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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | January 16, 2019


Record-breaking ocean temperatures point to trends of global warming
The newly available observations show that the year 2018 is the hottest year ever recorded for the global ocean, as evident in its highest ocean heat content since 1950s in the upper 2,000 meters.
Right green for crop, environment, wallet
Researchers found an efficient approach to managing nitrogen in agriculture and reducing its environmental impact.
Survey questions cancer doctors' awareness of LGBTQ issues
Most oncologists say they don't know enough about how to treat patients with differences in sexual orientation or identity, but most are also interested in learning more, a new study finds.
Observations of a rare hypernova complete the picture of the death of the massive stars
The end of a star's life can occur in a tranquil manner in the case of low mass stars.
Study finds following heart health guidelines also reduces diabetes risk
Lifestyle and health factors that are good for your heart can also prevent diabetes, according to a new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and College of Medicine that published today in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.
Ammonia by phosphorus catalysis
More than 100 years after the introduction of the Haber-Bosch process, scientists continue to search for alternative ammonia production routes that are less energy demanding.
Study defines differences among brain neurons that coincide with psychiatric conditions
It's no surprise to scientists that variety is the very essence of biology, not just the seasoning, but most previous studies of key brain cells have found little variability in a common cell process that involves how genetic information is read and acted on.
Fiery sighting: A new physics of eruptions that damage fusion experiments
Sudden bursts of heat that can damage the inner walls of tokamak fusion experiments are a hurdle that operators of the facilities must overcome.
Gut bacteria make key amino acids dispensable, expanding food options for invasive flies
Fruit flies fed antibiotics to supress their gut microbiome are forced to avoid the best food patches if they lack vital amino acids, according to a study by Boaz Yuval from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel and Chang-Ying Nui from Huazhong Agricultural University in China, publishing Jan.
Study investigates socioeconomic disparities in nitrate levels in US drinking water
The first nationwide investigation of potential socioeconomic disparities in nitrate concentrations in US drinking water is reported in the open access journal Environmental Health.
Dry-cured ham bones -- a source of heart-healthy peptides?
Drinking bone broth is a recent diet fad that proponents claim fights inflammation, eases joint pain and promotes gut health.
Health risks through fumigated containers
Products transported by sea in containers are often fumigated with biocides as protection against pests.
Most parents say hands-on, intensive parenting is best
Most parents say a child-centered, time-intensive approach to parenting is the best way to raise their kids, regardless of education, income or race.
European assessment of Glyphosate is quality-assured and independent
The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) already prepared the first draft of its health assessment of glyphosate (RAR) in 2013.
Research to improve welding process for manufacturing industries
New research, led by the University of Leicester, will optimise the welding and additive and manufacturing process
Full carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification in a tropical coral
Researchers from the Centre Scientifique de Monaco (CSM), the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen and the University of Kiel have succeeded in directly measuring three key parameters necessary for skeleton formation in a live tropical coral.
Cellular protein a target for Zika control
A cellular protein that interacts with invading viruses appears to help enable the infection process of the Zika virus, according to an international team of researchers who suggest this protein could be a key target in developing new therapies to prevent or treat Zika virus infection.
New yeast model of metabolic disorders may lead to life-saving therapies
A new Tel Aviv University study suggests that the role of yeast, the world's most basic eukaryotic unicellular organism, may pave the way for the development of novel, more effective therapies for congenital diseases.
Study reveals financial interests of patient organizations assessing NHS treatments
More than two thirds of patient organizations involved in assessing treatments for NHS use received funding from the maker(s) or a competitor of that treatment, yet decision makers were aware of less than a quarter of these interests, finds a review in The BMJ today.
Immune cell clues offer hope to hypertension patients, study suggests
Scientists have pinpointed cells in the immune system that could be key to tackling high blood pressure.
Mosquito known to transmit malaria has been detected in Ethiopia for the first time
A type of mosquito that transmits malaria has been detected in Ethiopia for the first time, and the discovery has implications for putting more people at risk for malaria in new regions, according to a study led by a Baylor University researcher.
New study shows smoking accelerates aging
Smoking has long been proven to negatively affect people's overall health in multiple ways.
Moving more in old age may be linked to sharper memory
Older adults who move more, either with daily exercise or even simple routine physical activity like housework, may preserve more of their memory and thinking skills, even if they have brain lesions or biomarkers linked to dementia, according to a study published in the Jan.
