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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | January 09, 2019


Lack of standard dosage for blood thinners can lead to bleeding during bariatric surgery
Rutgers researchers have found a way to reduce bleeding in patients following bariatric surgery.
New research is using drones to tackle climate change
A team of Nottingham scientists is using drones to survey woody climbing plants and better understand how they may affect the carbon balance of tropical rainforests.
Investigational cream may help patients with inflammatory skin disease
A study published in the British Journal of Dermatology indicates that an investigational nonsteroidal topical cream (PAC-14028) may be effective for treating atopic dermatitis, one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases.
Tobacco use linked with higher use of opioids and sedatives
Tobacco is a known risk factor for the misuse of prescription opioids.
Cut to the chase
A budding relationship or just a one-night stand? The difference may not be immediately obvious, least of all to those involved.
Expert reveals how Coca-Cola shaped obesity science and policy in China
An investigation published by The BMJ today reveals how Coca-Cola has shaped obesity science and public health policy in China towards its own interests.
New synthesis strategy for chiral drugs -- versatile chiral chemical species from aldehydes
We developed a new method of asymmetric synthesis for versatile chiral chemicals from aldehydes.
Study suggests that fear and anger had different effects on conservatives and liberals
The emotional underpinnings of political ideology motivated how the electorate sought and processed information about the 2016 presidential election and the major issue of climate change.
Illuminating women's role in the creation of medieval manuscripts
An international team of researchers led by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and the University of York have revealed direct evidence of medieval women's involvement in the production of illuminated manuscripts.
Widely used physical health drugs may help treat serious mental illness
Medications commonly used to combat physical health diseases, such as high blood pressure, could bring significant benefits to people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or non-affective psychoses, according to a large cohort study led by UCL.
About half of US adolescents report having private time with healthcare providers
Only about half of young people 13 to 26 years old in the United States report ever having time with their regular healthcare provider without a parent or someone else in the room, despite professional guidelines that recommend adolescents and young adults have access to confidential services and time for private discussions.
Who shared fake news on Facebook during the 2016 US presidential election?
Although most Facebook users did not share any fake news articles during the 2016 US presidential campaign, a new study reveals that the small number who did were mostly Americans over the age of 65.
Finger joint enlargements may be linked to knee osteoarthritis
Heberden's nodes (HNs) are bony enlargements of the finger joints that are readily detectable in a routine physical exam and are considered hallmarks of osteoarthritis.
The lonely giant: Milky Way-sized galaxy lacking galactic neighbors
Long ago in a galaxy far, far away, fewer galaxies were born than expected -- and that could create new questions for galaxy physics, according to a new University of Michigan study.
Research explains public resistance to vaccination
A new study explains why it is so hard to increase public vaccination levels even when evidence indicates that vaccines are safe and beneficial.
Study finds link between voter preference for Trump and bullying in middle schools
Bullying rates among middle school students in the spring of 2017 were 18 percent higher in localities where voters had favored Donald Trump than in those that had supported Hillary Clinton, according to a study published online today in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.
How trees and turnips grow fatter
Two international research teams have identified key regulatory networks controlling how plants grow 'outwards,' which could help us to grow trees to be more efficient carbon sinks and increase vegetable crop yields.
Let's map our DNA and save billions each year in health costs
A UniSA scientist has called for Australia to embrace pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing to deliver medication more effectively and slash around $2.4 billion wasted each year through unsafe and ineffective drug prescriptions.
Study finds 2 billion birds migrate over Gulf Coast
A new study combining data from citizen scientists and weather radar stations is providing detailed insights into spring bird migration along the Gulf of Mexico and how these journeys may be affected by climate change.
Beech trees are dying, and nobody's sure why
A confounding new disease is killing beech trees in Ohio and elsewhere, and plant scientists are sounding an alarm while looking for an explanation.
Global colorectal cancer mortality rates predicted to rise
In the first effort to predict the future burden of colorectal cancer mortality globally, researchers note that colon and rectal cancer mortality rates are projected to decrease in most countries apart from some Latin American and Caribbean countries, but increases are predicted for several countries from Europe, North America and Oceania.
