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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | January 24, 2019


Identifying artificial intelligence 'blind spots'
A novel model developed by MIT and Microsoft researchers identifies instances in which autonomous systems have 'learned' from training examples that don't match what's actually happening in the real world.
US children show clear evidence of bias at the intersection of race and gender
A new Northwestern University study provides strong and consistent evidence of bias at the intersection of race and gender in 4-year-old children.
Scientists drill to record depths in West Antarctica
A team of scientists and engineers has for the first time successfully drilled over two kilometres through the ice sheet in West Antarctica using hot water.
3D printing may help treat osteoarthritis
In a Journal of Orthopaedic Research study, scientists used 3D printing to repair bone in the joints of mini-pigs, an advance that may help to treat osteoarthritis in humans.
Making the Hubble's deepest images even deeper
It has taken researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias almost three years to produce the deepest image of the Universe ever taken from space, by recovering a large quantity of 'lost' light around the largest galaxies in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field.
Envisioned 'octopus farms' would have far-reaching and detrimental environmental impact
Commercial octopus farming, currently in developmental stages on multiple continents, would have a negative ripple effect on sustainability and animal welfare, concludes a team of researchers in a newly published analysis.
Study: Natural disaster affects children's schooling years later
A new study looked at changes in children's academic performance after major bushfires in Australia.
Follow-up phone calls by pharmacists help patients after hospital discharge
A new British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology study illustrates the benefits of having clinical pharmacists follow up, by telephone, with patients at risk of having medication-related issues after hospital discharge.
Twitter fake news engagement during 2016 election was highly concentrated and conservative-leaning
By studying how more than 16,000 American registered voters interacted with fake news sources on Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election, researchers report that engagement with fake news was extremely concentrated.
New treatment approach for leukemia
An international research team led by researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna have made an important discovery that could lead to a better understanding of lymphocytic leukemia.
'Cascade of Care' framework aims to reduce opioid deaths
In a paper out today in The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Columbia researchers present an expanded model to reduce opioid overdose and death by addressing gaps in addiction care and by monitoring treatment outcomes.
Research shows what it takes to be a giant shark
Have you ever wondered why the Megalodon shark became to be so big?
Graphene can hear your brain whisper
A newly developed graphene-based implant can record electrical activity in the brain at extremely low frequencies and over large areas, unlocking the wealth of information found below 0.1 Hz.
Study reveals alarming numbers of violent injuries among schoolchildren
Nearly 1 in 5 fifth-graders has received violent injuries, the majority delivered by guns or knives, according to recently published research by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Analysis examines migraine's link to higher stroke risk
Migraine with aura was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, but a recent post-hoc analysis published in Headache reveals unexpected results suggesting that onset of such migraines before age 50 years is not associated with such risk.
Lower-carbon diets aren't just good for the planet, they're also healthier
A new study examining the carbon footprint of what more than 16,000 Americans eat in a day has good news for environmentally conscious consumers: diets that are more climate-friendly are also healthier.
Protein promotes small artery growth to damaged heart tissue in mice, study finds
A collaboration between basic and clinical scientists at Stanford University has revealed a protein that promotes the growth of small arteries leading into oxygen-starved heart tissues in mice.
Do economic conditions affect pregnancy outcomes?
Economic downturn during early pregnancy was linked with modest increases in preterm birth in a Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology analysis.
Fast action: Novel device may rapidly control plasma disruptions in a fusion facility
Feature describes prototype of new device that mitigates disruption of fusion plasmas faster than the most developed techniques today.
Lubricant for oil tankers
If ship hulls were coated with special high-tech air trapping materials, up to one percent of global CO2 emissions could be avoided.
Brain condition related to long-term spaceflights needs more attention, data
Recognizing the need for more data related to the effects of microgravity on the human body, Medical University of South Carolina neuroradiologist Donna Roberts, M.D., and co-author Lonnie G.
Multicolor holography technology could enable extremely compact 3D displays
Researchers have developed a new approach to multicolor holography that could be used to make 3D color displays for augmented reality glasses, smartphones or heads-up displays without any bulky optical components.
Important signaling pathway in breast cancer revealed
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) that a particular signaling pathway in breast-cancer tumors causes cancer cells to divide symmetrically, expanding the tumor.
