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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 12, 2019


Some primary care doctors not prepared to help with cancer treatment decisions
Research has shown patients are discussing initial cancer treatment options with their primary care doctors.
Investigating cell stress for better health -- and better beer
Human beings are not the only ones who suffer from stress -- even microorganisms can be affected.
Diets consisting of fewer calories improve cell performance
Animal experiments have shown that caloric restriction causes cellular changes that can prevent diseases, the subject of a session at FAPESP Week London.
New research suggests a simple blood test could improve the early detection of lung cancer
New research led by scientists at the MRC Toxicology Unit suggests that by analysing levels of DNA in the blood, the early detection of lung cancer could be improved.
German researchers discover how sleep can fight infection
Researchers in Germany have discovered why sleep can sometimes be the best medicine.
The search for the holy grail: Promising strategies for slowing, stopping, or reversing Parkinson's disease
Understanding of the processes involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) degeneration has vastly improved over the last 20 years.
New diagnostic technique reveals a protein biomarker that accurately differentiates bladder cancer from benign inflammation
Label-free digital pathology using infrared (IR) imaging with subsequent proteomic analysis for bladder cancer (BC) has revealed the first protein biomarker (AHNAK2) for BC.
Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre
Walking simulation games signal a new literary genre Research from the University of Kent has revealed that walking simulations are blurring the boundaries of different art forms to create a new literary genre.
Why too much DNA repair can injure tissue
MIT researchers have discovered how overactive DNA repair systems can lead to retinal damage and blindness in mice.
The unexpected creates reward when listening to music
If you love it when a musician strikes that unexpected but perfect chord, you are not alone.
NYU Abu Dhabi researchers discover new frog species on remote Ethiopian mountain
A new species of puddle frog (order: Anura, family: Phynobatrachidae, genus: Phrynobatrachus), has just been discovered by NYU Abu Dhabi researchers at the unexplored and isolated Bibita Mountain in southwestern Ethiopia.
Selfies to self-diagnosis: Algorithm 'amps up' smartphones to diagnose disease
Smartphones aren't just for selfies anymore. A novel cell phone imaging algorithm developed at FAU can now analyze assays typically evaluated via spectroscopy, a powerful device used in scientific research.
New gel for liver cell culture on microchips
Scientists at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed a new method to produce hydrated materials, hydrogels, that have properties similar to the natural environment of cells in the body.
Young children who express suicidal ideation understand death better than their peers
Four- to six-year-old children who express suicidal thoughts and behaviors have a better understanding of what it means to die than the majority of their peers, reports a study recently published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
IQWiG supported professional societies in the development of new S3 guideline
Commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Health, the Institute searched for studies on vaginal ('natural') birth and assessed them.
Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
In the study, 'Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Inflammation: Proof of Concept Based on Two Illustrative Cytokines,' published recently in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, researchers examined the link between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and inflammation and the ensuing damage caused to organs.
New AI toolkit is the 'scientist that never sleeps'
Researchers have developed a new AI-driven platform that can analyze how pathogens infect our cells with the precision of a trained biologist.
The physical forces of cells in action
The detection of physical forces is one of the most complex challenges facing science.
Scientists provide new insight on gene mutations associated with autism
A novel investigation into the impacts of neuronal mutations on autism-related characteristics in humans has been described in the open-access journal eLife.
Simple and low-cost crack-healing of ceramic-based composites
A team of researchers at Osaka University demonstrated that cracks induced in composites consisting of alumina ceramics and titanium could be healed at room temperature, a world-first.
USPSTF recommendation statement on interventions to prevent depression during pregnancy, after childbirth
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends clinicians provide counseling interventions to pregnant and postpartum women at increased risk of depression or refer patients to those services.
Women scarce in the one percent
Looking at income inequality reveals vast gender inequality as well, according to a new study.
What can early adulthood tell us about midlife identity?
A recent study from the University of Jyväskylä indicates that personality style in young adulthood anticipates identity formation later in life.
With age comes hearing loss and a greater risk of cognitive decline
In a new study, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that hearing impairment is associated with accelerated cognitive decline with age, though the impact of mild hearing loss may be lessened by higher education.
Drinking and drug-use dreams in recovery tied to more severe addiction history
Vivid dreams involving drinking and drug use are common among individuals in recovery.
Laser-induced graphene gets tough, with help
Laser-induced graphene created at Rice University combines with many materials to make tough, conductive composites for wearable electronics, anti-icing, antimicrobial applications, sensors and water treatment.
