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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 05, 2019


Fruit and vegetables may be important for mental as well as physical well-being
Researchers at the universities of Leeds and York analysed data from more than 40,000 people in the UK, and found that changes in fruit and vegetable consumption are correlated with changes in mental well-being.
Kazan University puts forth ideas on the nature of dark matter
As we currently know, dark energy and dark matter comprise 96 percent of the total mass of the Universe.
Healthy diet can ease symptoms of depression
An analysis of data from almost 46,000 people has found that weight loss, nutrient boosting and fat reduction diets can all reduce the symptoms of depression.
'Eavesdropping' technology used to protect one of New Zealand's rarest birds
Remote recording devices used to 'eavesdrop' on a reintroduced population of one of New Zealand's rarest birds have been heralded as a breakthrough for conservation.
Blacks with high socioeconomic status less likely to seek mental health care
In her latest research paper Sirry Alang questions why there is a significant unmet need for mental health care among Blacks and identifies solutions among healthcare systems to fix it: teach the history of racism in medicine; and actively seek, privilege and legitimize the narratives of black people.
Yoga regimen reduces severity of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms
According a study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, eight weeks of intensive yoga practice significantly decreases the severity of physical and psychological symptoms in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a debilitating chronic auto-immune inflammatory disease.
The vibrating universe: Making astronomy accessible to the deaf
Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have teamed with teachers at the California School for the Deaf, Riverside, or CSDR, to design an astronomy workshop for students with hearing loss that can be easily used in classrooms, museums, fairs, and other public events.
New study shows sitting, watching TV linked to colorectal cancer risk before age 50
A new study in JNCI Cancer Spectrum has identified a connection between prolonged time spent sitting while watching TV and increased risk of colorectal cancer for younger Americans.
Psoriasis medication may improve heart disease in patients with the skin condition
Anti-inflammatory biologic drugs used to treat severe psoriasis have the potential to prevent heart disease in patients with the skin condition, according to research published today in Cardiovascular Research, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Brain hand 'map' is maintained in amputees with and without phantom limb sensations
Researchers have found that the brain stores detailed information of a missing hand decades after amputation, regardless of whether amputees still experience phantom hand sensations.
Doctors dramatically reduce racial disparities in early-stage lung cancer treatment
A pragmatic system-based intervention within cancer treatment centers can eliminate existing disparities in treatment and outcomes for black patients with early-stage lung cancer across the U.S.
Golf as a contact sport?
The authors describe how the modern golfer repeatedly experiences minor traumatic injuries to the spine, which over time can result in a pathogenic process termed 'repetitive traumatic discopathy.'
Radiologists can help identify victims of domestic violence
Radiologists may play a crucial role in identifying signs of intimate partner violence, a type of domestic violence, according to a new study.
Pharmacy in the 21st century: Transformational change ahead
With significant changes in population demographics, technology, and the upsurge in the use of health services across the sector, a group of pharmacist-researchers from the Ontario Pharmacy Evidence Network is calling for the profession to make fundamental changes to effectively and safely meet society's health care needs.
Pop art and comics -- imitation, confrontation, collaboration
The relationship between pop artist Roy Lichtenstein and the creators of comics was famously fraught, with accusations of imitation and idea-stealing from the 'strip men.' However, new research published in the journal Art History reveals a more complex and collaborative dynamic of mutual admiration.
A breakthrough for brain tumor drug development
Glioblastoma is a devastating disease with poor survival stats due in part to a lack of preclinical models for new drug testing.
Government payment policies tied to hospital performance fail to improve patient safety
Value-based incentive programs (VBIPs) aim to drive improvements in quality and reduce costs by linking financial incentives or penalties to hospital performance.
New anti-CRISPR proteins discovered in soil and human gut
Scientists from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (DTU) have found four new anti-CRISPR proteins that are distributed across different environments.
Time-lapse microscopy helps reveal brake mechanism in Streptomyces lifecycle
Streptomyces are soil-dwelling bacteria that produce approximately two-thirds of the antibiotics in current clinical use.
Training the prescriber
The authors assess the effect of a mandatory educational program and new institutional prescriber guidelines on the behavior of physicians who prescribe opioid medications following lumbar surgery.