White math teachers treat students differently in predominantly black schools
White math teachers in predominantly black middle schools are more likely to respond negatively to students' behavioral or academic issues - and this may have long-term negative consequences for student performance, according to a Rutgers-led study that highlights the need to recruit more black teachers.
New kidney research sheds light on harms of certain drugs
Scientists have identified an enzyme that is a 'master regulator' of kidney function that if excessively suppressed, can trigger renal failure.
Yes please to yoghurt and cheese: The new improved Mediterranean diet
Thousands of people can take heart as new research from the University of South Australia shows a dairy-enhanced Mediterranean diet will significantly increase health outcomes for those at risk of cardiovascular disease - and it's even more effective than a low-fat diet.
Noisy gene atlas to help reveal how plants 'hedge their bets' in race for survival
Plant scientists at the Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University have built a gene expression atlas that maps the 'noisy genes' of genetically identical plants.
More fish consumption and omega-3 supplementation needed to push the omega-3 index to 8 percent
A new study published in Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids shows that people likely need to eat more fish and take an omega-3 supplement to reach a cardioprotective Omega-3 Index level of 8 percent or higher.
Computer analysis shows that popular music lyrics become angrier and sadder over time
A scientific analysis of the sentiment of popular music lyrics from the 1950s to 2016 showed that the expression of anger and sadness in popular music has increased gradually over time, while the expression of joy has declined.
Teens' same-gender friendships key to later satisfaction in romantic relationships
A new longitudinal study sought to identify the factors in adolescence that best predicted who would and would not have a satisfying romantic life in their late 20s.
Newcomers play cryptic
Invasive species can put native animal and plant species on the brink of extinction.
HBOT showed improvement in Alzheimer's Disease
Dr. Paul Harch, at LSU Health New Orleans, and Dr.
Smoking cessation strategies targeting stress reduction may be more successful in women
Women are 31 percent less likely to quit smoking successfully, in part because nicotine replacement therapy is more effective in male smokers.
Greenland's southwest ice sheet particularly sensitive to warming
The ice fields of southwest Greenland are becoming particularly sensitive to a climate cycle called the North Atlantic Oscillation as global warming proceeds.
How to escape a black hole: simulations provide new clues about powerful plasma jets
New simulations led by researchers working at the Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have combined decades-old theories to provide new insight about the driving mechanisms in plasma jets that allows them to steal energy from black holes' powerful gravitational fields and propel it far from their gaping mouths.
First confirmed cases of rabbit virus found in UK hares
New research from the University of East Anglia confirms cases of a rabbit virus found in hares.
New theory unlocks the secret behind protein-membrane interactions
Trillions of cells -- all different shapes and sizes -- form a human body's structure.
In polar regions, warm-blooded marine predators rule
Even though diversity typically decreases from the tropics to the poles, in the frigid waters of the high latitudes, warm-blooded marine mammals and birds thrive, both in number and species richness.
With less sleep, tau release in the brain goes up
The sleep-wake cycle affects the levels of a protein in our brain called tau, a new study in animals and humans shows.
Innovative technique could pave way for new generation of flexible electronic components
Researchers at the University of Exeter have developed an innovative technique that could help create the next generation of everyday flexible electronics.
Investigational monoclonal antibody to treat Ebola is safe in adults
The investigational Ebola treatment mAb114 is safe, well-tolerated, and easy to administer, according to findings from an early-stage clinical trial published in The Lancet.
Study may explain why once-promising cancer drugs failed
Nearly two decades ago, a class of once-promising cancer drugs called MMP inhibitors mysteriously failed in clinical trials.
The first tendril-like soft robot able to climb
Researchers at IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia obtained the first soft robot mimicking plant tendrils: it is able to curl and climb, using the same physical principles determining water transport in plants.
Sleep deprivation accelerates Alzheimer's brain damage
A study in mice and people from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
IUPUI researchers re-create retinal microenvironment in a dish with human stem cells
IUPUI biologists have developed a way to create more-mature models that better mimic the environment in the human retina by creating cells that can be further used to study disease such as glaucoma.
What atoms do when liquids and gases meet
From the crest of a wave in the sea to the surface of a glass of water, there are always small fluctuations in density at the point where the air comes in contact with a liquid.
Breakthrough reported in fabricating nanochips
A breakthrough in fabricating atom-thin processors could have far-reaching impacts on nanoscale chip production and in labs across the globe where scientists are exploring 2D materials for ever-smaller and -faster semiconductors.
