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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | January 03, 2019


Artificial intelligence advances threaten privacy of health data
Advances in artificial intelligence, including activity trackers, smartphones and smartwatches, threaten the privacy of people's health data, according to new research from the University of California, Berkeley.
Long-term trauma outcomes heavily impacted by gender and education level
Researchers find sociodemographic factors more predictive of worse outcomes than injury severity.
Can a video game-based 'digital medicine' help children with autism and co-occurring ADHD?
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) evaluated a digital medicine tool designed as an investigational treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring attention/deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
New measure of equality reveals a fuller picture of male well-being
Researchers from the University of Missouri and University of Essex in the United Kingdom say a new way of measuring gender inequality is fairer to both men and women, and presents a simplified but more accurate picture of peoples' well-being than previous calculations.
Pre-Medicare years bring health insurance worries for many, U-M/AARP poll finds
With the dawn of a new year, most Americans have just started a new health insurance coverage period -- whether they receive their coverage through a job, buy it themselves or have a government plan.
An errant editing enzyme promotes tumor suppressor loss and leukemia propagation
UC San Diego researchers have found a stem cell enzyme copy edits more than 20 tumor types, providing new therapeutic target for preventing cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation.
Cancer cells steer a jagged path
Researchers at Rice University and the Duke University School of Medicine define the role of a jagged ligand, JAG1, in cancer cells' ability to differentiate and metastasize, making them harder to track down and eliminate.
Could gulls' wings inspire smarter airplane design?
Flexing a single elbow joint enables gulls to adapt their wing shape to gusty conditions, according to new University of British Columbia (UBC) research--a relatively simple mechanism that could inspire improved aircraft design.
Obese mice lose anxiety when 'zombie cells' exit their brain
Mayo Clinic researchers and collaborators have shown in mice that obesity increases the level of 'zombie' or senescent cells in the brain, and that those cells, in turn, are linked to anxiety.
Study: Technology and doctors combine to detect patients who don't take their pills
Almost everyone does it at some point -- skip a dose of a medication, decide to not schedule a recommended follow-up appointment or ignore doctor's orders to eat or exercise differently.
Extraordinary treefrog discovered in the Andes of Ecuador
A dazzling new species of treefrog was discovered at a remote tabletop mountain in the Ecuadorian Andes.
NUS study finds that severe air pollution affects the productivity of workers
Economists from the National University of Singapore have completed an extensive study which reveals that exposure to air pollution over several weeks is not just unhealthy, it can also reduce employee productivity.
Improved treatment for alcohol use disorders, chronic pain, mood disorders
A Purdue University team is making drug discoveries to support millions around the world dealing with alcohol use disorders, chronic pain and mood disorders.
Egg metabolites in blood related to lower risk of type 2 diabetes
Consumption of one egg every day seems to associate with a blood metabolite profile that is related to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, a new study conducted in the University of Eastern Finland shows.
A cause of possible genetic problems in mitochondria is revealed
The loss of mitochondrial information and of mitochondria gives rise to defective cell metabolism.
Disrupted networks link overlapping cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders
Psychiatric disorders share common alterations of functional connectivity between three core brain networks involved in cognition, according to a meta-analysis published in Biological Psychiatry.
Laryngeal symptoms may be caused by cranial nerve 9 and 10 compression at the brain stem
The Laryngoscope, December 24, 2018 issue, reports Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) investigator findings that compression of cranial nerves nine and ten is often responsible for unexplained laryngeal symptoms like chronic cough, vocal fold paralysis and hoarseness.
Next up: Ultracold simulators of super-dense stars
Rice University physicists have created the world's first laser-cooled neutral plasma.
A model for describing the hydrodynamics of crowds
By studying the movement of runners at the start of marathons, researchers from a laboratory* affiliated with the CNRS, l'ENS de Lyon, and l'Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 have just shown that the collective movements of these crowds can be described as liquid flows.
Catastrophic galactic collision could send Solar System flying into space
A nearby galaxy is hurtling towards the Milky Way on a collision course that could fling our Solar System into interstellar space.
For experts in aging, a new take on learning to lead with Tideswell-AGS-ADGAP ELIA program
With the publication of new research on the Emerging Leaders in Aging (ELIA) Program, geriatrics experts hope to chart a course toward leveraging long-distance mentoring and project-based learning to empower the emerging innovators we will need in greater and growing numbers as more of us age.
Discovery in cell development changes understanding of how genes shape early embryos
Until now, it was unclear how this DNA packing affected development in early embryos.
The opioid crisis: What we should learn from the AIDS epidemic
There are important lessons to be learned from the successes and failures of the AIDS response that could inform our response to the opioid epidemic.
