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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 15, 2019


Open-science model for drug discovery expands to neurodegenerative diseases
Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are the newest frontiers for open science drug discovery, a global movement led by academic scientists in Toronto that puts knowledge sharing and medication affordability ahead of patents and profits.
Study: Faculty beliefs about intelligence predict racial achievement gaps in STEM classes
In a major analysis of university faculty and students in science, technology, engineering and math, Indiana University social psychologists found that professors' beliefs about intelligence play a measurable role in the success of all students, especially underrepresented minorities taking their first college-level STEM courses.
Scientists discovered where black carbon comes from in the Arctic in winter and summer
Scientists from seven countries published an article on the study of the sources of black carbon (BC) emissions in the Arctic.
OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease
Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who experience excessive sleepiness while awake appear to be at far greater risk for cardiovascular diseases than those without excessive daytime sleepiness, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Artificial intelligence can predict survival of ovarian cancer patients
Researchers have created new machine learning software that can forecast the survival rates and response to treatments of patients with ovarian cancer.
Can we trust scientific discoveries made using machine learning?
Rice University statistician Genevera Allen is cautioning fellow scientists at the 2019 AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., not to make assumptions about the accuracy, uncertainty or reproducibility of scientific discoveries made with today's machine learning models.
Looking behind a rare brain disease for clues to treat more common mental disorders
Researchers have clarified, for the first time, the mechanism behind a very rare brain disorder called MICPCH (microcephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia) syndrome in animal models.
The Lypla1 gene impacts obesity in a sex-specific manner
Susceptibility to obesity, insulin resistance and other cardio-metabolic traits may also be dependent on a person's sex.
Researchers find genetic vulnerability to menthol cigarette use
A genetic variant found only in people of African descent significantly increases a smoker's preference for cigarettes containing menthol, a flavor additive.
Surprise findings turn up the temperature on the study of vernalization
Researchers have uncovered new evidence about the agriculturally important process of vernalization in a development that could help farmers deal with financially damaging weather fluctuations.
Immune stimulant molecule shown to prevent cancer
An immune checkpoint molecule developed for cancer immunotherapy also protects against future development of multiple types of cancer when administered by itself.
Brain-computer interface, promise of restoring communication discussed at AAAS presentation
Choosing the 'right' brain-computer interface that maximizes reliability of the neural control signal and minimizes fatigue and frustration is critical.
Linking sensing to signaling during plant immunity
A new study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research (MPIPZ) in Cologne has revealed that a previously unappreciated structural feature underlies the ability of the plant immune molecule EDS1 to provide a timely defense boost against pathogens.
Novel app uses AI to guide, support cancer patients
Artificial intelligence is helping to guide and support some 50 breast cancer patients in rural Georgia through a novel mobile application that gives them personalized recommendations on everything from side effects to insurance.
Preserved leaves reveal 7000 years of rainfall and drought
A study by University of Adelaide researchers and Queensland Government scientists has revealed what south-east Queensland's rainfall was like over the last 7000 years -- including several severe droughts worse and longer lasting than the 12-year Millennium Drought.
Scholar to talk about household water insecurity
A Northwestern anthropology professor will discuss the first cross-culturally equivalent measurement of household water insecurity
Trinity College Dublin researchers describe the first model of mitochondrial epilepsy
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have become the first to describe a model of mitochondrial epilepsy which raises hope for better therapies for patients with this incapacitating condition.Despite the severity of this epilepsy, up to now there have been no animal models available to provide a mechanistic understanding of the condition.
'Cellular barcoding' reveals how breast cancer spreads
A cutting-edge technique called cellular barcoding has been used to tag, track and pinpoint cells responsible for the spread of breast cancer from the main tumour into the blood and other organs.
How common, preventable are sepsis-associated deaths in hospitals?
This study estimates how common sepsis-related deaths are in hospitals and how preventable those deaths might be.