Sci-fi to reality: Superpowered salamander may hold the key to human regeneration
Scientists at the Unviersity of Kentucky have assembled the entire genome of the Mexican Axolotl, the key to unlocking the secrets of regeneration with potential for life-changing clinical applications down the road.
Scientists discover Ebola virus in West African bat
Scientists announced the first finding of Zaire ebolavirus in a bat in West Africa, adding to other evidence suggesting bats serve as a natural wildlife reservoir for Ebola and other related viruses.
Study: Keloids linked to early onset and late stage breast cancer
Findings from a new study conducted by researchers at Henry Ford Health System suggest a link between keloids and increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer, particularly among African Americans.
Enzyme that breaks down amino acids may promote aging
Permanently arrested cell growth is known as 'cellular senescence', and the accumulation of senescent cells may be one cause of aging in our bodies.
'Training gym' for lab-grown heart cells: Engineering researchers design new platform
Heart muscle cells need exercise -- even when they grow outside the human body.
Sleep deprivation may affect our genes
Sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in a new Anaesthesia study.
New drug targets for BRCA-driven cancer uncovered
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have conducted a study to systematically identify new genetic targets on which BRCA2 cancer cells are more dependent than healthy cells and have tested these targets in the lab.
In life and death, Alzheimer's disease looks different among Hispanic patients
searchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that autopsies of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease when they were alive -- and confirmed by autopsy -- indicate many cognitive issues symptomatic of the condition are less noticeable in living Hispanic patients.
Drought in Lesotho heightened HIV risk in girls
Adolescent girls exposed to severe drought conditions in rural Lesotho had higher rates of HIV, according to a new study led by researchers at ICAP at Columbia University, a global health organization based at the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, and from the Lesotho Ministry of Health and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
United Nations, World Economic Forum and partners unite to address e-waste
Seven UN entities have come together, supported by the World Economic Forum and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development to address e-waste.
Using artificial intelligence for error correction in single cell analyses
Modern technology makes it possible to sequence individual cells and to identify which genes are currently being expressed in each cell.
PopPUNK advances speed of bacterial pathogen surveillance
In a study published today in Genome Research, researchers developed PopPUNK (Population Partitioning Using Nucleotide K-mers), a computational tool for analyzing tens of thousands of bacterial genomes in a single run, up to 200-fold faster than previous methods.
New insights into why we crave fatty foods when dieting
Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have identified new brain circuits that may act as a brake on binge eating and junk food craving.
Kidney-resident macrophages -- a role for healing during acute kidney injury?
Researchers have found that, during acute kidney injury in a mouse model, the kidney-resident macrophages are reprogrammed to a developmental state, resembling these same cells when they are found in newborn mice.
Does classification system help with clinical decisions about hip surgery?
Determining which patients can benefit from hip preservation surgery (rather than hip replacement surgery) is challenging, but the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons recently published a hip preservation surgery appropriateness classification system.
Effective method for reducing hospital stay after 'whipple' operation
Implementing a new recovery pathway speeds time to next treatment for pancreatic cancer patients by 15 days, without increasing complication rates.
Silicones obtained at low temperatures with the help of air
Russian scientists have developed a new method for synthesizing para-carboxyplenylsiloxanes, a unique class of organosilicon compounds.
Better living through improved weather forecasting
On the eve of the American Meteorological Society's centennial anniversary, Richard Alley and colleagues highlight the advances in our weather and environmental forecasting ability and the many societal benefits they provide.
To sleep well, let yourself be rocked!
Anyone who has ever put a baby to sleep by gently cradling it knows that rocking promotes sleep.
The helix, of DNA fame, may have arisen with startling ease
Here's a science enigma: Try to explain where the neat, even DNA/RNA helix came from.
Worms can process rice straw, scientists discover
A team of scientists from I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (MSMU) discovered that earthworms efficiently process rice straw and enrich the soil with organic matter increasing its fertility and preventing the burning of the straw that takes quite long to naturally decompose.
Insufficient evidence' that antidepressants affect fertility or infertility-treatment outcomes
Based on limited research, there's no strong evidence that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) -- the most widely used class of antidepressants -- have an adverse impact on fertility, according to a paper in the Harvard Review of Psychiatry.