Researchers establish principles for transmitting light-delivered data via nonreciprocal circuits
In a new paper published in the journal Optica, the flagship journal of the Optical Society, researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center of The City University of New York (CUNY) lay out a rigorous theoretical framework that clarifies the fundamental principles governing resonant nonreciprocal circuits and resolves some outstanding questions on their potentials and limitations.
New quantum structures in super-chilled helium may mirror early days of universe
Experimental proof of a decades-old prediction opens a pathway to recreate possible conditions of the early universe here on earth.
How manganese produces a parkinsonian syndrome
Using X-ray fluorescence at synchrotrons DESY and ESRF, researchers in the Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CNRS/Université de Bordeaux) have demonstrated the consequences of a mutation responsible for a hereditary parkinsonian syndrome: accumulated manganese in the cells appears to disturb protein transport.
Moffitt leads the nation in addressing LGBTQ health care disparities and education
Moffitt launched the first nationwide survey to identify potential gaps in attitudes, knowledge and institutional practices for LGBTQ patients.
Less than half of US youth discuss sensitive topics with their doctors
Fewer than half of young people in the United States are having discussions of sensitive topics with their regular healthcare providers, according to a new study published in Pediatrics.
Just like flipping a switch -- in only half a picosecond
Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have discovered spin flips happen in one half of one trillionth of a second, or half a picosecond in the course of a chemical reaction.
CHOP surgeons find opioids often overprescribed for elbow fractures in children
Opioid drugs prescribed to children for pain relief after a typical pediatric orthopaedic procedure may be significantly overprescribed, according to a new study by researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
High-speed supernova reveals earliest moments of a dying star
An international team of researchers, including the University of Leicester, found evidence for the much theorized 'hot cocoon'.
Ocean giant gets a health check: Combination blood, tissue test reveals whale shark diets
Whale sharks, the world's largest fish, likely endure periods of starvation and may eat more plants than previously thought, according to the first results of a new health check developed at the University of Tokyo.
Schizophrenia linked to genetic structural abnormality in adolescent brain
Schizophrenia could be caused by a genetic mutation that causes a structural abnormality in the brain during adolescence.
Drones shown to make traffic crash site assessments safer, faster and more accurate
Research shows that drones can be more effective and safer in crash mapping of vehicular highway accidents than conventional methods.
The pace at which the world's permafrost soils are warming
Global warming is leaving more and more apparent scars in the world's permafrost regions.
Wearable sensor can detect hidden anxiety, depression in young children
Anxiety and depression in young children are hard to detect and often go untreated, potentially leading to anxiety disorders and increased risk of suicide and drug abuse later.
Publication of data for SYNB1020 a potential treatment for hyperammonemia
Synlogic, Inc., (Nasdaq: SYBX) a clinical stage company applying synthetic biology to beneficial microbes to develop novel, living medicines, today announced the publication in Science Translational Medicine of clinical data from its Phase 1 clinical study in healthy volunteers and supporting preclinical data from its investigational Synthetic Biotic candidate, SYNB1020.
'Statistics anxiety' is real, and new research suggests targeted ways to handle it
A new study uses an analytical technique called 'network science' to determine factors contributing to statistics anxiety among psychology majors.
Water, not temperature, limits global forest growth as climate warms
The growth of forest trees all over the world is becoming more water-limited as the climate warms.
Researchers create 'shortcut' to terpene biosynthesis in E. coli
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed an artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids, or terpenes, in E.coli.
The Lancet: Diet and food production must radically change to improve health and avoid potentially catastrophic damage to the planet
Transformation of the global food system is urgently needed as more than 3 billion people are malnourished (including people who are undernourished and overnourished), and food production is exceeding planetary boundaries -- driving climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution due to over-application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, and unsustainable changes in water and land use
Trends over time in antibiotic prescribing by dermatologists
This study looked at trends over time in oral antibiotic prescribing by dermatologists using commercial insurance claims data for almost 986,000 courses of oral antibiotics prescribed by nearly 12,000 dermatologists.
Unintended side effects: antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiome dysregulates skeletal health
Diet and exercise regulate the accrual of bone mass, but some evidence suggests the microbiome may also play a role.
Anti-inflammatory compound protects against cancer growth and recurrence
A new anti-inflammatory compound developed at UC Davis acts as a 'surge protector' to suppress inflammation and reduce cancer growth, at least in mouse models of cancer.
Researchers set standards for models in biodiversity assessments
An international team of biodiversity modelers has developed, for the first time, a best-practice standards framework with detailed guidelines enabling scoring of studies based on species distribution models for use in biodiversity assessments.