Masculine fitness program improves physical activity of European men
Gender-sensitized lifestyle programs delivered in professional football clubs have shown promise in increasing physical activity in Europe and could play an important public health role in engaging underserved men, according to a study published Feb.
Group B streptococcus test for pregnant women: advantage of universal screening unclear
Informative studies are still lacking for the comparison with the currently used risk-based strategy.
Study reveals unsettling multidrug antibiotic resistance in remote Arctic soil microbes
Analysis of soil samples the University of Kansas' Jennifer Roberts collected in the Kongsfjorden region of Svalbard, Norway, shows antibiotic-resistant genes have transferred into soil-microbe populations in one of Earth's most remote locations.
Study links psoriasis treatment and improvement in heart artery disease
Researchers have found that treating psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, with biologic drugs that target immune system activity can reduce the early plaque buildup that clogs arteries, restricts blood flow, and leads to heart attacks and stroke.
School suspension, expulsion more likely to predict youth drug use than police arrest
A new longitudinal study found that practices that exclude youth from school appear to predict drug use more than arrests by police, especially among minority youth.
Marijuana smoking linked with higher sperm concentrations
Men who have smoked marijuana at some point in their life had significantly higher concentrations of sperm when compared with men who have never smoked marijuana, according to new research led by Harvard T.H.
Flaxseed fiber ferments in gut to improve health, reduce obesity
Research in mice suggests that fermentation of flaxseed fibers in the gut changes the microbiota to improve metabolic health and protect against diet-induced obesity.
Weight loss surgery changes the way our bodies sense food
How bariatric surgery helps people with obesity and diabetes is related to changes in the way the gut senses food and nutrients after the operation, researchers report Feb.
Educational outreach, public policy changes needed to reduce health hazards at nail salons
The nail salon industry has seen rapid growth within the last 20 years, becoming increasingly popular among women of all ages.
Volcanic growth 'critical' to the formation of Panama
Scientists put forward new explanation as to how land bridge formed between North and South America.
Nano-infused ceramic could report on its own health
Ceramics with networked nanosheets of graphene and white graphene would have the unique ability to alter their electrical properties when strained.
Origins of depression brought into focus in large-scale genetic study
Hundreds of genes have been newly linked to depression, shedding light on the origins of the condition and highlighting personality types that could be at risk.
Depression increases risk of death in older adults
A research team designed a study to investigate the role depression symptoms play in an increased risk of death over time.
Practices related to fluid volume that are important for dialysis patients' health
Certain practices in dialysis facilities related to managing fluid volume and low blood pressure during dialysis are important to patients' health and survival.
New method for high-speed synthesis of natural voices
The research team in National Institute of Informatics (NII/Tokyo, Japan) - Xin Wang, Shinji Takaki, and Junichi Yamagishi -- has developed the method of neural source-filter (NSF) models for high-speed, high-quality voice synthesis.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite catches development of Tropical Cyclone 12S
Tropical Cyclone 12S has developed east of the African island nation of Madagascar.
A taste for fat may have made us human, says study
A new paper argues that early human ancestors acquired a taste for fat long before they began hunting for meat by scavenging marrow from the skeletal remains of large animals.
Newly discovered immune cells play role in inflammatory brain diseases
Previously unknown cell types play a crucial role in brain autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis / Hopes for more specific therapeutic approaches less prone to side effects / Study published in the journal Science.
ASU scientists study organization of life on a planetary scale
In astrobiology, there is an increasing interest in whether life as we know it is a quirk of the particular evolutionary history of the Earth or, instead, if life might be governed by more general organizing principles.
Less anesthesia during surgery doesn't prevent post-op delirium
One in four older adults experiences delirium after surgery. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Issue explores implications of Trump presidency for negotiation and conflict resolution
A new special issue of Negotiation Journal presents an overview of the negotiation tactics of US President Donald Trump and their wider implications across the field.
Is type 1 diabetes associated with poorer performance in school by children?
This observational study compared standardized test scores in reading and math for more than 630,000 Danish public school children with and without type 1 diabetes.
Gay-straight alliances contribute to a safer school climate long-term
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) help make schools safer for students the longer they are in place, even among straight students, finds new research from the Stigma and Resilience Among Vulnerable Youth Centre at the University of British Columbia.