Single-atom catalyst based on homogeneous catalysis prototype for CO2 transformation developed
HUANG Yanqiang and colleagues in Professor ZHANG Tao's research group at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently developed a strategy to rationally design a single-atom catalyst for applications.
Dopamine modulates the reward experiences elicited by music
Researchers from IDIBELL-UB, the Sant Pau Hospital and the McGill University published a new study in PNAS that shows for the first time a causal link between the dopaminergic system and enjoying music.
Crocodiles have complex past
A new study offers a different version to the evolutionary past of modern-day crocodiles and alligators.
West Virginia study details promising method for estimating rural intravenous drug use
A study published today in the American Journal of Public Health estimates that 1,857 people injected drugs in the last six months in Cabell County, W.Va., a rural county with a population of 94,958.
Are tattoos linked with individuals' health and risky behaviors?
In a survey-based study published in the International Journal of Dermatology, having tattoos was not significantly related to overall health status, but individuals with tattoos were more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health issue and to report sleep problems.
Stowaway fungi hitch a ride with birds to be with their plant partners
For the first time, scientists have shown that fungal hitchhikers use birds to colonize new territories with their plant partners.
Free lung cancer screening program builds valuable relationships with patients
A free, simple screening for lung cancer can save a patient money, while building a healthy relationship for any medical needs they may have in the future.
Therapeutic and diagnostic functions of one antibody for pancreatic cancer
Osaka University researchers developed monoclonal antibodies against CKAP4 -- a plasma membrane protein -- and found that it was released from pancreatic cancer cells.
Anticancer immunity through tumor antigen identification & conversion to DNA vaccines
Wistar scientists and collaborators demonstrated the utility of an optimized synthetic DNA vaccine platform for rapidly inducing immunity against unique combinations of tumor neoantigens.
Environmental protection in outer space
Should regulations for environmental protection be valid beyond our solar system?
Overprescribing of antidepressant medications may be common in elderly patients
In a Pharmacology Research & Perspectives study of individuals living in Olmsted County, Minnesota from 2005-2012, potential overprescribing of antidepressant medications occurred in nearly one-quarter of elderly residents.
Computer program aids food safety experts with pathogen testing
Cornell University scientists have developed a computer program, Environmental Monitoring With an Agent-Based Model of Listeria (EnABLe), to simulate the most likely locations in a processing facility where the deadly food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes might be found.
Cystic fibrosis drug combo found safe and effective for 2- to 5-year-olds
An open label Phase 3 study conducted at Ann & Robert H.
Rocking improves sleep and memory, studies in mice and people show
Two new studies reported in Current Biology on Jan. 24, one conducted in young adults and the other in mice, add to evidence for the broad benefits of a rocking motion during sleep.
Large volcanic eruption in Scotland may have contributed to prehistoric global warming
Around 56 million years ago, global temperatures spiked. Researchers at Uppsala University and in the UK now show that a major explosive eruption from the Red Hills on the Isle of Skye may have been a contributing factor to the massive climate disturbance.
Copy number variants contribute to risk of 'schizophrenia-like' bipolar disorder subtype
A form of rare genomic structural variation called copy number variants (CNVs) may be more closely associated with schizophrenia than bipolar disorder.
Inspiring people to make better lifestyle choices -- through isotopes
Arizona State University geologist and isotope chemist Gwyneth Gordon, of the School of Earth and Space Exploration with co-author and researcher Amrita Rhoads, recently completed a study using breath and hair to determine metabolism and increase of calories burned during exercise.
Untangling tau: researchers find a 'druggable target' for treating Alzheimer's disease
Using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from Alzheimer's patients, UC San Diego researchers say cholesteryl esters -- the storage product for excess cholesterol within cells -- act as regulators of the protein tau, providing a new druggable target for the disease.
Researchers create algorithm to predict PEDV outbreaks
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed an algorithm that could give pig farms advance notice of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) outbreaks.
Low-cost changes in hospital canteens could 'nudge' customers to healthier diets
Making healthy food easier to access in hospital canteens and food outlets, as well as increasing healthy options and reducing portion sizes, are the most effective ways of encouraging healthcare staff to improve their diets according to a new study from the University of Warwick.
3D human epidermal equivalent created using math
Scientists have successfully constructed a three-dimensional human epidermis based on predictions made by their mathematical model of epidermal homeostasis, providing a new tool for basic research and drug development.