Who's tougher? Baby sharks or daddy sharks?
One would assume that since humans and many animals tend to get stiffer and perhaps tougher as they reach adulthood, the same would be true for sharks.
Gut immune cells cut inflammation in multiple sclerosis
Researchers at the University of Toronto and UC San Francisco have discovered that the intestine is the source of immune cells that reduce brain inflammation in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), and that increasing the number of these cells blocks inflammation entirely in a preclinical model of the disease.
Mayo Clinic discovers biological markers that could guide treatment for prostate cancer
Genetic alterations in low-risk prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy can identify men that harbor higher-risk cancer in their prostate glands, Mayo Clinic has discovered.
A 'bran' new way to preserve healthy food with natural ingredients
A natural antioxidant found in grain bran could preserve food longer and replace synthetic antioxidants currently used by the food industry, according to researchers at Penn State.
Sustainable choices on palm oil must be easier for consumers, says new study
Consumer goods companies and retailers need to be upfront about where palm oil in their products comes from to relieve consumers of the burden of making sustainable choices.
Viral genome sequencing in the heart of a Lassa outbreak
The first researchers to deploy a mobile nanopore sequencing technology to evaluate viral genomics at the height of a Lassa virus outbreak in 2018 now report their results.
Experimental treatment shows promise against triple-negative breast cancer
A naturally occurring protein called Tinagl1 reduced the spread of triple-negative breast cancer in a study conducted in mice.
Botulinum toxin reduces chronic migraine attacks, compared to placebo
A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections in reducing the frequency of chronic migraine headaches, concludes an updated review and analysis in the January issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Sandia microneedles technique may mean quicker diagnoses of major illnesses
Microneedles able to draw relatively large amounts of interstitial fluid -- a liquid that lurks just under the skin -- opens new possibilities.
The transgenic key to more productive crops
Transgenic tobacco plants engineered with synthetic metabolic pathways designed to bypass the inefficient and costly side effects of natural photorespiration show large increases in productivity -- as much as 40 percent over unmodified tobacco plants, a new study says.
Could this widely used food additive cause celiac disease?
A bacterial enzyme that is used to improve food texture and shelf-life has been linked in several studies to celiac disease -- but it is unlabeled and hidden from public knowledge, according to a review published in Frontiers in Pediatrics.
Bulldogs' screw tails linked to human genetic disease
With their small size, stubby faces and wide-set eyes, bulldogs, French bulldogs and Boston terriers are among the most popular of domestic dog breeds.
Forest soundscapes monitor conservation efforts inexpensively, effectively
Recordings of the sounds in tropical forests could unlock secrets about biodiversity and aid conservation efforts around the world, according to a perspective paper published in Science.
Do large human crowds exhibit a collective behavior?
By observing the collective movement of thousands of Chicago Marathon runners queueing up to the starting line, researchers find that the motion of large crowds is fluid-like and mathematically predictable.
DNA on auto-pilot
In new research appearing in the current issue of the journal Science Advances, Hao Yan and his colleagues, in collaboration with scientists at MIT, describe a method allowing for the automation of DNA origami construction, vastly accelerating and simplifying the process of crafting desired forms, and opening the world of DNA architecture to a broader audience.
Days following thyroid surgery are highest for risk of readmission
An analysis of nationwide data shows patients with symptoms are most likely to return to the hospital within a week of their thyroid surgery, suggesting avenues for better care.
Study finds ADHD drugs are unlikely to cause cardiac damage in children who take them
The results of a long-term NIH-funded study published last month could allay concerns that ADHD drugs can cause cardiac damage in children.
Persistent hot flashes may lead to increased risk of breast cancer
Studies examining the association between vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and breast cancer are not new, but results have been inconsistent.
BabySeq project explores impacts of genetic disease testing in newborns
In the era of increasingly common genomic sequencing, an effort called the BabySeq Project aims to explore the medical, behavioral, economic, and ethical impacts of adding genetic testing to the roster of newborn screenings.
New insight into the process of generation of new neurons in the adult brain
Researchers at Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, in collaboration with research groups in Finland, Canada, and Slovenia, have discovered a novel and unexpected function of nestin, the best known marker of neural stem cells.
Carrying and releasing nanoscale cargo with 'nanowrappers'
Scientists made hollow nanosized boxes with corner holes, demonstrating how these ''nanowrappers'' can carry and release DNA-coated nanoparticles.
Cold reminders of Earth's last great cold snap revealed in the deep Pacific
Chilly reminders of a centuries-long cold snap can be found deep within the Pacific, a new study finds.
