut bacteria protect the cardiovascular system
The fatty acid propionate helps defend against the effects of high blood pressure, including atherosclerosis and heart tissue remodeling, a study on mice has found.
Liver disease could be picked up much sooner by nurse-led tests in GP surgeries
Research carried out by scientists at the University of Southampton has shown that simple tests in GP surgeries could potentially double the diagnosis rate of liver disease where patients are not displaying any symptoms.
Huge reserves of iron in Western Siberia might originate from under an ancient sea
World's largest Bakchar iron ore deposit is located at the place of an ancient sea in West Siberia, Russia.
Artificial intelligence system learns to diagnose, classify intracranial hemorrhage
A team of investigators from the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Radiology has developed a system using artificial intelligence to quickly diagnose and classify brain hemorrhages and to provide the basis of its decisions from relatively small image datasets.
Statins are more effective for those who follow the Mediterranean diet
For those who have already had a heart attack or a stroke, the combination of statins and Mediterranean Diet appears to be the most effective choice to reduce the risk of mortality, especially from cardiovascular causes.
Description of rotating molecules made easy
By turning highly complex equations into sets of simple diagrams, Feynman diagrams have established themselves as one of the sharpest tools in a theoretical physicist's toolbox.
Forecasters may be looking in wrong place when predicting tornadoes, Ohio research shows
Weather forecasters may be looking in the wrong place when working to issue tornado warnings, new research led by Ohio University has demonstrated.
Millions of Google searches for sexual harassment, assault since #MeToo
An estimated 40 to 54 million Google searches for sexual harassment and assault were recorded in the United States in the eight months after public accusations against film producer Harvey Weinstein and the ensuing #MeToo movement.
A novel mechanism that regulates cellular injury by phagocytes during inflammation
Phagocytes such as macrophages and neutrophils contain multiple lysosomes, which possess a variety of digestive enzymes.
Researchers monitor electron behavior during chemical reactions for the first time
In a recent publication in Science, researchers at the University of Paderborn and the Fritz Haber Institute Berlin demonstrated their ability to observe electrons' movements during a chemical reaction.
More young and other traits help mammals adapt to urban environments
Species of mammals that live in urban environments produce more young compared to other mammals.
Camera trap study reveals the hidden lives of island carnivores
Researchers placed 160 cameras on 19 of the 22 Apostle Islands in northern Wisconsin to see which carnivores were living there.
300 blind mice uncover genetic causes of eye disease
Hundreds of new genes linked to blindness and other vision disorders have been identified in a screen of mouse strains.
New findings reveal the behavior of turbulence in the exceptionally hot solar corona
Astrophysicists are keen to learn why the corona is so hot.
Is program to reduce hospital readmissions associated with a change in patient deaths?
The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was created under the Affordable Care Act and hospitals face financial penalties for higher-than-expected 30-day readmission rates for patients with heart failure, heart attack and pneumonia.
Human blood cells can be directly reprogrammed into neural stem cells
Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the stem cell institute HI-STEM* in Heidelberg have succeeded for the first time in directly reprogramming human blood cells into a previously unknown type of neural stem cell.
How common is Hepatitis C infection in each US state?
Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of illness and death in the United States and injection drug use is likely fueling many new cases.
Laser diode combats counterfeit oil
The olive oil sector has witnessed a rise in fraudulent activities such as falsely labeling inferior products as high quality.
Predicting enhancers from multiple cell lines and tissues: Different developmental stages
In this paper, we proposed a method based on support vector machines (SVMs) to investigate enhancer prediction on cell lines and tissues from EnhancerAtlas.
University of Birmingham develops sight-saving treatment for eye infection or trauma
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have developed a novel eye drop that rapidly reduces sight-threatening scarring to the surface of the eye.
Looking at molecules from two sides with table-top femtosecond soft-X-rays
Researchers at the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have successfully combined a table-top laser-based extreme high-order harmonic source for short-pulse soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the water window with novel flatjet technology.