Long-duration space missions have lasting effects on spinal muscles
Astronauts who spend several months on the International Space Station have significant reductions in the size and density of paraspinal muscles of the trunk after returning to Earth, reports a study in Spine.
Certain psychiatric drugs linked with elevated pneumonia risk
A review of published studies indicates that use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine related drugs (BZRDs), which are prescribed to treat various psychiatric diseases, may increase the risk of pneumonia.
Self-sorting through molecular geometries
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Communications Chemistry that certain pentagonal and hexagonal organic molecules exhibit self-sorting.
Maternal stress leads to overweight in children
As part of the LiNA mother-child study coordinated by the UFZ, researchers were able to identify mother's perceived stress during the first year of the child's life as a risk factor for developing overweight in infancy.
Two-thirds of stroke survivors are in exceptionally good mental health
Two-thirds of stroke survivors are in complete mental health despite the impact of their stroke, according to a large, nationally representative Canadian study conducted by researchers at the University of Toronto's Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work.
Respiratory microbiome may influence your susceptibility to flu
Specific respiratory microbiome communities may be linked to influenza susceptibility, according to a study published Jan.
First smartphone app to detect opioid overdose and its precursors
Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a cellphone app that uses sonar to monitor someone's breathing rate and sense when an opioid overdose has occurred.
Metabolite produced by gut microbiota from pomegranates reduces inflammatory bowel disease
The microbial metabolite, Urolithin A, derived from a compound found in berries and pomegranates, can reduce and protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Lab safety, 10 years later
On Dec. 29, 2008, staff scientist Sheri Sangji was working on a chemical synthesis in a lab at the University of California, Los Angeles, when one of the reagents ignited.
Lifting the veil on star formation in the Orion Nebula
Writing in 'Nature', an international research team including astronomers from Cologne describe their discovery that stellar wind from a newborn star in the Orion Nebula is preventing more stars from forming nearby.
Change of teeth causes yo-yo effect in elephants' weight
The weight of elephants living in zoos fluctuates over the course of their adult lives in cycles lasting around a hundred months, researchers at the University of Zurich have found.
Scientists design protein that prods cancer-fighting T-cells
Scientists have created a new protein that mimics a key immune regulatory protein, interleukin 2 (IL-2).
CNIO researchers confirm links between aggressive prostate cancer and hereditary breast cancer
The study has potential implications for families with members suffering from these types of tumours who are at an increased risk of developing cancer.
New study finds worrisome statistics around medical cannabis users operating vehicles
More than half of people who take medical cannabis for chronic pain say they've driven under the influence of cannabis within two hours of using it, at least once in the last six months, according to a new survey.
Scientists forecast where is the highly invasive fall armyworm to strike next
Known to be feeding on many economically important crops, including maize, sugarcane, beet, tomato, potato and cotton, the larvae of the native to the Americas fall armyworm moth already seem to present a huge threat to the world's yield.
Elephants take to the road for reliable resources
Landscapes can change from day-to-day and year-to-year, and many animals will move about according to resource availability.
How words get an emotional meaning
Everyday objects and people have an emotional meaning. A wool sock might have an emotional value if it was the last thing grandmother knitted before her death.
A tomato for everyone: 'Sunviva' for the good of all
Plant breeders at the University of Göttingen and Agrecol have launched a joint initiative to protect seeds as common property.
HRT tablets associated with increased risk of blood clots
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) tablets are associated with a higher risk of rare but serious blood clots (known as venous thromboembolism or VTE), finds a large study in The BMJ today.
Newborns face risks when born to women with the flu
Pregnant women with influenza are more likely to experience complications, but how this affects infants is unclear.
Genes on the move help nose make sense of scents
With today's study, researchers have pinpointed a genomic mechanism by which a finite number of genes can ultimately help distinguish a seemingly near-infinite number of scents.
New data emphasize importance of avoiding hypoglycemic glucose levels in type 1 diabetes
Researchers have shown that measures of biochemical hypoglycemia in fingerstick blood samples are associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemic events.
Decreased deep sleep linked to early signs of Alzheimer's disease
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have uncovered part of the explanation for why poor sleep is linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Study shows how specific gene variants may raise bipolar disorder risk
Research from MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory directly links genetic variants found in people with bipolar disorder to reduced expression, function of protein CPG2, with specific effects on synapses and neural circuits.