New AI can detect urinary tract infections
New AI developed at the University of Surrey could identify and help reduce one of the top causes of hospitalisation for people living with dementia: urinary tract infections (UTI).
Marine mammals and sea turtles recovering after Endangered Species Act protection
More than three-quarters of marine mammal and sea turtle populations have significantly increased after listing of the US Endangered Species Act (ESA), according to a study published Jan.
Common gene disorder causes serious 'stealth' disease, but could be easily treated
The western world's most common genetic disorder is a 'stealth condition' that causes far higher levels of serious disease and disability than previously thought, despite being easy to detect and treat.
Identifying 'friends' in an objective manner
Dr. Teruyoshi Kobayashi of Kobe University and his team developed a new method for identifying individuals that have essential connections between them -- what they call 'significant ties'.
First international consensus on fibromuscular dysplasia
The ''First international consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia'' (FMD) has been published online first today in Vascular Medicine and the Journal of Hypertension.
AGA releases guide to care for women with IBD throughout family planning
The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) announced 'Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Pregnancy Clinical Care Pathway - A Report from the American Gastroenterological Association IBD Parenthood Project Working Group' published online today ahead of print.
Nearly a quarter of antibiotic prescriptions for children and adults may be unnecessary
One in 10 children and about one in six adults with private insurance received antibiotics they didn't need at least once in 2016, a new Michigan Medicine study suggests.
Army researchers explore benefits of immersive technology for soldiers
Army researchers are exploring the benefits of immersive technology for warfighters.
An ancient relative of humans shows a surprisingly modern trait
A relative of modern humans that lived at least 104,000 years ago in northern China showed evidence of dental growth and development very similar to that of people today, a new study found.
'Ambidextrous' robots could dramatically speed e-commerce
Engineers at the University of California, Berkeley present a novel, 'ambidextrous' approach to grasping a diverse range of object shapes without training.
First example of copper catalyzed/mediated direct b-h alkenylation/alkynylation in carboranes
Base metal catalyzed regioselective cage B-H functionalization has been achieved.
Fighting perinatal mood and anxiety disorders on multiple levels
An award-winning poster that Lenore Jarvis, M.D., MEd, and colleagues presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics National Convention and Exhibit in Orlando, Florida, details Children's integrated approach to help women with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders which includes actions at individual, interpersonal, organizational, community and policy levels.
Common genetic disorder linked to more disease than previously thought
The most common genetic disorder in people from northern Europe is associated with substantially higher levels of disease than previously thought, despite being easy to detect and treat, finds a study published in The BMJ today.
Neurofeedback helps to control learning success
Those who regulate their brain rhythm themselves can release capacities to learn new things.
Athletes should build neck strength to avoid concussions, Rutgers researchers recommend
Rutgers researchers have proposed a solution for athletes at higher risk for sports-related concussions, such as football and soccer: Protect your head with neck-strengthening exercises in the pre-season.
Feathers: better than Velcro?
The structures zipping together the barbs in bird feathers could provide a model for new adhesives and new aerospace materials, according to a study by an international team of researchers publishing in the Jan.
Chaos in the body tunes up your immune system
Chaos in bodily regulation can optimize our immune system according to a recent discovery made by researchers at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute.
Nudging does not necessarily improve decisions
Nudging, the concept of influencing people's behavior without imposing rules, bans or coercion, is an idea that government officials and marketing specialists alike are keen to harness, and itis often viewed as a one-size-fits-all solution.
Fighting the crave for fattening food? Just surround yourself in its scent
A new study proves one sense can compensate another.
Moving more in old age may protect brain from dementia
lder adults who move more than average, either in the form of daily exercise or just routine physical activity such as housework, may maintain more of their memory and thinking skills than people who are less active than average, even if they have brain lesions or biomarkers linked to dementia, according to a study by Rush University Medical Center published in the January 16, 2019, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Scientists grow perfect human blood vessels in a petri dish
Scientists have managed to grow perfect human blood vessels as organoids in a petri dish for the first time.
Gastric bypass surgery may benefit muscle strength more than previously thought
Gastric bypass surgery improves relative muscle strength and physical performance in people with obesity, according to a study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
What is clean breathing water?
Researchers from Arizona State University and Drexel University have developed a more detailed framework for understanding and managing the risk of transmitting a bacterial disease via water spray from sinks, showers and toilets.