Does alcohol on greeting cards undermine public health messages about harmful drinking?
Birthday and Christmas cards featuring alcohol or harmful drinking 'reflect and reinforce a social attitude that excess alcohol consumption is acceptable and associated with celebration,' warn experts in The BMJ today.
What really happens at femtosecond junctions?
When beams of ultra-short laser pulses running in the same direction intersect with each other at a noticeable angle, various interactions occur between the pulses.
Simple method rescues stressed liver cells
Isolated human hepatocytes are essential tools in preclinical and clinical liver research, but cell quality is highly variable.
What do we see in a mirror?
Researchers at Aalto University developed metasurfaces with extreme angle-asymmetric response.
Researchers suggest ways to reduce head impacts in youth football
The high head impact and concussion rates in football are of increasing concern, especially for younger players.
Quantum tricks to unveil the secrets of topological materials
'Topological materials' produce electron states that can be very interesting for technical applications, but it is extremely difficult to identify these materials and their associated electronic states.
People with schizophrenia experience emotion differently from others, 'body maps' show
Vanderbilt University researchers are working to understand how people with schizophrenia experience emotion through their bodies.
Twisting light to enable high-capacity data transmission
For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew.
Study looks at ED visits to examine opioid prescribing in pediatric patients
Opioids for pain management in pediatric patients are sometimes necessary but their use has raised concerns about the effects of opioids and later abuse.
Study finds Tropical Cyclone Winston damaged fisheries as well as homes in Fiji
A newly published study by WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) has found that impacts of Tropical Cyclone Winston on the coastal communities of Fiji went beyond the immediate loss of lives and infrastructure.
NASA's GPM satellite examines weakening Tropical Cyclone Kenanga
Tropical Cyclone Kenanga is now on a weakening trend and NASA's GPM core satellite provided a look at the rainfall and cloud heights within the storm.
Study examines primary drivers of increased hospitalizations of homeless individuals
A new study led by investigators from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and Brigham and Women's Hospital examines patterns, causes and outcomes of acute hospitalizations between 2007 and 2013 for homeless individuals and non-homeless control groups in three populous and diverse U.S. states: Florida, California and Massachusetts.
New insight into what a mother gives to her baby in the womb besides genes
Beginning in the womb, a mother transmits a slew of molecules, microbes and cells to her baby.
Study: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke in months leading up to a cancer diagnosis
Older adults with cancer are more likely to have had a heart attack or stroke in the months prior to their cancer diagnosis compared with similar adults who do not have cancer during the same period, according to a report published online today in Blood.
Electric fish in augmented reality reveal how animals 'actively sense' world around them
In a new study, NJIT and Johns Hopkins researchers have used augmented reality technology to unravel the mysterious dynamic between active sensing movement and sensory feedback.
Why Hong Kong, Japan and Iceland are the best countries for human development
Since its introduction in 1990, UN's Human Development Index has contributed to a better understanding of development, but has its flaws.
Forget-me-not: Scientists pinpoint memory mechanism in plants
Plant scientists at the Universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have unravelled a mechanism that enables flowering plants to sense and 'remember' changes in their environment.
Cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce brown adipose tissue
ETH Zurich scientists have shown that statins, one of the most commonly prescribed classes of pharmaceuticals, reduce beneficial brown adipose tissue.
Surfer's ear points to ancient pearl divers in Panama
Surfer's ear, associated with cold weather and water sports, led a bioarchaeologist at the Smithsonian in Panama to suspect that ancient shoreline residents were diving for pearls in an area of cold-water upwelling.
Dust threatens Utah's 'greatest snow on earth'
New University of Utah research found that dust deposition speeds up snowmelt in Utah's Wasatch Mountains.
The brain's support cells show defective development in Huntington's disease
The neurological disorder Huntington's disease causes behavioral and motor changes, which among other things are a result of dysfunctional maturation or formation of glial cells, the brain's support cells, researchers from the University of Copenhagen demonstrate in a new study based on mice trials.