Stem cell study offers clues for optimizing bone marrow transplants and more
A new USC and Stanford study, conducted in mice, shows that successfully transplanted stem cells don't behave 'normally' as in a healthy person without a transplant.
Astronomers uncover the brightest quasar in the early universe
Astronomers have discovered the brightest object ever seen at a time when the universe was less than one billion years old.
'Environmentally friendly' flame retardant could degrade into less safe compounds
To reduce the risk of fire, many everyday products -- from building materials to furniture to clothing -- contain flame retardants.
Mice sleeping fitfully provide clues to insomnia
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis -- working with mice with sleep problems similar to those experienced by people with the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) -- believe the animals will help shed light on insomnia linked to NF1 or other factors.
Child abuse linked to risk of suicide in later life
Children who experience physical, sexual, and emotional abuse or neglect are at least two to three times more likely to attempt suicide in later life, according to the largest research review carried out of the topic.
Does PTSD affect heart disease and cancer risk?
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, as well as the metabolic syndrome, in a new study.
New method to study biomechanical changes in tissues after laser surgery
Although currently laser surgery is a very popular tool for various vision disorders correction, it is still difficult to ensure proper control over the accuracy, efficiency and safety of such procedures.
Parental CPTSD increases transmission of trauma to offspring of Tutsi genocide survivors
Nearly 25 years after the genocide against the Tutsi of Rwanda took the lives of up to one million victims, the offspring of Tutsi survivors, who weren't even born at the time, are among those most affected by trauma, according to a new study published by researchers at Bar-Ilan University, in collaboration with a Rwandan therapist and genocide survivor.
Carrots or candy bars? Context shapes choice of healthy foods
Pop quiz: Given a choice between indulgent and healthy foods, what will most people pick?
Schizophrenia linked with abnormal immune response to Epstein-Barr virus
New research from Johns Hopkins Medicine and Sheppard Pratt Health System shows that people in the study with schizophrenia also have higher levels of antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpes virus that causes infectious mononucleosis, so-called mono.
Lithium-matrix anode protected by a solid electrolyte layer for stable lithium metal batteries
A house-like Li anode was designed. The house matrix was composed of carbon fiber and affords a stable structure to relieve the volume change.
Following Nepal's devastating 2015 earthquake, crisis in childhood malnutrition averted
Despite widespread destruction, including severe agricultural-related losses caused by the 2015 earthquake in Nepal, child nutrition remained stable in the hardest hit areas, a new study finds.
Canada's CHIME telescope detects second repeating fast radio burst
A Canadian-led team of scientists has found the second repeating fast radio burst (FRB) ever recorded.
Sunscreen and cosmetics compound may harm coral by altering fatty acids
Although sunscreen is critical for preventing sunburns and skin cancer, some of its ingredients are not so beneficial to ocean-dwelling creatures.
Are your Facebook friends making you feel sick?
As social networking activity has become pervasive, researchers have been taking a closer look at its impact on our psychological and physical health.
NUS scientists harness machine learning to uncover new insights into the human brain
An inter-disciplinary research team led by the National University of Singapore has successfully employed machine learning to uncover new insights into the cellular architecture of the human brain.
Cigarette smoking may contribute to worse outcomes in bladder cancer patients
In a study of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone radical cystectomy, cigarette smoking was linked with poor response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
By using recorded audio feedback academics can reduce workload mentally and physically
Academics experience that by using the Recorded Audio Feedback (RAF) in higher education they can give more relaxed and dialogic feedback for their learners and reduce their own workload both mentally and physically.
Astronomers map 'light echoes' of newly discovered black hole
A team of astronomers led by Erin Kara, the Neil Gehrels Prize Postdoctoral Fellow in the University of Maryland's Department of Astronomy, has charted the environment surrounding a relatively small, 'stellar mass' black hole that is 10 times the mass of the sun.
Minority Ph.D. students in STEM fare better with clear expectations, acceptance
Women and underrepresented minorities in STEM fields are more likely to advance professionally, publish more research and secure postdoctoral and faculty positions if their institutional culture is welcoming and sets clear expectations, according to a study of hundreds of Ph.D. students at four top-tier California research universities.