Scientists at Kanazawa University have unravelled a link between inflammation and cancer
A new study published in Gastroenterology highlights the role of a gene-modulator in provoking stomach cancer.
Zinc deficiency may play a role in high blood pressure
Lower-than-normal zinc levels may contribute to high blood pressure (hypertension) by altering the way the kidneys handle sodium.
Study reveals bias in children even before they reach kindergarten
In a Developmental Science study of preschool-aged children, implicit and explicit evaluations of black boys were less positive than evaluations of black girls, white boys, or white girls.
Keeping chromosomes in check: a new role for heterochromatin
Large changes in the structure of chromosomes are usually fatal for the cell or can lead to genetic diseases such as cancer.
Identical twins light the way for new genetic cause of arthritis
Identical twin toddlers who presented with severe arthritis helped scientists to identify the first gene mutation that can single-handedly cause a juvenile form of this inflammatory joint disease.
Biosecurity strategy needed for China's Belt and Road Initiative, researchers say
China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), launched five years ago, includes more than 120 countries, linked by six proposed land-based Economic Corridors between core cities and key ports along traditional international transport routes.
Positive well-being may protect against depression in people with autism
In an Autism Research study of 36 newly employed adults with autism spectrum disorder who were participating in a supported employment program, positive well-being -- or a sense of happiness and life satisfaction -- was associated with a lower risk of developing depression over 12 months of follow-up.
Study uncovers ethnic differences in cognition and age in people diagnosed with dementia
In an International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry study of individuals diagnosed with dementia in the United Kingdom, people from minority ethnic backgrounds (Asian and black patients) had lower cognitive scores and were younger when they were diagnosed with dementia than white patients.
Scientists explain formation of lunar dust clouds
Physicists from the Higher School of Economics and Space Research Institute have identified a mechanism explaining the appearance of two dusty plasma clouds resulting from a meteoroid that impacted the surface of the Moon.
Semiconductors combine forces in photocatalysis
A significant advance in the photocatalytic activity of conventional materials is demonstrated by a two-dimensional heterostructure comprising nanolayers of two semiconductors: black phosphorus and bismuth tungstate.
New global task force report questions effectiveness of spinal fusion procedures, provides recommendations
There is little to no evidence that two surgical procedures used to fuse crumbled vertebrae following a spinal fracture caused by osteoporosis reduce pain for patients any better than non-surgical or placebo procedures, according to a new report from a global task force of bone health experts published today in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR).
It's a bird-eat-bird world
Baby birds and eggs are on the menu for at least 94 species of animals in Australia's forests and woodlands, according to new research from the University of Queensland.
Genetic risk for ADHD manifest in brain structure in childhood
There is only scant scientific evidence on whether the genetic risk for developing specific psychiatric disorders or cognitive traits is manifest in brain structure from childhood and, to date, studies have focused primarily on adult populations.
Major northeastern snowstorms expected to continue with climate change
Even though climate change is expected to reduce the total amount of US snowfall this century, it's unlikely to significantly rein in the most powerful nor'easters that pummel the East Coast, new research indicates.
Scientists identify toxic antipredator defense mechanism in locusts
A team of scientists led by Prof. KANG Le at the Institute of Zoology reported an unprecedented animal defense mechanism by which an olfactory aposematic (warning) signal can be converted to a hypertoxic chemical to facilitate an antipredator defense in locusts.
Stellar winds, the source material for the universe, are clumpy
Data recorded by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory of a neutron star as it passed through a dense patch of stellar wind emanating from its massive companion star provide valuable insight about the structure and composition of stellar winds.
Common policy premise on link between soil and crop yield is valid -- to a point
While policymakers often tout the benefits of increasing soil organic matter as a way to boost agricultural yield, there is limited evidence that this strategy actually works.
Lessons learned from the adult neurogenesis debate
Since the 1960s, consensus about whether human adults generate new neurons with age has swayed back and forth from 'yes, at least in some places in the brain' to 'no, not at all.' In a review paper published Jan.
People think and behave differently in virtual reality than they do in real life
By studying the phenomenon of contagious yawning, the researchers learned that people's reactions in virtual reality can be quite different from what they are in actual reality.
Slim people have a genetic advantage when it comes to maintaining their weight
In the largest study of its kind to date, Cambridge researchers have looked at why some people manage to stay thin while others gain weight easily.