NTU, MIT and Russian scientists develop AI to predict and engineer material properties
Scientists from NTU Singapore, MIT and the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology in Russia, have developed a machine learning approach that can predict changes to the properties of materials from straining the material.
How breast tissue stiffening promotes breast cancer development
By examining how mammary cells respond in a stiffness-changing hydrogel, researchers discovered that several pathways work together to signal breast cells to turn cancerous.
Insurance rules make it harder to treat opioid use disorder
Insurance industry cost-control measures may be worsening the nation's opioid epidemic by limiting access to a key medication that treats addiction, according to a research letter published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Accelerated risk of mobility loss for people aged 60+ tied to excess weight/inactivity
The combination of excess weight/obesity and an inactive lifestyle represents a powerful joint risk factor for developing mobility loss after age 60, according to a new study.
Research will help urban planners prioritize bike lanes
A new virtual tool could help planners choose the best places to install bikes lanes in cities.
Novel technique accurately assesses cardiovascular risks
A new noninvasive technique for imaging the carotid artery offers advantages over other imaging methods and could provide an earlier, more accurate assessment of cardiovascular disease risk, according to a new study.
Couples creating art or playing board games release 'love hormone'
When couples play board games together or take a painting class with each other, their bodies release oxytocin -- sometimes dubbed the 'hugging hormone.' But men wielding paintbrushes released twice as much or more as the level of women painters and couples playing games, a Baylor University study has found.
Earth's magnetic shield booms like a drum when hit by impulses
The Earth's magnetic shield booms like a drum when it is hit by strong impulses, according to new research from Queen Mary University of London.
New tarantula species from Angola distinct with a one-of-a-kind 'horn' on its back
A new to science species of tarantula with a peculiar horn-like protuberance sticking out of its back was recently identified in central Angola, a largely underexplored country located at the intersection of several Afrotropical ecoregions.
Brexit as much due to resistance to supranationalism as immigration
The UK referendum vote to leave the European Union (EU) may have had as much to do with people's distrust of international organisations as it did fear of immigration.
Intervening in glial cells protects neurons in Parkinson's model
Stressed dopaminergic neurons call nearby glial cells for help. Those calls can over-activate the glial cells resulting in a cascade of inflammatory signaling that, over time, contributes to neuronal degradation.
Cross-species cancer comparison uncovers new drug targets, study reveals
Mucosal melanoma arises in non-skin locations such as sinuses, nasal passages and mouth.
Mom's reward: Female Galápagos seabird has a shorter lifespan than males
The male Nazca booby, a large seabird of the Galápagos Islands, often outlives the domineering female of the species, according to new research from Wake Forest University published today in the Journal of Animal Ecology.
Ice volume calculated anew
Researchers have provided a new estimate for the glacier ice volume all around the world, excluding the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
Uncovering the evolution of the brain
What makes us human, and where does this mysterious property of 'humanness' come from?
Nano drops a million times smaller than a teardrop explodes 19th century theory
Droplets emanating from a molecular 'nano-tap' would behave very differently from those from a household tap 1 million times larger -- researchers at the University of Warwick have found.
Large study fails to link phthalates and increased breast cancer risk
In the largest study to date on phthalates and postmenopausal breast cancer, a University of Massachusetts Amherst cancer epidemiology researcher found no association between breast cancer risk and exposure to the plasticizing and solvent chemicals used in such common products as shampoo, makeup, vinyl flooring, toys, medical devices and car interiors.
Empty homes tax may be more effective than new builds at making housing more affordable
Empty homes tax has the potential to generate income for local governments, reduce demand from foreign investors and increase housing affordability, a study suggests.
Testosterone limits for female athletes based on 'flawed' research
New rules governing international track and field competitions would require some women to medically reduce their testosterone levels to compete.
Consciousness rests on the brain's ability to sustain rich dynamics of neural activity
Consciousness, from the moment we go to sleep until we wake up, seems to come and go every day.
Nature prefers asymmetrical pollen grains, study finds
A study published in Cell shows that plants favor the production of uneven, asymmetrical patterns on the surface of pollen grains over more symmetrical patterns.
Cancer comparison across species highlights new drug targets
Cancer genes in mucosal melanoma, a rare and poorly understood subtype of melanoma, have been compared in humans, dogs and horses for the first time by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators.
Get the latest on UVA's artificial pancreas with testing nearly complete
A University of Virginia School of Medicine researcher will provide updates on a UVA-developed artificial pancreas -- including early results from a nationwide clinical trial -- during a presentation at the AAAS Annual Meeting.
Moving artificial leaves out of the lab and into the air
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago have proposed a design solution that could bring artificial leaves out of the lab and into the environment.