Satellite sees Tropical Cyclone Cilida north of Mauritius
Tropical Cyclone Cilida appeared as a large and powerful hurricane on imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite on Dec.
Kidney patients are the most complex patients
A study published in JAMA Network Open showed: nephrologists treat the most complex patients.
PKU physicists bridge the equilibrium topological phases and non-equilibrium quantum dynamics
The emergent non-equilibrium topological patterns are shown in quench dynamics induced in a broad class of equilibrium topological phases, and provide universal dynamical characterization of such topological states.
New T-wave detector uses waves of the electronic sea in graphene
A team of researchers from Russia, Great Britain, Japan, and Italy has created a graphene-based terahertz detector.
Bees can count with just four nerve cells in their brains
Bees can solve seemingly clever counting tasks with very small numbers of nerve cells in their brains, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London.
Preparation, characterization and in vitro biological activity of Soyasapogenol B
FTIR, particle size and TEM analysis confirmed that SSB was successfully loaded onto functionalized MWCNTs.
Getting the most out of spinach -- maximizing the antioxidant lutein
Eat your spinach in the form of a smoothie or juice -- this is the best way to obtain the antioxidant lutein, according to research from Linköping University, Sweden.
Pollutants from wildfires affect crop and vegetation growth hundreds of kilometers from impact zone
The startling extent to which violent wildfires, similar to those that ravaged large swathes of California recently, affect forests and crops way beyond the boundaries of the blaze has been revealed.
Study supports safety of overlapping surgery for outpatient orthopaedic procedures
At least for brief periods, overlapping surgery is safe for patients undergoing outpatient or 'same-day' orthopaedic surgery procedures, reports a study in the Dec.
Study analyzes clinical trials of medications to control knee osteoarthritis pain
Managing osteoarthritis requires long-term treatment for symptoms such as pain and changes in joint structure that can lead to disability.
Readmissions reduction program may be associated with increase in patient-level mortality
A policy designed to reduce hospital readmissions through financial penalties was associated with a significant increase in post-discharge mortality for patients with heart failure and pneumonia, according to a large-scale study by researchers in Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's (BIDMC) Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology.
Divining Roots: revealing how plants branch out to access water
New research has discovered how plant roots sense the availability of moisture in soil and then adapt their shape to optimise acquisition of water.
Researchers explore genetics of California mountain lions to inform future conservation
Mountain lions in California exhibited strong population genetic structure, and some California populations had extremely low levels of genetic diversity, with some exhibiting estimates as low as the endangered Florida panther.
Study compares scheduled vs. emergency-only dialysis among undocumented immigrants
A unique opportunity made it feasible for uninsured patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who received emergency-only dialysis in Dallas, Texas, to enroll in private, commercial health insurance plans in 2015 and that made it possible for researchers to compare scheduled vs. emergency-only dialysis among undocumented immigrants with ESRD.
'Frozen' copper behaves as noble metal in catalysis: study
A new study by scientists from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics shows that the electron structure of Cu can be changed, assisted by high energy plasma, making Cu exhibit significantly different catalytic behaviors than normal Cu in selective hydrogenation reactions.
How kindergartens serve as 'gendergartens'
Sociologists at the Higher School of Economics showed that preschool education has its own hidden curriculum: kindergarten teachers transmit social norms to children, including conservative ideas of femininity and masculinity.
New insights into pion condensation and the formation of neutron stars
Performing studies on a doubly magic isotope of tin, researchers have shown that the pion condensation should occur at around two times normal nuclear density, which can be realized in a neutron star with a mass of 1.4 times that of the Sun.
Antibiotic overuse is high for common urology procedures
A new study suggests that antibiotics are being overused in up to 60 percent of patients undergoing common urological procedures.
Paramedics can safely evaluate psychiatric patients' medical condition in the field
Patients with psychiatric emergencies on involuntary holds are often taken to traditional hospital emergency departments, where they can spend hours to days in an emergency department bed waiting for access to specialized psychiatric personnel.

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