Study of archaeal cells could teach us more about ourselves
Researchers wanted to better understand the archaeal cell by studying Sulfolobus islandicus, an archaeal microorganism that is found in geothermal hot springs.
Kids prefer friends who talk like they do
Children tend to prefer to be friends with other children who speak with the same local accent as they have, even if they grow up in a diverse community and are regularly exposed to a variety of accents, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Study: Lower-carbon diets aren't just good for the planet, they're also healthier
Researchers from Tulane University and University of Michigan examined the carbon footprint of daily diets from a survey of more than 16,000 Americans.
NUS engineers develop novel strategy for designing tiny semiconductor particles for wide-ranging applications
NUS Engineers have developed a cost-effective and scalable strategy for designing tiny semiconductor particles known as transition metal dichalcogenide quantum dots (TMD QDs) which can potentially generate cancer-killing properties.
LGB and other sexual minorities face significant health disparities
Sexual minorities -- people who are attracted to members of the same sex or who identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual -- are at a higher risk for several different health problems at different points in their lives, according to Penn State researchers.
Your personality could put you at greater risk for developing diabetes
It has been said that a good personality can help one succeed in life.
Multiple sclerosis: Perilous ruptures
The permanent neurological deficits of multiple sclerosis patients largely depend on the extent of degeneration of long nerve fibers.
Discovery could advance blood pressure treatments
A team of Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers, working with the US Department of Veteran's Affairs (VA), has discovered genetic associations with blood pressure that could guide future treatments for patients with hypertension.
How bacteria build hyper-efficient photosynthesis machines
Researchers facing a future with a larger population and more uncertain climate are looking for ways to improve crop yields, and they're looking to photosynthetic bacteria for engineering solutions.
Teaching human cells to clean house to delay ageing and fight neurodegeneration
Monash researchers have unlocked a key process in all human cells that contributes to diseases like cancer and neurodegenerative diseases as well as ageing.
Positive self belief key to recovery from shoulder pain
Positive self belief is the key to recovery from pain, say University of East Anglia researchers.
Children shape their learning environment
A close collaboration between University of Connecticut and Interacting Minds at Aarhus University researchers is exploring how parents and children influence each other when they interact, and the longer term impact this has on language acquisition.
A reptile platypus from the early Triassic
No animal alive today looks quite like a duckbilled platypus, but about 250 million years ago something very similar swam the shallow seas in what is now China, finding prey by touch with a cartilaginous bill.
Why liver transplant waitlists might misclassify high-risk patients
A new study in the journal Gastroenterology reveals that the standard method for ranking patients on the waitlist for lifesaving liver transplantation may not prioritize some of the sickest candidates for the top of the list.
Information theory holds surprises for machine learning
New research challenges a popular conception of how machine learning algorithms 'think' about certain tasks.
Unlocking graphene's superconducting powers with a twist and a squeeze
A Columbia-led team has discovered a new method to manipulate the electrical conductivity of this game-changing material, the strongest known to man with applications ranging from nano-electronic devices to clean energy.
Identifying the origin of macroscopic friction between clay mineral surfaces
NIMS, the University of Tokyo and Hiroshima University jointly discovered for the first time, through theoretical calculation and experiment that macroscopic frictions occurring between clay mineral surfaces originate from interatomic electrostatic forces between these surfaces.
Scientists tackle breeding challenges of land mine-finding rats
African giant pouched rats have an exceptional sense of smell - they are used to detect land mines and tuberculosis - but scientists know very little about their biology or social structure, and they're difficult to breed in captivity.
Self-assembling nanomaterial offers pathway to more efficient, affordable harnessing of solar power
New nanomaterials developed by researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) at The Graduate Center of The City University of New York (CUNY) could provide a pathway to more efficient and potentially affordable harvesting of solar energy.
Simulating clouds over the Tibetan Plateau to improve weather forecasts
Australia's Bureau of Meteorology and the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences have carried out studies on the spatial and temporal distribution and simulation of cloud over the Tibetan region.
Dopamine modulates reward experiences elicited by music
New study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science reveals causal link between dopamine and human reward response to music listening.
UCI-led study reveals that when it comes to brain connectivity, cell location matters most
A University of California, Irvine-led study reveals that connectivity within the brain appears to be largely dictated by spatial architecture rather than cell type-specific cues.

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