Texas A&M researchers develop fire-retardant coating featuring renewable materials
Texas A&M University researchers are developing a new kind of flame-retardant coating using renewable, nontoxic materials readily found in nature, which could provide even more effective fire protection for several widely used materials
Mayo Clinic researchers develop more efficient system to reprogram stem cells
Induced pluripotent stem cells, the workhorse of many regenerative medicine projects, start out as differentiated cells that are reprogrammed to pluripotent stem cells by exposure to a complex set of genetic cocktails.
Ancient spider fossils, surprisingly preserved in rock, reveal reflective eyes
A new paper in the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, coauthored by a KU researcher, describes fossil spiders found in an area of Korean shale called the Lower Cretaceous Jinju Formation.
Slower runners benefit most from elite methods
How much do high-tech shoes, special diets and exercises, drafting behind other runners and other strategies to improve your 'running economy' actually improve your finish time?
Online support for GPs reduces unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions
New research from King's College London, published today in The BMJ, shows that electronically-delivered prescribing feedback and online decision support for GPs reduces unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory illness.
Gallbladder removal operation during pregnancy associated with adverse maternal outcomes
When faced with painful gallstones, pregnant women should consider postponing surgical treatment until after childbirth, new Journal of the American College of Surgeons study results show.
Streetcars don't guarantee heightened development activity, study finds
Development outcomes along streetcar corridors can't be entirely attributed to the presence of the streetcar, researchers found.
High cadence cycling offers no benefit to amateurs, finds new study
A new study published today in the International Journal of Sports Medicine has found that exercise efficiency decreases in recreational cyclists when they pedal very hard, incorporating more revolutions per minute.
Why does bribery work?
A new study from Carnegie Mellon University suggests that greed, and not the willingness to return the favor, is the main reason people give in to bribery.
Indonesia's devastating 2018 earthquake was a rare supershear, UCLA study finds
The devastating 7.5 magnitude earthquake that struck the Indonesian island of Sulawesi last September was a rare 'supershear' earthquake, according to a study led by UCLA researchers.
Gory, freaky, cool: Marine snail venom could improve insulin for diabetic patients
Researchers at University of Utah Health detailed the function of cone snail insulins, bringing them one step closer to developing a faster-acting insulin to treat diabetes.
Researchers suggest balanced reporting of sports head injuries
A group of more than 60 leading international neuroscientists, including Mark Herceg, Ph.D., a neuropsychologist at Northwell Health's Phelps Hospital in Sleepy Hollow, N.Y., and a member of The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, published a correspondence today in The Lancet Neurology, asking for balance when reporting on sports-related injury chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
DNA methylation GrimAge strongly predicts lifespan and healthspan
When it comes to predicting lifespan, GrimAge is 18 percent more accurate than calendar age and 14 percent better than previously described epigenetic biomarkers.
How to pay top executives if you want them to be innovative
When pay dispersion is perceived as linked to an executive's individual performance (as in variable pay), it's considered legitimate and may promote knowledge-sharing and cooperation among top executives.
Insulating crust kept cryomagma liquid for millions of years on nearby dwarf planet
A recent NASA mission to the dwarf planet Ceres found brilliant, white spots of salts on its surface.
In solar system's symphony, Earth's magnetic field drops the beat
Inside Earth's magnetic bubble, scientists have long been listening in on space sounds created by various electromagnetic waves, and now they've found one that booms like a drum.
How Viagra puts a brake on a master growth regulator to treat heart disease
When normal cells grow, divide or do any job in the body, they do so in response to a whole slew of internal sensors that measure nutrients and energy supply, and environmental cues that inform what happens outside the cell.
Improving geothermal HVAC systems with mathematics
Sustainable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, such as those that harness low-enthalpy geothermal energy, are needed to reduce collective energy use and mitigate the continued effects of a warming climate.
A new mouse model may unlock the secrets of type I diabetes
Finding new treatments or a cure for type I diabetes has been elusive in part because scientists have not had a reliable animal model that mimics the full scope of human type I diabetes.
NASA's Aqua Satellite catches development of Tropical Cyclone Oma
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Southern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of Tropical Cyclone Oma.
Teaching self-driving cars to predict pedestrian movement
By zeroing in on humans' gait, body symmetry and foot placement, University of Michigan researchers are teaching self-driving cars to recognize and predict pedestrian movements with greater precision than current technologies.
