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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | January 11, 2019


Childhood body composition may help determine future lung health
Boys and girls with more muscle mass in childhood and adolescence have higher lung function.
Does opioid use in pets create higher risk for abuse in humans?
The increase in opioid prescriptions for people over the past decade may have been paralleled by an increase in opioid prescriptions for pets, according to a study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine and the School of Veterinary Medicine.
Calcium specks may help detect heart disease in South Asians
Specks of calcium in the heart's artery walls could be an important prognostic marker of early cardiovascular disease in South Asians and may help guide treatment in this population, according to a study by researchers at UC San Francisco.
New study provides clinicians with better analysis of psychological flexibility
New research from the University of Chichester, published in Behavior Modification, has for the first time analyzed degrees of psychological flexibility and identified three distinct classes.
Selection and reselection processes of executive political positions are gender biased
Although male over-representation in politics is a worldwide phenomenon, the executive is the most male-dominated branch.
Being HIV positive and staying on antiretroviral therapy in Africa: A systematic review
An international team of researchers have carried out a review of the evidence examining what influences people who are HIV positive to go to health services and then stay on antiretroviral drugs in Africa.
Reviewing advanced applications in drug delivery and medicine
This review seeks to analyze current advances of potential applications of graphene and its family of nano-materials for drug delivery and other major biomedical purposes.
Racial disparities in asthma related to health care access, environmental factors
In the United States, racial disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity and mortality can largely be explained by looking at socioeconomic and environmental factors, such as access to healthcare.
Study details a path for treating Latinos with mental health and substance misuse symptoms
A team of researchers at the Disparities Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital -- in collaboration with two teams in Spain and collaborators in the US and Puerto Rico -- has tested a novel preventive intervention designed to provide tailored treatment for Latino immigrants with both mental health and substance misuse symptoms.
Millions on prescription sleeping pills would sleep through a fire alarm
Widely prescribed 'benzodiazepine' sleeping pills suppress the sleeping brain's ability to wake us when it senses a threat.
Gamblers predicted Brexit before financial traders, study finds
Research shows how financial markets should have predicted Brexit hours before they eventually did, and that betting markets beat currency markets to the result by an hour -- producing a 'close to risk-free' profit-making opportunity, according to economists.
Binge eating and smoking linked to bullying and sexual abuse
People who ever suffered bullying or sexual abuse have a lower quality of life similar to those living with chronic conditions like heart disease, diabetes, depression or severe anxiety, a new study from the University of Adelaide has found.
VAT fat may cause pathogenic obesity
VAT, Visceral Adipose Tissue, a kind of fat that accumulates around the abdominal organs, has an important immune function.
Activated PMN exosomes are pathogenic entities that cause destruction in the COPD lung
Researchers have found a novel, pathogenic entity that is a fundamental link between chronic inflammation and tissue destruction in lungs of patients with COPD.
Arbitrary quantum channel simulation for a superconducting qubit
Recently, a research team led by Prof. Luyan Sun from Tsinghua University has successfully demonstrated the arbitrary quantum channel simulation for a single qubit in a superconducting quantum circuits, which could be used for simulating the evolution of a quantum bit in arbitrary physical environment.
3D printing 100 times faster with light
Rather than building up plastic filaments layer by layer, a new approach to 3D printing lifts complex shapes from a vat of liquid at up to 100 times faster than conventional 3D printing processes, University of Michigan researchers have shown.
Research to advance cancer therapy
Research led by Suresh Alahari, PhD, the Fred Brazda Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has found a new role for a protein discovered by his lab in preventing the growth and spread of breast cancer.
Feds, states can help biochar live up to its soil-saving potential
Researchers at Rice University and North Dakota State University have assembled current and potential sources of government support to promote the production and use of biochar, which helps preserve valuable soil, enhance agricultural production, improve local air quality and sequester carbon dioxide.
Kent State ecologist part of global collaboration to answer global change questions
The work of 153 ecological researchers from 40 countries, including Kent State University Assistant Professor Dave Costello, Ph.D., from the Department of Biological Sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences, has revealed new findings on the effect of climatic factors on river-based ecosystems.
New leukemia drug is more effective and easier to use
A landmark study co-authored by a Loyola Medicine oncologist has found that a newer targeted drug is significantly more effective than standard therapy for treating elderly patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
New mathematical model can help save endangered species
One of the greatest challenges in saving endangered species is to predict if an animal population will die out.
Skull scans tell tale of how world's first dogs caught their prey
Analysis of the skulls of lions, wolves and hyenas has helped scientists uncover how prehistoric dogs hunted 40 million years ago.
HKUST scientists develop novel method to monitor molecular aggregation
Scientists from the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology (HKUST) have collaborated with researchers from Zhejiang University and South China University of Technology to develop a novel system of real-time, in-situ monitoring of molecular aggregation based off of circular dichroism (CD) that is significantly more cost effective than conventional methods used to determine molecular conformation.
Longer siesta on bright days
Insects and mammals have special sensors for different light intensities.