Anticancer mechanism revealed in yeast experiments
Scientists uncover how important enzymes in both fission yeast and human cancer cells interact to boost cell proliferation.
First patient affected by a mutation in the nucleoside transporter SLC28 gene family
A research team has described the first case of a patient affected by dysfunctions in a nucleoside transporter of the SLC28 gene family, which brings a set of genes which were not related to human pathologies in the scientific bibliography so far.
3D printed tires and shoes that self-repair
Instead of throwing away your broken boots or cracked toys, why not let them fix themselves?
Novel experiment validates widely speculated mechanism behind the formation of stars
Feature describes use of Magnetorotational Instability Experiment at PPPL to confirm an important mechanism involved in star formation.
Rattlesnake venom: Mild, medium and wicked hot
In a surprising evolutionary twist, a new study suggests that while one rattlesnake may routinely feast on lizard meat, its seemingly identical neighbor snake might strike and strike and never kill its would-be reptilian prey.
Educational intervention cuts unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions in China
An educational intervention aimed at rural Chinese primary care doctors reduced antibiotic prescriptions for childhood upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) by 36 percent, even a year after the intervention ended, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Xiaolin Wei from Dalla Lana School of Public Health of the University of Toronto in Canada, Qiang Sun from School of Health Care Management of the Shandong University in China, and colleagues.
Connective tissue on the wrong road -- when organs start to scar
The increased deposition of connective tissue is a problem in chronic diseases of many organs.
HIV-1 protein suppresses immune response more broadly than thought
Scientists have revealed how a protein produced by HIV-1 plays a broader role in suppressing the immune system's response to infection than previously thought.
The Lancet Public Health: Obesity-related cancers increasing in young US adults
An observational study using data covering more than half of the US population suggests that incidence rates of cancers linked to obesity are increasing most rapidly in young adults.
Dark fiber lays groundwork for long-distance earthquake detection and groundwater mapping
Researchers at Berkeley Lab have turned parts of a 13,000-mile-long testbed of 'dark fiber', unused fiber-optic cable, owned by the DOE Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) into a highly sensitive seismic activity sensor that could potentially augment the performance of earthquake early warning systems currently being developed in the western United States.
Novel enzyme discovered in intestinal bacteria
At the University of Konstanz, in cooperation with Harvard University, a key enzyme for formation of harmful hydrogen sulphide in the human gut by Bilophila bacteria has been discovered.
A better way to measure cell survival
MIT biological engineers have devised a toxicity test that can measure chemical effects on cell survival with much greater sensitivity than the tests commonly used today.
How lung tissue forms immune cell hubs in times of need
Research uncovers how lung tissue is remodelled to support an immune response to influenza.
Feces transplantation: Effective treatment facing an uncertain future
In the right intestines, feces can save lives. This is shown by a new study of feces transplantation and the life-threatening intestinal disease Clostridium difficile.
Leaves are nature's most sophisticated environment sensors
The experiment was spread over four continents, from the semiarid grasslands and savannas of Australia to lush pastures in Europe and prairies in America.
Research shows key function of specialized cells in peripheral nerve repair
New research led by the University of Plymouth has shed light on the science behind peripheral nerve repair, by highlighting the novel function of a large cell called a macrophage.
Ice Age survivors or stranded travellers? A new subterranean species discovered in Canada
The discovery of a new to science species of rare and primitive arthropod in a cave that was covered by a thick ice sheet until recently is certain to raise questions.
Cannabinoid compounds may inhibit growth of colon cancer cells
Medical marijuana has gained attention in recent years for its potential to relieve pain and short-term anxiety and depression.
Ovarian cysts should be 'watched' rather than removed
Women may not need to undergo surgery for non-cancerous ovarian cysts, avoiding potential surgical complications.
Growing the tallest is not always the best option
Plants compete with each other for sunlight, which is essential for plants to feed and grow.
Study finds no association between trazodone and reduced dementia risk
In a large UK population-based study, Ian Wong and colleagues at the University of Hong Kong and University College London, UK, found no statistically significant association between the antidepressant trazodone and a reduced risk of dementia when compared to other antidepressants.
