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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 04, 2019


Study: Much of the surface ocean will shift in color by end of 21st century
Climate change is causing significant changes to phytoplankton in the world's oceans, and a new MIT study finds that over the coming decades these changes will affect the ocean's color, intensifying its blue regions and its green ones.
Graphene biosensor could provide early lung cancer diagnosis, research shows
The wonder-material graphene could hold the key to unlocking the next generation of advanced, early stage lung cancer diagnosis.
The Caucasus: Complex interplay of genes and cultures
In the Bronze Age, the Caucasus Mountains region was a cultural and genetic contact zone.
A gut feeling for mental health
The first population-level study on the link between gut bacteria and mental health identifies specific gut bacteria linked to depression and provides evidence that a wide range of gut bacteria can produce neuroactive compounds.
Time parents spend with children key to academic success
The time parents spend with their children has a powerful effect on their educational achievement, according to a large study with a novel approach.
Infertility treatment linked with slightly higher risk of pregnancy complications
Women who have undergone infertility treatment, such as in vitro fertilization, are more likely to experience severe pregnancy complications, according to new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Visualization of regions of electromagnetic wave-plasma interactions surrounding the Earth
The researchers investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth, using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network.
Enlarged prostate could actually be stopping tumor growth, simulations show
Computer simulations show for the first time that when a patient has history of an enlarged prostate, tumors in the prostate barely grow at all.
Concussion treatment: Adolescent athletes 'prescribed' aerobic exercise recovered faster
Adolescent athletes who sustained concussions while playing a sport recovered more quickly when they underwent a supervised, aerobic exercise regimen, a study published Feb.
Cutting health care costs
Health care spending among the Medicare population age 65 and older has slowed dramatically since 2005, and as much as half of that reduction can be attributed to reduced spending on cardiovascular disease, a new Harvard study has found.
Advocating for social issues at work more likely to succeed linking morality and mission, study says
When convincing management to consider advocating for a particular social issue, employees may think it is wise to focus on the benefits to the bottom line but making a moral argument may be a better strategy, as long as it aligns with the company's values, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Electrical activity in prostate cancer cells
Experts from the universities of Bath and Seville have carried out a series of experiments with which, for the first time, they have been able to characterize the normal electrical activity in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in real time, with a resulting low-frequency electrical pattern between 0.1 and 10 Hertz.
Rutgers study finds rise in overdoses from opioids in diarrhea drug
A Rutgers study has uncovered a new threat in the opiate epidemic: overdoses of loperamide, an over-the-counter diarrhea medication, have been steadily increasing in number and severity nationwide over five years.
Fish and humans are alike in visual stimuli perception -- Ben-Gurion U.
'The experiments tested archerfish performance in visual-search tasks where a target was defined by color, size, orientation, or motion,' says Professor Ronen Segev, head of the BGU Neural Code Lab, and a member of the Department of Life Sciences and Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience.
Word order predicts a native speakers' working memory
Memory plays a crucial role in our lives, and several studies have already investigated how we store and retrieve information under different conditions.
Mindfulness and sleep can reduce exhaustion in entrepreneurs
When entrepreneurs are feeling exhausted but can't afford the time for adequate sleep, they may be able to replenish their energy with mindfulness exercises such as meditation.
Physicists uncover the topological origin of surface electromagnetic waves
In work that provides insights for several areas of wave physics -- Maxwell electromagnetism, topological quantum states, and plasmonics/metamaterials -- scientists showed that the well-known surface electromagnetic waves at interfaces between homogeneous isotropic media, obtained within classical Maxwell's electromagnetism, also have a purely topological origin, similar to quantum topological states.
In the February Health Affairs: Telemedicine in Latin America
With doctors unevenly distributed across Latin American countries and concentrated in urban areas, patients in rural and marginal suburban areas often have limited access to both primary care physicians and specialists.
Where technology and aging intersect, gerontologists chart path forward
The latest issue of the journal The Gerontologist from The Gerontological Society of America contains 21 articles highlighting the state-of-the-art research regarding aging and technology, and offering guidance for the future.
Dung beetles navigate better under a full moon
Of all nocturnal animals, only dung beetles can hold their course using polarized moonlight.