Integrated pathways for meeting climate targets and ensuring access to safe water
IIASA researchers have led work to develop new pathways showing how the world can develop water and energy infrastructure consistent with both the Paris Agreement and the UN Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6) -- ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
Harnessing multiple data streams and artificial intelligence to better predict flu
Influenza is highly contagious and easily spreads as people move about and travel, making tracking and forecasting flu activity a challenge.
Curricular changes show success by fourth year
In a four-year study, a group of science faculty finds that student buy-in to a new curriculum, and therefore satisfaction, increases with each successive undergraduate cohort -- and learning gains did not suffer.
New policy design needed to tackle global environmental threat, according to report
A pioneering new report has devised a seven-point plan to help policymakers devise new, coherent and collaborative strategies to tackle the greatest global environmental threats.
A new mechanism helps explain differences between eukaryotic and bacterial proteomes
The study, published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution, has been headed by Lluís Ribas, at IRB Barcelona.
Connection of children to nature brings less distress, hyperactivity and behavioral problems
A new 16-item parent questionnaire (CNI-PPC) to measure 'connectedness to nature' in very young children has been developed by Dr.
Making ammonia 'greener'
A pair of researchers at Case Western Reserve University have come up with a new way to create ammonia from nitrogen and water at low temperature and low pressure.
Menstrual hygiene needs unmet for low-income women
In one of the first needs assessments of its kind, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, Ph.D., MPH, associate professor of behavioral science and health education at Saint Louis University's College for Public Health and Social Justice and her team have documented the challenges, from affordability to transportation, that low-income people with periods face in accessing basic sanitary supplies.
Gene-editing tool CRISPR repurposed to develop better antibiotics
A University of Wisconsin-Madison researcher and his collaborators at the University of California, San Francisco have repurposed the gene-editing tool CRISPR to study which genes are targeted by particular antibiotics, providing clues on how to improve existing antibiotics or develop new ones.
New analytic model to better identify patients likely to develop PTSD
New findings from an international research team led by psychiatrists at NYU School of Medicine show that a newly-developed analytic model can predict soon after a shocking or scary event -- and with significant accuracy -- the likelihood of someone developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Technique identifies electricity-producing bacteria
MIT engineers have developed a microfluidic technique that can quickly process small samples of bacteria and gauge a specific property that's highly correlated with bacteria's ability to produce electricity.
VISTA checkpoint implicated in pancreatic cancer immunotherapy resistance
Researchers have identified a new potential immunotherapy target in pancreatic cancer, which so far has been notoriously resistant to treatment with immune checkpoint blockade drugs effective against a variety of other cancers.
Scope advance reveals first look through all cortical layers of awake brain
Improvements in three-photon microscopy made by scientists at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory have allowed scientists to see activity in all layers of the visual cortex and the 'subplate' below.
Synthes, in silico molecular docking & pharmacokinetic studies
In this report, we have designed and synthesized azole scaffolds with good antitubercular activities as there is a real need to develop new candidates with less toxicity and more efficiency toward pathogen.
The algae's third eye
Scientists at the Universities of Würzburg and Bielefeld in Germany have discovered an unusual new light sensor in green algae.
Emergency/urgent hospitalizations linked to accelerated cognitive decline in older adults
Emergency and urgent hospitalizations are associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in older adults, report researchers at Rush University Medical Center.
Real-time detection of cholesterol in liver-on-chip cultures of human liver cells
In a paper to be published in the September/December 2019 issue of TECHNOLOGY, a team of researchers from the IIT, Chicago, has developed a novel microfluidic device for measuring in real-time the cholesterol secreted from liver tissue-chip containing human hepatocytes.
Ultra-sturdy bones, with a surprising origin, suggest new osteoporosis approach
A handful of brain cells deep in the brain may play a surprising role in controlling women's bone density, according to new research by UC San Francisco and UCLA scientists.
Plant phytolith and water content influence rate of tooth enamel abrasion in vertebrates
Plant phytolith and water content cause differing degrees of tooth enamel abrasion in vertebrates.
Powerful microscope captures first image of nanoscaffold that promotes cell movement
Using one of the most powerful microscopes in the world, scientists from SBP and UNC-Chapel Hill have identified a dense, dynamic and disorganized actin filament nanoscaffold -- resembling a haystack -- that is induced in response to a molecular signal.
Blueprint for plant immune response found
Washington State University researchers have discovered the way plants respond to disease-causing organisms, and how they protect themselves, leading the way to potential breakthroughs in breeding resistance to diseases or pests.
Parasites from patients with cerebral malaria stick preferentially in their brains
A team at LSTM with their collaborators in Malawi and Denmark have provided, for the first time, evidence which links the ability of red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite to bind to the cells lining the blood vessels of the brain, with the clinical syndrome cerebral malaria.
Responses of benthic foraminifera to changes of temperature and salinity
Benthic foraminifera is numerous single-celled protozoan species that showed high sensitivity to environmental changes.
Scientists identify how plants sense temperature
A UC Riverside researcher is leading a team exploring how plants respond to temperature.

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