Observing hydrogen's effects in metal
Microscopy technique could help researchers design safer reactor vessels or hydrogen storage tanks.
Following the light
Considering that light is the driving force behind the growth and productivity of reef ecosystems, scientists are interested in understanding the relationship between primary productivity and varying light conditions.
Laser physics -- Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy accelerated
Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000.
Study reveals how immune cells target different tissues
For the first time, researchers have revealed the different molecular identities of important immune cells, called T regulatory cells, in peripheral non-lymphoid tissues like skin and colon.
Malignant bone marrow disease: New hope for MPN patients
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are still difficult to treat. A team from Vetmeduni Vienna and the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences/Medical University of Vienna has discovered a new therapeutic approach that could fundamentally change this situation, as evidenced by a study that was published recently in the academic journal Blood.
Early parent-child conflicts predict trouble charting life path
Children who have more conflict in relationships with their mothers during early years of elementary school may find it more difficult to find a sense of purpose in life as they reach adulthood, suggests new research from Washington University in St.
A new culprit of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes, led by Senior Investigator Katerina Akassoglou, Ph.D., showed for the first time that a blood-clotting protein called fibrinogen is responsible for a series of molecular and cellular events that can destroy connections between neurons in the brain and result in cognitive decline.
Molecule silences barrel, bullet pointed at transplanted organ
A powerful immune molecule helps protect transplanted organs from rejection by putting a silencer on two other immune molecules that converge to take a direct shot at the organ, scientists report.
Self-driving cars and geospatial data: Who holds the keys?
As self-driving cars continue to develop, there will be plenty of data amassed through cars' navigational technologies.
Even psychological placebos have an effect
Placebo effects do not only occur in medical treatment -- placebos can also work when psychological effects are attributed to them.
World's largest study shows treatment success in minimally invasive mitral valve surgery
Scientists at the Center for Cardiology of the Mainz University Medical Center have examined the success of more than 13,575 minimally invasive procedures on the mitral valve in the largest study of their kind to date.
Traffic fatalities on a high after cannabis legalisation: Study
Legalising the sale of cannabis for recreational use can lead to a short-term increase in traffic fatalities in legalising states and their neighbouring jurisdictions, new research suggests.
Scientists poised to study reproducibility of Brazilian biomedical research
A project to assess the reproducibility of biomedical research in Brazil has been described today in the open-access journal eLife.
Theoretical model may help solve molecular mystery
When it comes to realizing low-power electronic devices, spintronics looks promising.
How men continually produce sperm -- and How that discovery could help treat infertility
Using a leading-edge technique, UC San Diego School of Medicine researchers defined the cell types in both newborn and adult human testes and identified biomarkers for spermatogonial stem cells, opening a path for new strategies to treat male infertility.
In vitro grafts increase blood flow in infarcted rat hearts
Advances in stem cell research offer hope for treatments that could help patients regrow heart muscle tissue after heart attacks, a key to patients achieving more complete recoveries.
Catching flies with vinegar
Taste is so familiar a sensation that you might think scientists had long ago sorted out how the sense works.
New scan technique reveals brain inflammation associated with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome
More than 1 in 10 people successfully treated with antibiotics for Lyme disease go on to develop chronic, sometimes debilitating, and poorly understood symptoms of fatigue and brain fog that may last for years after their initial infection has cleared up.
Chaotic home lives define 'Dreamer' experience
New research provides the first national estimates of the living arrangements for 'Dreamers' by comparing undocumented immigrants' households to those of documented immigrants and U.S.-born groups.
Revising the history of big, climate-altering volcanic eruptions
Researchers have developed a new isotopic method to analyze the recent history of large stratospheric volcanic eruptions, using 2,600 years' worth of records contained in ice cores from Antarctica. Stratospheric eruptions can launch sulfate particles more than 6 miles above Earth's surface, where they reflect sunlight and temporarily cool the planet.
New scale to characterize strength and impacts of atmospheric river storms
A team of researchers led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego has created a scale to characterize the strength and impacts of the weather phenomenon known as 'atmospheric rivers.'
Ferroelectric polymers made more versatile
The ferroelectric polymer PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) has interesting properties and could be used to store information or energy.