Engineers harvest heart's energy to power life-saving devices
The heart's motion is so powerful that it can recharge life-saving devices, according to new research from Dartmouth.
Mapping oesophageal cancer genes leads to new drug targets
Mutations that cause oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) have been mapped in unprecedented detail -- unveiling that more than half could be targeted by drugs currently in trials for other cancer types.
Obesity-related cancers rising in young adults in the US
A new study finds rates are increasing for six of 12 cancers related to obesity in younger adults in the United States, with steeper increases in progressively younger ages and successively younger generations.
A study reveals that a large part of the population is not able to breathe properly
Muscle co-contraction is a strategy used commonly in elderly people to increase their stability.
Balloon-guided catheters provide better blood flow following stroke interventions
Patients who have experienced a stroke as a result of blockages of the arteries in the brain have better outcomes with the use of balloon-guided catheter surgery as compared to having a conventional guided catheter procedure.
How private households can stall economic growth
How quickly the economy recovers after an economic shock also depends on the behavior of private households.
Ohio State-led study links protein, clusterin, to cardiac and metabolic diseases
During a study spanning nearly a decade, researchers at The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute and Houston Methodist Cancer Center have linked the protein clusterin -- for the first time -- to many different facets of cardiometabolic syndrome risk through its actions in the liver.
Let's talk about sex ... after childbirth
Resuming sexual activity after pregnancy isn't always like riding a bike, especially for mothers experiencing postpartum pain, fatigue and stress.
Genetic study of impulsiveness reveals associations with psychiatric disorders
Impulsiveness and substance use share a genetic basis, according to genome-wide association studies published in JNeurosci by academic and industry researchers.
More than 100 new gut bacteria discovered in human microbiome
Scientists working on the gut microbiome have discovered and isolated more than 100 completely new species of bacteria from healthy people's intestines.
Story Tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, February 4, 2019
ORNL story tips: Oak Ridge National Laboratory used machine learning to generate high-resolution map of vegetation growing in Alaskan tundra; ORNL used machine learning to better predict home-to-work commuting patterns; Univ of South Carolina investigates oxygen-reducing perovskites in fuel cells using ORNL neutrons; decades of data showed salt purity trends leading to inconsistent corrosion of alloys.
Insight into protein formation could aid understanding of diseases
Research explains details of a biological process that supports the production of healthy cells, by removing faulty proteins as they form.
New clues discovered to lung transplant rejection
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered clues to a particularly deadly form of rejection that can follow lung transplantation.
Gerontologists find functional status after TAVR, SAVR linked to pre-op fragility
Patients' frailty index scores prior to undergoing valve replacement procedures helped predict patients' chances of improvement, stability or decline.
Researchers report positive findings with dasotraline for ADHD in children ages 6-12
A new study in children aged 6 to 12 years of dasotraline, a promising new treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed significant improvement in efficacy in the treatment of ADHD compared to placebo beginning at week 1 and continuing throughout the study.
Examining Nazi obsession with movement further reveals how they manufactured the idea of race
In a recent article in the journal American Historical Review, Denning argues that by paying attention to the Nazis' obsession with mobility, we can deepen our understanding of how they manufactured and exploited the idea of race.
Biggest ever map of human Alzheimer's brain published
A study of the differences between healthy brains and those with Alzheimer's disease has produced largest dataset of its type ever.
Boosting glutamate reduces anxiety in monkeys
Researchers studying male and female marmosets have homed in on the primate brain circuitry responsible for individual differences in overall anxiety.
Higher lifetime risk of sudden cardiac death among African Americans may be associated with income and education disparities
African Americans have a much higher lifetime risk of sudden cardiac death than whites, especially among women.
Research: Religion affects consumer choices on specialty foods
People with strong religious beliefs are more likely to buy fat-free, sugar-free or gluten-free foods than natural or organic foods, according to new research that could influence the marketing of those specialty food products.
Research shows teens too low on sleep, activity, and too high on screen time
Only 1 in 20 U.S. adolescents is meeting national recommendations for sleeping, physical activity, and screen time, according to new research by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
A reconfigurable soft actuator
Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a method to change the shape of a flat sheet of elastomer, using actuation that is fast, reversible, controllable by an applied voltage, and reconfigurable to different shapes.