Seeing soda's influence
A complex network of research funding, institutional ties and personal influence has allowed the Coca-Cola Company, through its connections with a nonprofit group, to exert substantial influence over obesity science and policy solutions in China, and as a result government policy aligns with the company's corporate interests.
Depression and obesity linked to greater likelihood of hip pain
In a representative sample of the German population, older age, obesity, and depressive disorder were associated with experiencing chronic hip pain.
Metabolite from pomegranate diet reduces inflammatory bowel diseases
A team of scientists from inStem, Bangalore, and University of Louisville, USA, have ascertained that a microbial metabolite (Urolithin A) derived from berries and pomegranates, and its novel synthetic analog, can mitigate IBD by increasing proteins that tighten epithelial cell junctions in the gut thereby reducing the gut inflammation.
New technique offers rapid assessment of radiation exposure
Researchers have developed a new technique that allows them to assess radiation exposure in about an hour using an insulator material found in most modern electronics.
Study finds women and men are equally effective at wage-labor negotiations
First study to look at gender differences in trustworthiness and perceptions of benevolence in the context of hierarchical negotiations, such as wage-labor agreements, finds that women and men reach very similar negotiations outcomes in a neutral setting.
Fake news shared by very few, but those over 65 more likely to pass on such stories
A small percentage of Americans, less than 9 percent, shared links to so-called 'fake news' sites on Facebook during the 2016 presidential election campaign, but this behavior was disproportionately common among people over the age of 65.
Perceived barriers to minority medical students pursuing dermatology
The specialty of dermatology is one of the least diverse medical fields.
Misinterpretation of WHI results decreased use of hormones, even in women not at risk
Few studies have been as responsible for changing the course of treatment of menopause symptoms to the extent that the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) did.
New strategy may curtail spread of antibiotic resistance
In studying a bacterium that causes disease in hospitalized people, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
HRT tablets increase risk of blood clots in women
Women who use certain types of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are at a higher risk of developing potentially life-threatening blood clots, new research has confirmed.
Murky water keeps fish on edge
A study led by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University found fish become anxious and more cautious when water quality is degraded by sediment, an effect that could stunt their growth and damage their health.
Drug sponge could minimize side effects of cancer treatment
Catheters are used today to deliver drugs directly to tumors to avoid broadcasting toxic chemotherapy agents throughout the body.
Capturing chemotherapy drugs before they can cause side effects
Although chemotherapy can kill cancer cells very effectively, healthy cells also suffer.
Scientists hit on the protein and lipid composition of the Siberian mammoth bone
Scientists studied the protein and lipid composition of Siberian mammoth bone and compared it with the modern African elephant.
Overtones can provide faster data communication
For the first time researchers have succeeded in producing what are known as spin wave overtones.
School counselors reflect on their experience following student deaths
When five school counselors who were part of a counseling team were interviewed to learn how they professionally and personally experienced the deaths of multiple students in one year in their school while attending to the needs of the school community, several themes emerged.
Cosmic telescope zooms in on the beginning of time
Observations from Gemini Observatory identify a key fingerprint of an extremely distant quasar, allowing astronomers to sample light emitted from the dawn of time.
Couples intervention may help partners of patients with diabetes
A new Diabetic Medicine study reveals that couples interventions may have beneficial effects for partners of individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Scientists develop universal Ebola treatment effective in single dose
There is a new medication that in one dose successfully protected nonhuman primates against a lethal infection of all strains of the deadly Ebola virus.
Ohio State research finds toilet stool may solve common bowel issues
One in six Americans experience constipation, but far fewer want to talk about it.
15-meter-long ancient whale Basilosaurus isis was top marine predator
The stomach contents of ancient whale Basilosaurus isis suggest it was an apex predator, according to a study published Jan.
Liverpool scientists design new responsive porous material inspired by proteins
Scientists from the University of Liverpool have, for the first time, synthesized a new material that exhibits structural change and triggered chemical activity like a protein.
Reconstruction of trilobite ancestral range in the southern hemisphere
Brazilian researchers used biogeographic analysis to study trilobites, arthropods that became extinct over 252 million years ago.