Researchers locate the body's largest cell receptor
A giant toadstool that swallow up vitamins and nutrients in the intestines and kidneys.
Microplastics and plastic additives discovered in ascidians all along Israel's coastline
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that microplastics -- tiny pieces of plastic ingested by aquatic life -- are present in solitary ascidians, sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders, all along the Israeli coastline.
'Bionic face' experiments could lead to new treatment approach for facial paralysis
An implantable neuroprosthetic device may one day provide a new approach to restoring more natural facial movement in patients with one-sided facial paralysis (hemifacial palsy), suggests a study in the January issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Fruit flies help to shed light on the evolution of metabolism
Researchers at the University of Helsinki have discovered that the ability to use sugar as food varies strongly between closely related fruit fly species.
What makes two species different?
For most of the 20th century, scientists believed that the reproductive incompatibility between species evolved gradually as a by-product of adapting to different environments.
DNA design that anyone can do
Researchers at MIT and Arizona State University have designed a computer program that allows users to translate any free-form drawing into a two-dimensional, nanoscale structure made of DNA.
Slime proves valuable in developing method for counting salmon in Alaska
Scientists have published a novel method for counting Pacific salmon -- analyzing DNA from the slime the fish leave behind in their spawning streams.
Dark matter on the move
Scientists have found evidence that dark matter can be heated up and moved around, as a result of star formation in galaxies.
Newborn genomic sequencing detects unanticipated disease risk factors
In a paper published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, the BabySeq research team reports that genomic sequencing can identify risk for a wide range of disorders that may not be detected otherwise.
Archeological discovery yields clues to how our ancestors may have adapted to their environment
During the Stone Age ancestral humans lived with a variety of animal species along what was an area of wetlands in the middle of the Jordanian desert.
Melting ice sheets release tons of methane into the atmosphere, study finds
The Greenland Ice Sheet emits tons of methane according to a new study, showing that subglacial biological activity impacts the atmosphere far more than previously thought.
Computers can be a real pain in the neck
Many people slouch or strain their necks while working at the computer.
Misperceptions about vaping common among UK smokers
Research from King's College London finds smokers and ex-smokers in the UK overestimate the harm from vaping, with fewer than 6 out of 10 accurately believing that e-cigarettes are less harmful than tobacco cigarettes.
In Fimo, we trust: finally a name for the experimental examination of poop
Why, you might ask, do we need a scientifically accurate term based in Latin for the study of poop?
What predicts teen partner rape?
If teen partner rape could be predicted, it could be better prevented.
The most important hair on your head is on the inside
Researchers are learning more about how minuscule wavy hairs called cilia in the cavities of your brain keep it healthy and function well.
'Christmas berry' plant compound could fight Uveal melanoma
A molecule derived from a type of primrose could prove to be a potent inhibitor of metastatic growth for a rare and aggressive cancer.
Research reveals overweight dogs may live shorter lives
New research from the University of Liverpool and Mars Petcare's WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition reveals overweight dogs are more likely to have shorter lives than those at ideal body weights.
Scientists engineer shortcut for photosynthetic glitch, boost crop growth by 40 percent
Most crops on the planet are plagued by a photosynthetic glitch, and to deal with it, evolved an energy-expensive process called photorespiration that drastically suppresses their yield potential.
Research could lead to more durable cell phones and power lines
Researchers from Binghamton University, State University of New York have developed a way to make cell phones and power lines more durable. 
Surprise discovery reveals second visual system in mouse cerebral cortex
The visual system is probably the best understood part of the brain.
Does mountaintop removal also remove rattlesnakes?
Timber rattlesnakes, according to the study's author, are among the most docile creatures in Appalachia.
Revealing hidden spin: Unlocking new paths toward high-temperature superconductors
Researchers from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have discovered that electron spin is key to understanding how cuprate superconductors can conduct electricity without loss at high temperature.
How baby aspirin saves lives (video)
Low-dose 'baby' aspirin is rarely given to children anymore. Instead, people at risk of a heart attack may take a daily aspirin to decrease their risk.

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
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Anthropomorphic
Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
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#SB2 2019 Science Birthday Minisode: Mary Golda Ross
Our second annual Science Birthday is here, and this year we celebrate the wonderful Mary Golda Ross, born 9 August 1908. She died in 2008 at age 99, but left a lasting mark on the science of rocketry and space exploration as an early woman in engineering, and one of the first Native Americans in engineering. Join Rachelle and Bethany for this very special birthday minisode celebrating Mary and her achievements. Thanks to our Patreons who make this show possible! Read more about Mary G. Ross: Interview with Mary Ross on Lash Publications International, by Laurel Sheppard Meet Mary Golda...