New research debunks importance of eye contact
Using eye tracking technology, ECU researchers have demonstrated that people don't need to mindfully look at the eyes of their audience to be perceived as making eye contact during face-to-face conversation.
Data-transmitting light signal gets power boost from nanosized amplifier
An international team of researchers from Aalto University and Université Paris-Sud has significantly improved the propagation of data inside a microchip.
Better assessing bacteria sensitivity to antibiotics could change how drugs are prescribed
We rely on antibiotics to treat bacterial infections, but the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria forces doctors and patients to contend with shifting treatment plans.
Unexpected results suggest a few joints may not harm men's sperm
Researchers investigating the effect of cannabis smoking on men's testicular function have made the unexpected discovery that it is linked to higher sperm counts and higher testosterone levels among moderate users compared to men who never smoked it.
Tonsillectomy in children: Update to guidelines for treating and managing care
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation published the Clinical Practice Guideline: Tonsillectomy in Children (Update) today in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.
Medieval inks for heritage conservation
Researchers at the University of Cordoba and Nova University in Portugal have replicated five medieval inks using 15th and 16th century recipes.
Researchers publish largest description of ST3GAL5 (GM3 Synthase) deficiency
Researchers have combined the largest description of ST3GAL5 (GM3 synthase) deficiency using detailed natural history data from 104 individuals of Amish ancestry born between 1986 and 2017 with a definite or probable diagnosis of ST3GAL5 deficiency.
A reservoir of bacteria: sink drains next to toilets in patient rooms may harbor dangerous organisms
Sinks situated next to patient toilets in hospital rooms may be reservoirs for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), increasing the risk of dangerous germ transmission, according to new research published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.
Deaf moth evolves sound-production as a warning to outwit its predator
A genus of deaf moth has evolved to develop an extraordinary sound-producing structure in its wings to evade its primary predator the bat.
Walking with Pokémon
Augmented reality is when apps and games overlay a real-time camera feed with images, characters and data to provide all kinds of interactive experiences.
Underwater forests threatened by future climate change, new study finds
Climate change could lead to declines of underwater kelp forests through impacts on their microbiome.
Exposure to chemicals before and after birth is associated with a decrease in lung function
A European study, published in The Lancet Planetary Health, analyses for the first time the impact of the exposome on respiratory health.
Research pushes back on benefits of compounded topical pain creams
In an effort to reduce chronic pain, many people look for hope by paying $20 to thousands of dollars for a tube of prescription topical pain cream or gel.
Differences in water temperature can create new marine species
Warm and cool water temperatures over a long stretch of coastline cause new species of marine fish to evolve without being isolated from similar types of fish nearby, according to a new international study.
Experts propose revising the criteria for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
In the past 25 years it has become clear that some symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) occur decades before the development of motor symptoms and clinical diagnosis, and that monitoring these emerging symptoms may provide important insights into the origin and development of the disease.
New islands, happy feet: Study reveals island formation a key driver of penguin speciation
Ever since Darwin first set foot on the Galapagos, evolutionary biologists have long known that the geographic isolation of archipelagos has helped spur the formation of new species.
Learning transistor mimics the brain
A new transistor based on organic materials has been developed by scientists at Linköping University.
Researchers track down new biocatalysts
Phosphate is a key element in many processes in the body and essential for global food production.
Ramped up efforts needed to protect the world's inland waters
Surface water protection is well below global targets in over half of the world's countries, according to a new study from the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service.
Researchers use artificial neural networks to streamline materials testing
Investigators at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering paired artificial neural networks (ANN) with dynamic mechanical analysis to quickly formulate and provide analytics on theoretical graphene-enhanced advanced composites.
Researchers one step closer to growing made-to-order human kidneys
A team led by researchers from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences in Japan successfully use stem cells to grow mouse kidneys inside rats.
New data suggests nicotine while pregnant alters genes
A University of Houston biomedical research team is reporting that a possible cure for addiction may be found by following the pathways of significantly altered dopamine neurons in newborns who were chronically exposed to nicotine in utero.
Prehistoric food globalization spanned three millennia
Prehistoric peasant farmers struggling to put more food on the table fueled the global spread of some of the world's first and most important domesticated grain crops beginning as early as 7,000 years ago, according to an international study led by anthropologists at Washington University in St.

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