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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 26, 2018


Research shows biases against immigrants with non-anglicized names
Using variations of the 'trolley-dilemma' where people choose who to save or not save others in a hypothetical situation, social psychologists show that for certain groups, under certain conditions in a hypothetical scenario, having an anglicized name means you're more likely to be saved than if you kept your original Asian or Arab name.
Medical scientists describe optimal immune therapeutic strategies for liver cancer
KAIST medical scientists have presented a novel pathways involving T immune cell exhaustion, providing evidence and rationale for designing optimal strategies for immune checkpoint blockades in cancer patients.
News releases about health, Earth science and social sciences make up EurekAlert!'s 2018 trending news list
Health news occupied six of the 10 most-viewed news releases on EurekAlert! in 2018.
Kicking, yelling during sleep? Study finds risk factors for violent sleep disorder
Taking antidepressants for depression, having post-traumatic stress disorder or anxiety diagnosed by a doctor are risk factors for a disruptive and sometimes violent sleep disorder called rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, according to a study published in the Dec.
For patients with kidney disease, genetic testing may soon be routine
DNA sequencing can be used to identify the underlying genetic cause of many rare types of chronic kidney disease, leading to better treatment, finds a new study from Columbia University.
Yale experts treat severe, disfiguring sarcoidosis with novel therapy
An all-Yale team of researchers successfully treated a patient with disfiguring sarcoidosis, a chronic disease that can affect multiple organs, with a drug approved for rheumatoid arthritis.
Autophagy and mitochondria: Targets in neurodegenerative disorders
Cellular homeostasis depends on the timely clearance of damaged cellular organelles and proteins via pathways including autophagy.
Breast cancer drugs could help treat resistant lung cancers
A class of drugs used to treat certain breast cancers could help to tackle lung cancers that have become resistant to targeted therapies, a new study suggests.
Novel biomarkers & therapeutic targets for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases
In this review, the researchers describe the analytical techniques and workflow used in untargeted metabolomics.
Cell size and cell-cycle states play key decision-making role in HIV
Thanks to the development of antiretroviral drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered a manageable chronic disease today.
European wheat lacks climate resilience
A group of European researchers, including Professor Jørgen E. Olesen from the Department of Agroecology at Aarhus University, has found that current breeding programmes and cultivar selection practices do not provide the needed resilience to climate change.
Post-natal depression in dads linked to depression in their teenage daughters
Fathers as well as mothers can experience post-natal depression -- and it is linked to emotional problems for their teenage daughters, new research has found.
Fish bones yield new tool for tracking coal ash contamination
A Duke University study shows that trace elements found in fish ear bones can be used as biogenic tracers to track coal ash contamination.
Flavonoids as P-gp inhibitors: A systematic review of SARs
This review concerned the recent updates on the structure-activity relationships of flavonoids as P-gp inhibitors, the molecular mechanisms of their action and their ability to overcome P-gp-mediated MDR in preclinical studies.
Antifungal activity and detoxification of aflatoxins
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which occur naturally in cereals like corn, beans and rice.
Producers of white colonies on kimchi surface, mistaken as molds, have been identified
Analyses of microbial community structures and whole genome sequencing were performed to the white colony-forming yeasts on kimchi surface.
Targeting kinetoplastid and apicomplexan thymidylate biosynthesis as antiprotozoal strategy
Kinetoplastid and apicomplexan parasites comprise a group of protozoans responsible for human diseases, with a serious impact on human health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries.
Losing neurons can sometimes not be that bad
Current thinking about Alzheimer's disease is that neuronal cell death in the brain is to blame for the cognitive havoc caused by the disease.
Give it the plasma treatment: strong adhesion without adhesives
A Japanese research team at Osaka University used plasma treatment to make fluoropolymers and silicone resin adhere without any adhesives.
Collecting clean water from air, inspired by desert life
A pair of new studies from researchers at The Ohio State University offers a possible solution to water scarcity, inspired by nature.
Tree-ring analysis explains physiology behind drought intolerance
Tree rings tell the story of what's happening physiologically as fire suppression makes forests more dense and less tolerant of drought, pests and wildfires, new research shows.
Treatment of Parkinson's disease: Separating hope from hype
This review emphasized the development of various non-pharmaceutical therapeutic approaches and mainly highlighted the cutting-edge treatments for PD including gene- and stem cell-based therapies, targeted delivery of neurotrophic factors, and brain stimulation techniques such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS).
Buzzed flies reveal important step to intoxication
The alcohol in beverages acts much like an anesthetic. It creates a hyper 'buzzed' feeling first, and then sedation.
Discovery of topological LC circuits transporting EM waves without backscattering
NIMS succeeded in fabricating topological LC circuits arranged in a honeycomb pattern where electromagnetic (EM) waves can propagate without backscattering even when pathways turn sharply.
Confronting the side effects of a common anti-cancer treatment
Results of a new study by neuroscientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst suggest that a new treatment approach is needed -- and how this may be possible -- to address adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors, drugs commonly prescribed to both men and women to prevent recurrence of estrogen-positive breast cancer.
Anesthetic-induced myocardial conditioning: Molecular fundamentals and scope
The objective of this study was to investigate the role that miRNAs play in the cardioprotective effect of halogenated anesthetics.
Artificial activation of cancer cells to destroy them
This risky method of anti-cancer therapy was suggested by scientists of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU).
Study yields new insight on how memory works
Two Veterans Affairs researchers have explored how memory is tied to the hippocampus, with findings that will expand scientists' understanding of how memory works and ideally aid in detection, prevention, and treatment of memory disorders.
UC San Diego researchers identify how skin ages, loses fat and immunity
Some dermal fibroblasts can convert into fat cells that reside under the dermis, giving skin a youthful look and producing peptides that fight infections.
Opioid use and misuse following treatment for head and neck cancer
Six months after treatment ended, 7 percent of patients remained on opioid pain medications.
What influences a person's psychological boundaries?
Professor Sofya Nartova-Bochaver of the Higher School of economics and colleagues from universities in Armenia and China conducted a comparative analysis of the psychological boundaries of individuals living in different countries.
How the brain enables us to rapidly focus attention
University of Queensland researchers have discovered a key mechanism in the brain that may underlie our ability to rapidly focus attention.
Illuminating nanoparticle growth with X-rays
Ultrabright X-rays at NSLS-II reveal key details of catalyst growth for more efficient hydrogen fuel cells.
New study shows link between secondhand smoke and cardiac arrhythmia
Continuous indoor exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke triggers changes in the heart's electrical activity, known as cardiac alternans, that can predict cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, a new study from UC Davis Health researchers shows.

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