Artificial intelligence applied to the genome identifies an unknown human ancestor
By combining deep learning algorithms and statistical methods, investigators from the Institute of Evolutionary Biology (IBE), the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG) of the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and the Genomics Institute at the University of Tartu have identified, in the genome of Asiatic individuals, the footprint of a new hominid who cross bred with its ancestors tens of thousands of years ago.
Ketone body utilization decreases when blood flow to the heart is reduced
Researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan measured the ketone body utilization rate in the heart and confirmed that it decreases when the heart is in a state of reduced blood flow (myocardial ischemia).
Ozaena ground beetles likely parasitize ants throughout their life cycle
Ozaena ground beetles likely have anatomical adaptations enabling them to parasitize ant nests throughout their life cycle, according to a study published Jan.
Advances and challenges in precise nanomedicine for intelligent therapy of cancer
The authors demonstrate the recent advances of intelligent cancer nanomedicine, and discuss the comprehensive understanding of their structure-function relationship for smart and efficient cancer nanomedicine including various imaging and therapeutic applications, as well as nanotoxicity.
Experimental treatment approach shows potential against Staphylococcus aureus
A new class of engineered proteins may counter infection caused by Staph aureus.
Sudden aging
Coralline red algae have existed for 130 million years, in other words since the Cretaceous Period, the time of the dinosaurs.
Combatting brain infections in special issue of Viral Immunology
A special issue of Viral Immunology, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, contains a rich collection of the latest research and reviews focusing on Viral Neuroimmunology and the intricacies of viral brain infection.
Only 13 percent of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions considered appropriate
Only 13 percent of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions are considered appropriate and 36 percent considered potentially appropriate, according to a new study from Northwestern Medicine, the University of Michigan and Harvard University's Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Research reveals mechanism for leukaemia cell growth, prompting new treatment hopes
A mechanism which drives leukaemia cell growth has been discovered by researchers at the University of Sussex, who believe their findings could help to inform new strategies when it comes to treating the cancer.
Ohio State study finds following heart health guidelines also reduces diabetes risk
You've probably heard that things like staying active, eating healthy and keeping your blood pressure in check can help your heart, and a new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center finds that following a set of seven lifestyle factors can also drastically reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
Breast cancer up to five times more likely to metastasize even 10 years after childbirth
Breast cancers diagnosed in young women within 10 years of giving birth are more likely to metastasize, and thus more likely to cause death, than breast cancers in young women who gave birth less recently or not at all.
Higher risk of fracture in type 1 diabetes may be linked to poor blood sugar control
Patients with type 1 diabetes and poor blood sugar control face a higher risk of fragility fracture -- any fall from standing height or less that results in a broken bone -- than type 1 diabetes patients with good blood sugar control, according to a study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Sea slug study illuminates how mitochondria move
Defects in the transport of cells' energy organelles are a suspected cause of diseases including Alzheimer's, ALS, Huntington's and Parkinson's.
Scientists discover novel process to convert visible light into infrared light
Columbia and Harvard scientists have developed a novel chemical process to convert infrared energy into visible light, allowing innocuous radiation to penetrate living tissue and other materials without the damage caused by high-intensity light exposure.
NIH researchers rescue photoreceptors, prevent blindness in animal models of AMD
Using a novel patient-specific stem cell-based therapy, researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) prevented blindness in animal models of geographic atrophy, the advanced 'dry' form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a leading cause of vision loss among people age 65 and older.
Jellyfish map could be the future to protecting UK waters and fish
A University of Southampton research team has developed a map of chemicals found in Jellyfish caught across 1 million square-kilometres of UK waters.
Simple rules predict and explain biological mutualism
Scientists have long employed relatively simple guidelines to help explain the physical world, from Newton's second law of motion to the laws of thermodynamics.
Waiting for the complete rupture
Nepal was struck by an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.8 in 2015, but the country may still face the threat of much stronger temblor.
High pesticide exposure among farmers linked to poor sense of smell later
A Michigan State University study is the first to show an association between unusually high pesticide exposure and poor sense of smell among aging farmers.
Did quality of care, outcomes improve for hospitalized heart attack patients in states that expanded Medicaid?
Lack of insurance is associated with worse care and outcomes among adults hospitalized for a heart attack.
From emergence to eruption: Comprehensive model captures life of a solar flare
A team of scientists has, for the first time, used a single, cohesive computer model to simulate the entire life cycle of a solar flare: from the buildup of energy thousands of kilometers below the solar surface, to the emergence of tangled magnetic field lines, to the explosive release of energy in a brilliant flash.