Researchers diversify drug development options with new metal catalyst
A University of Illinois team of researchers led by chemistry professor M.
UCLA study overturns dogma of cancer metabolism theory
Scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered that squamous cell skin cancers do not require increased glucose to power their development and growth, contrary to a long-held belief about cancer metabolism.
Controlling children's behavior with screen time leads to more screen time, study reveals
University of Guelph researchers investigated the impact of parenting practices on the amount of time young children spend in front of screens.
Mechanism for impaired allergic inflammation in infants may explain hygiene hypothesis
Research published in the journal Immunity describes a mechanism in a mouse model of asthma that supports the hygiene hypothesis -- researchers found that infant mice need a higher exposure to a bacterial endotoxin, compared to adult mice, to avoid developing asthma-like reactions to house dust mites.
Ultra-sensitive sensor with gold nanoparticle array
Scientists from the University of Bath (UK) and Northwestern University (USA) have developed a new type of sensor platform using a gold nanoparticle array, which is 100 times more sensitive than current similar sensors.
Negative social media behaviors may be associated with depression in millennials
Certain social media factors were linked with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a Journal of Applied Biobehavioural Research study of millennials.
Thousands of stars turning into crystals
The first direct evidence of white dwarf stars solidifying into crystals has been discovered by astronomers at the University of Warwick, and our skies are filled with them.
Artificial bug eyes
Single lens eyes, like those in humans and many other animals, can create sharp images, but the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans have an edge when it comes to peripheral vision, light sensitivity and motion detection.
Model predicts lithium-ion batteries most competitive for storage applications by 2030
Researchers at Imperial College London have developed a model to determine the lifetime costs of 9 electricity storage technologies for 12 different applications between 2015 and 2050.
First pregnancy after robot-assisted uterus transplant
The well-known research on uterine transplantation in Gothenburg is now supported by robotic surgery.
UMass Amherst geoscientists reconstruct 'eye-opening' 900-year Northeast climate record
Deploying a new technique for the first time in the region, geoscientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have reconstructed the longest and highest-resolution climate record for the Northeastern United States, which reveals previously undetected past temperature cycles and extends the record 900 years into the past, well beyond the previous early date of 1850.
Better outcomes in depression therapy with new innovations in treatment planning
Adolescents with depression who were treated with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) had significantly better outcomes when their therapists regularly assessed depression symptoms and augmented treatment for insufficient responders after four weeks of therapy rather than waiting until Week 8, reports a study published in the January 2019 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP).
Astronomers observe evolution of a black hole as it wolfs down stellar material
Astronomers observe evolution of a black hole as it wolfs down stellar material.
Smartphone software detects early signs of opioid overdoses
A new software system for smartphones can quickly and unobtrusively detect early signs of opioid overdoses, according to a new study.
X-ray pulse detected near event horizon as black hole devours star
The findings, reported in the journal Science, are the first demonstration of a tidal disruption flare being used to estimate a black hole's spin.
Oscillating X-rays from consumed stars offer new insights into the nature of black holes
The streams of electromagnetic energy released from a star destroyed by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole nearly 290 million light years away encode valuable information about the physical properties of black holes, a new study finds.
New computer modeling approach could improve understanding of megathrust earthquakes
Years before the devastating Tohoku earthquake struck the coast of Japan in 2011, the Earth's crust near the site of the quake was starting to stir.
First evidence of gigantic remains from star explosions
Astrophysicists have found the first ever evidence of gigantic remains being formed from repeated explosions on the surface of a dead star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2.5 million light years from Earth.
Stick insect study shows the significance of passive muscle force for fast movements
Zoologists from the University of Cologne gain new insights into the motor function of limbs of different sizes.
Stressed mothers -- overweight children
Every tenth child is overweight, every twentieth even obese. Scientists at the Berlin Institute of Health / Berlin Institute of Health, together with colleagues at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, have now elucidated a relationship that has not extensively been studied so far.
Study: Excessive body fat around the middle linked to smaller brain size
Carrying extra body fat, especially around the middle, may be linked to brain shrinkage, according to a study published in the Jan.
USC research fosters communication between smart buildings and people
Researchers found improved dialogue between machines and people help smart buildings achieve their energy-saving potential.

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