Blood clot discovery could pave way for treatment of blood diseases
Scientists have discovered new ways in which the body regulates blood clots, in a discovery which could one day lead to the development of better treatments that could help prevent and treat conditions including heart diseases, stroke and vascular dementia.
UTMB develops drug to rejuvenate muscle cells
Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have developed a promising drug that has proven to significantly increase muscle size, strength and metabolic state in aged mice, according to a study just published in Biochemical Pharmacology.
Women should be offered a choice of treatment options for miscarriage, study shows
Women experiencing miscarriage should be offered a choice in the treatment they receive, argues a new study from the University of Warwick that compares all treatment options for the first time.
Happy as a pig in muck?
Photos play an important role when it comes to how agricultural products are seen by consumers.
Live better with attainable goals
Those who set realistic goals can hope for a higher level of well-being.
Push-up capacity linked with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease events among men
Active, middle-aged men able to complete more than 40 push-ups had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes -- including diagnoses of coronary artery disease and major events such as heart failure -- during 10 years of follow-up compared with those who were able to do less than 10 push-ups during the baseline exam.
CVIA special issue on stable ischemic heart disease
The journal Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) has just published a new issue, Volume 3 Issue 3.
New study shows hidden genes may underlie autism severity
Scientists at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have implicated a largely hidden part of the human genome in the severity of autism symptoms, a discovery that could lead to new insights into the disorder and eventually to clinical therapies for the condition.
'Seeing' tails help sea snakes avoid predators
New research has revealed the fascinating adaptation of some Australian sea snakes that helps protect their vulnerable paddle-shaped tails from predators.
Patients' own cells could be the key to treating Crohn's disease
A new technique using patients' own modified cells to treat Crohn's disease has been proven to be effective in experiments using human cells, with a clinical trial of the treatment expected to start in the next six months.
3D protein structure reveals a new mechanism for future anti-cancer drugs
Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina discovered a new mechanism for a class of anti-cancer drugs known as E1 inhibitors.
Intervention can boost rates of exclusive breastfeeding
Providing additional support to women in Burkina Faso can boost rates of exclusive breastfeeding.
Researchers discover anti-laser masquerading as perfect absorber
Researchers at Duke University have discovered that a perfect absorber of electromagnetic waves they described in a 2017 paper can easily be tweaked into a sort of 'time-reversed laser' known as a coherent perfect absorber (CPA).
Why some brain tumors respond to immunotherapy
Fewer than 1 in 10 patients with glioblastoma -- the most common type of brain cancer -- respond to immunotherapy; a new study reveals how to detect patients who may respond.
The friendly extortioner takes it all
People who cunningly use cooperation and egoism are unbeatable.
Introduction of flat-rate payments accompanied by an increase in readmission rates
Seven years after the introduction of flat-rate payments at Swiss hospitals, a major study has revealed a slight increase in readmission rates.
Study: No race or gender bias seen in initial NIH grant reviews
Examinations of National Institutes of Health grants in the last 15 years have shown that white scientists are more likely to be successful in securing funding from the agency than their black peers.
Getting behind the wheel on opioids: could be a road to tragedy
Driving while on prescription opioids plays an increasingly significant role in fatal motor vehicle crashes, irrespective of alcohol use and demographic characteristics, according to a new study at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
What rising seas mean for local economies
High-tide flooding resulting from climate change is already disrupting the economy of Annapolis, Md.
Study shows hope for fighting disease known as Ebola of frogs
Despite widespread infection, some frog populations are surviving a deadly disease that is the equivalent of mankind's Ebola virus.
A nearby river of stars
Astronomy & Astrophysics publishes the work of researchers from the University of Vienna, who have found a river of stars, a stellar stream in astronomical parlance, covering most of the southern sky.
Tide gauges capture tremor episodes in cascadian subduction zone
Hourly water level records collected from tide gauges can be used to measure land uplift caused by episodic tremor and slip of slow earthquakes in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, according to a new report in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.