Study: Environmental regulations may have unintended consequences in energy production
Many countries have passed environmental laws to preserve natural ecosystems.
Retreating snow line reveals organic molecules around young star
Astronomers using ALMA have detected various complex organic molecules around the young star V883 Ori.
Shared genetic marker offers new promise in targeting specific ovarian and lung cancers
Two new papers, published simultaneously in Nature Communications and led by researchers at McGill University, offer promise that a drug currently used to treat estrogen positive breast cancer may be effective in treating two different types of cancer, one rare and one common form.
New disease surveillance tool helps detect any human virus
A new computational method called 'CATCH' designs molecular 'baits' for any virus known to infect humans and all their known strains, including those that are present in low abundance in clinical samples, such as Zika.
FSU chemists harness power of light to tackle asymmetrical molecules
A team of Florida State University researchers has found a way to turn a 'left-handed' molecule into a 'right-handed' one -- a process that could have important implications for drug development.
Mother's age, race, weight affect hormone concentrations in pregnancy, Rutgers study finds
Hormone concentrations during early fetal development -- that may affect the child's development and increase the mother's risk for breast and ovarian cancer years later -- are significantly affected by maternal age, body mass index and race rather than lifestyle, according to a Rutgers study.
Policy statements on the effects of media overlook scientific complexity
As different forms of media infuse everyday life, several organizations and associations have issued public statements about the effects of media exposure.
Gap between corporate earnings, non-financial measures affects forecasting
A recent study finds that the more a company's earnings diverge from its non-financial resources, the less likely it is to issue a forecast of its annual earnings.
Diversity in the CD4 receptor protects chimpanzees from infection by AIDS-like viruses
Hahn's lab and an international team of collaborators, found that the CD4 surface protein, which is used by HIV and SIV as the receptor to enter immune cells, is highly variable among wild chimpanzees.
Rapid gene cloning technique will transform crop disease protection
Researchers have pioneered a new method which allows them to rapidly recruit disease resistance genes from wild plants and transfer them into domestic crops.
Structure of virus that infects bacteria in hot springs is revealed
Scientists have revealed the structure of a virus infecting bacteria that thrive in 160-degree hot springs in places like Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming.
Study: Medicare rules increase out-of-pocket costs of MS drugs
Medicare patients with multiple sclerosis face skyrocketing out-of-pocket costs for therapies due to complicated insurance rules that force them to pick up an increasing share of the cost, according to new research.
Why charismatic, introduced species are so difficult to manage
Introduced and invasive species can present big problems, particularly when those species are charismatic.
Where do the best strawberries grow?
Agricultural production benefits enormously from flower-visiting bees and other insects.
Scaling up search for analogies could be key to innovation
Investment in research is at an all-time high, yet the rate of scientific breakthroughs isn't setting any records.
Early spring rain boosts methane from thawing permafrost by 30 percent
A UW-led team has found that early spring rainfall warms up a thawing permafrost bog in Alaska and promotes the growth of plants and methane-producing microbes.
CEOs profit from issuing negative news releases ahead of stock option grant dates
Notre Dame study shows the move depresses the stock price and lowers the guaranteed 'strike price,' which allows the CEO to exercise their stock option to buy a specified number of shares below market value.
New study seeks to guide clinical treatment for older patients with aortic stenosis
With recent advances in surgical techniques, more patients are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) to treat aortic stenosis.
A new approach for the fast estimation of the solar energy potential in urban environments
TU Delft researchers have developed a new approach for calculating fast and accurate the solar energy potential of surfaces in the urban environment.
What drives patients to use medical marijuana: mostly chronic pain
A new University of Michigan study seeks to understand whether people are using medical cannabis for evidence-based reasons.
First discovered fossil feather did not belong to iconic bird Archaeopteryx
A 150-year-old fossil feather mystery has been solved by an international research team including Dr.
Revealing the path of a metallodrug in a breast cancer cell
Some types of cancer cannot be treated with classical chemotherapy.