Mechanism helps explain the ear's exquisite sensitivity
Researchers at MIT decode the way structures in the inner ear give our hearing its remarkable sensitivity and selectivity.
Leuven experts push the boundaries of 3D microscopy
Two newly developed methods will help researchers to study the 3D structure of complex surfaces and of individual neurons better than ever before.
Climate change: How could artificial photosynthesis contribute to limiting global warming?
If CO2 emissions do not fall fast enough, then CO2 will have to be removed from the atmosphere to limit global warming.
When activated, 'social' brain circuits inhibit feeding behavior in mice
Feeding behavior and social stimulation activate intermingled but distinct brain circuits, and activating one circuit can inhibit the other, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford University.
Protecting oligodendrocytes may reduce the impact of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating inflammatory disorder in which autoreactive T cells migrate into the central nervous tissue and damage oligodendrocytes and myelin, which protect nerve cells.
Born to run: just not on cocaine
A study finds a surprising response to cocaine in a novel strain of mutant mice -- they failed to show hyperactivity seen in normal mice when given cocaine and didn't run around.
Proteins use a lock and key system to bind to DNA
Scientists have traditionally thought that DNA binding proteins use patterns in the genome's code of As, Cs, Ts, and Gs to guide them to the right location, with a given protein only binding to a specific sequence of letters.
How stem cells self-organize in the developing embryo
New study uses live imaging to understand a critical step in early embryonic development--how genes and molecules control forces to orchestrate the emergence of form in the developing embryo.
New research confirms US Fed right to hold news conferences after every meeting
A policy intended to increase transparency at the US Federal Reserve may have done the opposite, setting markets up for unnecessary surprises, says a new study from the University of Toronto.
Engineered light to improve health, food, suggests Sandia researcher in Nature
intentionally controlled light can help regulate human health and productivity by eliciting various hormonal responses.
Urbanization may hold key to tiger survival
A new WCS-led study published in the journal Biological Conservation says the future of tigers in Asia is linked the path of demographic transition -- for humans.
Acupressure relieves long-term symptoms of breast cancer treatment, study finds
A new study finds acupressure could be a low-cost, at-home solution to a suite of persistent side effects that linger after breast cancer treatment ends.
Almost a quarter of antibiotic prescriptions in the US are inappropriate
Almost of quarter of antibiotic prescriptions claimed by privately insured outpatients in the US are inappropriate, reveals a study of over 19 million patients published in The BMJ today.
How bad will my postpartum depression be in 12 months?
A new Northwestern Medicine study was able to successfully predict -- with 72.8 percent accuracy -- if a new mother would experience worsening depressive symptoms over the first year after giving birth.
Ice Age climate caused sediment sourcing 180 in Gulf of Mexico
The onset of the most recent ice age about 2.6 million years ago changed where the western Gulf of Mexico gets its supply of sediments.
Multiple sclerosis treatments delay progression of the disease
An international study finds multiple sclerosis treatments have long-term benefits, and that early treatment is important.
Democratic governors have bold ideas to transform health care: Harvard researchers
Republican and Democratic governors have strikingly different visions for the future of health care, according to a new analysis published in the American Journal of Public Health.
Poll: Majority of millennials do not like Trump, Twitter
A new national poll of millennials looks at opinions on President Trump, social media, key issues and potential 2020 presidential candidates.
New study finds evidence of changing seasons, rain on Titan's north pole
An image from the international Cassini spacecraft provides evidence of rainfall on the north pole of Titan, the largest of Saturn's moons.
New PET probe could improve detection of primary and metastatic melanoma
A new nuclear medicine method for detecting malignant melanoma, one of the most aggressive skin cancers, has been successfully tested for the first time in humans and could improve detection of both primary and metastatic melanoma.
Cheering on a potential diabetes drug from bench to bedside
Scientists have developed a promising compound that targets a protein well-known to be implicated in type 2 diabetes, which -- unlike different versions of its kind currently under investigation -- proved to be safe and effective in a phase 2 clinical trial of 190 type 2 diabetes patients.
Risk for developing more than one mental health disorder revealed
A new study has revealed the risks behind developing a seconds mental health disorder after an initial diagnosis in the largest and most comprehensive study of comorbidity to date.
Dental study of juvenile archaic Homo< fossil gives clues about human development
Most aspects of dental development for a juvenile Homo specimen from the Pleistocene fall within the modern human range, according to research by a group of Chinese and international scientists.

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