Brain discovery explains a great mystery of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's
One of the great mysteries of neuroscience may finally have an answer: Scientists have identified a potential explanation for the mysterious death of specific brain cells seen in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Study suggests Chilean food regulations are changing food perceptions, norms, behaviors
Food regulations targeted at reducing obesity make a positive impact on those most likely to purchase the family's food -- mothers.
Study finds children with autism more likely to face maltreatment
A recent study by Vanderbilt researchers of 11 counties in Middle Tennessee revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were nearly 2.5 times more likely than children without ASD to be reported to the Child Abuse Hotline by the age of 8.
PET/CT imaging agent shows promise for better diagnosis of acute venous thromboembolism
Researchers report that a new nuclear medicine tracer may allow better diagnosis of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE).
The scientific tooth fairies of San Francisco
W. Thomas Boyce, co-director of the CIFAR program in Child & Brain Development and professor emeritus in the UCSF department of Pediatrics, will tell the tale of his time as California's tooth fairy and set the stage for a discussion of teeth as biomarkers in human health.
Pitt bioengineers create ultrasmall, light-activated electrode for neural stimulation
In a recently published paper, the University of Pittsburgh's Takashi D.
Tidal tails -- The beginning of the end of an open star cluster
In the course of their life, open star clusters continuously lose stars to their surroundings.
Solid-state catalysis: Fluctuations clear the way
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet chemists have identified a mechanism that allows molecules to diffuse rapidly on the already crowded surface of a solid-state catalyst - an important capability, especially for efficient catalysis under industrial conditions.
Biologists identify honeybee 'clean' genes known for improving survival
The key to breeding disease-resistant honeybees could lie in a group of genes -- known for controlling hygienic behaviour -- that enable colonies to limit the spread of harmful mites and bacteria, according to genomics research conducted at York University.
Hypofractionated RT should be considered new practice standard for men with low risk prostate cancer
Results from the NRG Oncology clinical study NRG-RTOG 0415 determined that a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule (H-RT), a treatment schedule that delivers a total dose of radiotherapy over a shorter period of time, is not worse than the conventional radiotherapy schedule (C-RT) in terms of bowel, bladder, sexual, and general quality of life (QOL) as well as anxiety and depression for men with low risk prostate cancer.
Elk avoid beetle-killed forest areas
While previous studies showed elk often move into areas disturbed by fires or timber harvest to take advantage of new plant growth, that isn't happening in Wyoming's Sierra Madre Mountains, where elk strongly avoid beetle-killed areas in the summer.
A new study looks at ways to cut roadkill numbers for small and medium-sized mammals
A study of a stretch of highway in Quebec looks at the effect of road fencing and underground passages on the number of roadkill deaths of small and medium-sized mammals.
NASA catches Tropical Cyclone Gelena's post-tropical transition
Tropical cyclones can become post-tropical before they dissipate, meaning they can become sub-tropical, extra-tropical or a remnant low pressure area.  As Tropical Cyclone Gelena transitioned into a subtropical storm, NASA's Aqua satellite provided a visible image of the storm.
The prospects of american strawberries
A team of 12 researchers from 10 different states embarked on an academic journey designed to generate an effective guideline essential for research, policy, and marketing strategies for the strawberry industry across the country, and to enable the development of general and region-specific educational and production tools.
Lithium-air batteries can store energy for cars, houses and industry
Growth in the offer of renewable energy sources will mean increased demand for devices optimal for energy storing; São Paulo and UK researchers presented advances in new battery development at FAPESP Week London.
NASA tracks Tropical Cyclone Oma as warnings remain for Vanuatu
Tropical Cyclone Oma continued to stay just west of Vanuatu in the Southern Pacific Ocean as NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and captured an image of the tropical storm.
First evidence discovered of a gigantic remnant around an exploding star
SDSU professor helps discover precursors to the tools we use to map the universe.

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