It's all in the code: protein production efficiency can be predicted by gene sequence
Scientists from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro explored mRNA and protein public databases to unravel hidden meanings of the genetic code.
Scientists exploit gel polymer electrolyte for high performance magnesium batteries
A research team led by Prof. CUI Guanglei from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences exploited a novel rigid-fexible coupling gel polymer electrolyte (PTB@GF-GPE) that coupled with significantly improved overall performance.
New progress toward chip-based ghost imaging
For the first time, researchers have shown that the non-conventional imaging method known as ghost imaging can be performed using a low-cost, chip-based light-illuminating device.
Patients with facial pain report most benefit from self-care techniques
While oral appliances such as splints and bite guards are the most common treatment for facial pain from temporomandibular disorders (TMD), patients rate them as less helpful than self-care treatments, such as jaw exercises or warm compresses, finds a new study by researchers at NYU College of Dentistry.
Mayo Clinic researchers develop prediction tool for kidney stones
Kidney stones are a common and painful condition, with many sufferers experiencing recurrent episodes.
The web meets genomics: a DNA search engine for microbes
Microbes are the most common and diverse organisms on the planet.
Argonne researchers develop new method to reduce quantum noise
New method for alleviating the effects of ''noise'' in quantum information systems addresses a challenge that scientists around the globe are working to meet in the race toward a new era of quantum technologies.
WVU researcher unearths an ice age in the African desert
A field trip to Namibia to study volcanic rocks led to an unexpected discovery by West Virginia University geologists Graham Andrews and Sarah Brown.
MERMAIDs reveal secrets from below the ocean floor
Floating seismometers dubbed MERMAIDs -- Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers -- reveal that Galápagos volcanoes are fed by a mantle plume reaching 1,900 km deep.
Women's brains appear three years younger than men's
Women's brains appear to be three years younger than men's of the same age, according to a new study on brain metabolism from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
UC Riverside physicists create exotic electron liquid
By bombarding an ultrathin semiconductor sandwich with powerful laser pulses, physicists at the University of California, Riverside, have created the first 'electron liquid' at room temperature.
NW Forest Plan 25 years later: Wildfire losses up, bird populations down
Twenty-five years into a 100-year federal strategy to protect older forests in the Pacific Northwest, forest losses to wildfire are up and declines in bird populations have not been reversed, new research shows.
Yeast study prompts rethink of DNA safekeeping
DNA replication is more prone to errors at times of stress leading to mutations that could cause disease.
Heat waves, food insecurity due to climate change may weaken immune systems
Heat waves can reduce the body's immune response to flu, according to new research in mice at the University of Tokyo.
Where does this contamination come from?
Researchers at TU Wien have developed a simple method for detecting water contamination from ruminants directly at source, using a simple DNA test.
Putting yourself in their shoes may make you less open to their beliefs
Trying to take someone else's perspective may make you less open to their opposing views, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Genome structure of malaria parasites linked to virulence
An international research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the La Jolla Institute for Immunology has found that malaria parasite genomes are shaped by parasite-specific gene families, and that this genome organization strongly correlates with the parasite's virulence.
Monthly wages are an important step towards economic development
Across developing economies, most workers and agricultural producers are paid are paid on a daily basis.
Drug target identified for chemotherapy-resistant ovarian, breast cancer
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis may have found a path toward improving the effectiveness of chemotherapy in people with breast or ovarian cancer caused by defects in one of the BRCA genes.
EU project identifies obstacles to transnational research access to large prospective cohorts
A four-year EU infrastructure project BBMRI-LPC analyzed the gaps and needs involved in the transnational access provision to large human research sample cohorts in Europe.
The Milky Way in a twist
Our Milky Way galaxy's disk of stars is anything but stable and flat.
Large-scale study reveals genetic risk of diabetes in the Japanese population
Researchers at Osaka University, the University of Tokyo, RIKEN, and others performed a meta-analysis using data on over 36,000 Japanese sufferers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) from four genome-wide association studies to identify genetic factors linked to this disease.
A warming world increases air pollution
The UC Riverside-led study shows that the contrast in warming between the continents and sea, called the land-sea warming contrast, drives an increased concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere that cause air pollution.