UTA study calls on feds to invest in local volunteer disaster response, recovery groups
Data from 2017 Texas, Florida, Puerto Rico and California natural disasters highlights key collaboration gaps and better ways to save money, time and lives in future disasters After 2017's record year of billion-dollar disaster events and additional hurricanes and wildfires during 2018, a new University of Texas at Arlington study found that inconsistent non-profit resources across different jurisdictions impacted disaster recovery efforts, especially in areas that needed it the most.
More is better when coordinating with others, according to new study
Researchers at Tokyo Tech, Imperial College London and the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that physical coordination is more beneficial in larger groups.
Investing in antibiotics critical to saving lives during pandemic influenza outbreaks
In a new study published in the journal Health Economics, researchers at CDDEP, the University of Strathclyde in Scotland, and Wageningen University in the Netherlands developed a mathematical framework to estimate the value of investing in developing and conserving an antibiotic to mitigate the burden of bacterial infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a pandemic influenza outbreak.
New machine learning method could spare some women from unnecessary breast surgery
Dartmouth researchers have developed and evaluated a machine learning approach of using patient core needle biopsy data to identify the risk that atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) breast lesions may upgrade to cancer.
Drug-induced cellular membrane complexes induce cancer cell death
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology researchers at the Hollings Cancer Center at the Medical University of South Carolina delved into the microscopic world of cell surface sphingolipids and discovered a new sub-cellular complex, as described in the January 2019 issue of Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Nanotechnology enables engineers to weld previously un-weldable aluminum alloy
Engineers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering are using nanotechnology to weld the alloy, known as AA 7075, which has been almost impossible to weld together using the technique commonly used to assemble body panels or engine parts.
Laser physics: Transformation through light
Laser physicists have taken snapshots of how C60 carbon molecules react to extremely short pulses of intense infrared light.
Natural selection and spatial memory link shown in mountain chickadee research
Chickadees with better learning and memory skills, needed to find numerous food caches, are more likely to survive their first winter, a long-term study of mountain chickadees has found.
HPV shame could put women off cervical cancer screening
The social stigmas and myths surrounding the human papilloma virus (HPV) could make women anxious, including raising fears about their partners' fidelity and putting them off going for cervical screening, according to research presented at Cancer Research UK's Early Diagnosis Conference in Birmingham today.
Infection biology: What makes Helicobacter so adaptable?
The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori owes its worldwide distribution to its genetic adaptability.
Bird flu shuffle probes viral compatibility
Emory scientists have been probing the RNA packaging factors that limit reassortment between avian H7N9/H5N8 strains and a well-known strain (H3N2) that has been dominating the last few human flu seasons in the United States.
Hyperbolic metamaterials enable nanoscale 'fingerprinting'
Hyperbolic metamaterials are artificially made structures that can be formed by depositing alternating thin layers of a conductor such as silver or graphene onto a substrate.
Climate of North American cities will shift hundreds of miles in one generation
In one generation, the climate experienced in many North American cities is projected to change to that of locations hundreds of miles away -- or to a new climate unlike any found in North America today.
New study suggests possibility of recent underground volcanism on Mars
A study published last year in the journal Science suggested liquid water is present beneath the south polar ice cap of Mars.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds Tropical Cyclone Gelena sheared
Wind shear can push tropical cyclones apart and satellite imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite revealed that is what is happening to Tropical Cyclone Gelena in the Southern Indian Ocean.
Up to 15 percent of children have sleep apnea, yet 90 percent go undiagnosed
Children who have behavior problems or are suspected to have ADHD might actually be suffering from a chronic lack of restorative sleep.
Scientists gain new insight on triggers for preterm birth
A group of scientists led by Ramkumar Menon at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have gained new insight on a poorly-understood key player in the timing of labor and delivery.
Pitch perfect: Strategic language use maximizes the chances of influencing an audience
Research finds four interconnected language strategies that entrepreneurs employ to best influence their audience.
Wave device could deliver clean energy to thousands of homes
A device that could convert wave energy into electricity has been demonstrated in scaled trials at the University of Edinburgh's circular testing tank, FloWave.
Texas A&M-led study explores the role of estrogen in controlling Type 2 diabetes
The results of a recent Texas A&M University-led study provide insights into the mechanism by which estrogen can decrease insulin resistance and the production of glucose, reducing incidences of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Fractures, head injuries common in e-scooter collisions, according to UCLA research
UCLA researchers have found that people involved in electric scooter accidents are sometimes injured badly enough -- from fractures, dislocated joints and head injuries -- to require treatment in an emergency department.
Brain clock ticks differently in autism
The neural 'time windows' in certain small brain areas contribute to the complex cognitive symptoms of autism, new research suggests.

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