Culprit found for honeybee deaths in California almond groves
'Fungicides, often needed for crop protection, are routinely used during almond bloom, but in many cases growers were also adding insecticides to the mix.
Peering under the hood of fake-news detectors
New work from MIT researchers peers under the hood of an automated fake-news detection system, revealing how machine-learning models catch subtle but consistent differences in the language of factual and false stories.
The Milky Way is warped
The first accurate 3D map of our galaxy reveals its true shape: warped and twisted.
Biotechnology to the rescue of Brussels sprouts
An international team has identified the genes that make these plants resistant to the pathogen that attacks crops belonging to the cabbage family all over the world.
Study examines women, men and brain marker of Alzheimer's disease
Growing evidence suggests women may be at increased risk of certain physiological changes associated with Alzheimer disease (AD).
Harvesting wild genes gives crops renewed resistance to disease
A global alliance of researchers has pioneered a new method to rapidly recruit disease-resistance genes from wild plants for transfer into domestic crops.
A match made in neural heaven: How a neuron grows an axon
While the neural architecture responsible for the transmission of electrical impulses has been known for more than a century, the basic biology behind how a neuron acquires its one and only axon -- a fundamental component of how neurons communicate -- remains a mystery.
OxyContin reformulation to curb opioid abuse led to hepatitis C surge, study finds
Public health officials have blamed the shift from prescription opioids to injectable heroin as a cause of the rise in hepatitis C cases.
Research shows hidden fire risk of emollients
New research carried out by forensic scientists at Anglia Ruskin University has shown that commonly-used emollients can pose a significant fire risk once they have dried on fabric such as clothing and bedding.
New study shows cost effectiveness of early cancer surveillance
New research published today in the journal Pediatric Blood and Cancer shows how early cancer screening and surveillance in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) results in additional years of life, and is cost effective for third-party payers.
Over 800 new genome regions possibly relevant to human evolution identified
Researchers at the UAB have found genetic evidence of adaptations in 2,859 regions of the human genome, including some well-known examples such as those responsible for milk tolerance or high-altitude adaptation.
New wisdom about high cholesterol treatment for adults aged 80 and older
A team of researchers in China decided to learn more about whether current triglyceride-level guidelines make sense for people aged 80 and older.
Did use of long-acting reversible contraceptives increase after 2016 election?
Insertions of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods increased in the 30 business days after the 2016 presidential election based on an analysis of data for a large group of commercially insured women.
Rust never sleeps
PNNL researchers have been able to observe in unprecedented detail how rust happens.
Earthquake with magnitude 7.5 in Indonesia : an unusual and steady speed
4,1 km/s along 150 km : this is the propagation speed of the 7.5 magnitude earthquake which occurred in Indonesia in September 2018.
Pika survival rates dry up with low moisture
A team of researchers lead by Aaron N. Johnston of the US Geological Survey sought to understand how climate change, specifically changes in snowpack and VPD, is affecting pikas.
Excess immune pruning of synapses in neural cells derived from patients with schizophrenia
A study led by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators finds evidence that the process of synaptic pruning, a normal part of brain development during adolescence, is excessive in individuals with schizophrenia.
Demand for long-acting contraception rose sharply after 2016 election
A new, robust study conducted by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital finds that rates of long-acting, reversible contraception went up by 21.6 percent in the 30 days after the presidential election compared to rates at the same time of year in 2015.
Study: Fatal opioid-related car crashes in Maryland hold steady over decade
A new approach to defining opioid-related auto fatalities provides insight into the nature and distribution of opioid-involved deaths in the state of Maryland, say the authors of a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Researchers are worried that people with chronic disease are not being active enough
A study of over 96,000 UK men and women, of average age 64.5 years, has found that those with chronic conditions are spending considerably less time on physical activity than their healthy peers, so are missing out on its health management benefits.
Think Pink: Texas A&M student aids in discovery of fluorescent pink flying squirrel
Texas A&M graduate student aids in the discovery of flying squirrels fluorescing pink in UV light.
Songs featuring guest artists: Why they are more successful
Bocconi University scholars look at the songs with a featured artist on the Billboard's Hot 100 between 1996 and 2018.

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