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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 19, 2019


Climate-friendly labriculture depends on an energy revolution, says Oxford study
In a first-of-its-kind study from the Oxford Martin School, the climate-change impact of several production methods for lab-grown and farmed beef was assessed accounting for the differing greenhouse gases produced.
New machine learning technique rapidly analyzes nanomedicines for cancer immunotherapy
With their ability to treat a wide a variety of diseases, spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) are poised to revolutionize medicine.
Ocean acidification harms cod larvae more than previously thought
The Atlantic cod is one of the most important commercial fish species in the world.
Seeing the unseeable
Researchers at Cardiff University have used X-ray crystallography and computer simulation to get a closer look at how viruses bind cells and cause infection.
Marijuana dispensaries associated with rise, then decline in some neighborhood crime
A new study found an association between marijuana dispensaries and increases in rates of crime and disorder in neighborhoods in Denver, Colo., shortly after Colorado commenced legal retail sales of marijuana.
Dose of vitamin C helps gold nanowires grow
Rice University scientists discover a method to turn stubby gold nanorods into gold nanowires of impressive length.
Fabric the reinforcer
Scientists from NUST MISIS have tested experimental composite materials for aircraft brakes.
Forest fires as an opportunity for ecosystem recovery
It is estimated that globally there are more than two million hectares of land in need of restoration.
Technologies for removing CO2 will need to be integrated into climate policy in 2019
EASAC released publications in 2018 that urged policy-makers to take immediate action on CO2 mitigation including using Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to offset large CO2 emitters.
Cervical microbiome may promote high-grade precancerous lesions
Infections with a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) cause 99 percent of cervical cancer cases, and the disease's first sign is often the appearance of precancerous lesions on a woman's cervix.
When a defect might be beneficial
Rohan Mishra, assistant professor of mechanical engineering & materials science in the McKelvey School of Engineering, led a widespread team of researchers -- including at Washington University, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and at the University of Missouri-Columbia -- that studied the structure and properties of the commonly occurring planar defects at the atomic scale, which spans only a few tenths of a nanometer.
International medical graduates care for Medicare patients with greater health care needs
A study by a Massachusetts General Hospital research team indicates that internal medicine physicians who are graduates of medical schools outside the US care for Medicare patients with more complex medical needs than those cared for by graduates of American medical schools.
Climate goals of the Paris Agreement: Impact of land use
Significantly less than two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times -- this is the temperature to which global warming should be limited, according to the Paris Climate Agreement.
Can a flowing liquid-like material maintain its structural order like crystals?
Scientists at Tokyo Tech discovered a chiral compound, which can spontaneously form a molecular assembly with an extremely large single domain structure beyond a size regime incapable of realizing with usual molecular self-assembly.
Untangling the where and when of walking in the brain
How do our brains know when and where to place our feet in order to prevent us from tripping each time we find ourselves on a new terrain such as a icy path, or a sandy beach?
Exercise in morning or afternoon to shift your body clock forward
Exercise can shift the human body clock, with the direction and amount of this effect depending on the time of day or night in which people exercise.
Plants can skip the middlemen to directly recognize disease-causing fungi
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne have revealed that direct physical associations between plant immune proteins and fungal molecules are widespread during attempted infection.
Lobster's underbelly is as tough as industrial rubber
Flip a lobster on its back, and you'll see that the underside of its tail is split in segments connected by a translucent membrane that appears rather vulnerable when compared with the armor-like carapace that shields the rest of the crustacean.
New study shows Transcendental Meditation reduces PTSD in South African college students
A study published in Psychological Reports showed that after 3.5 months of practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM), most of the 34 tertiary-level students at Maharishi Institute (MI) -- all of whom were initially diagnosed with PTSD by mental health professionals -- went below clinical thresholds as measured by standard assessments.
Indecision under pressure
When compressed, a material typically becomes a better conductor of heat.
Scientists identify atomic structure of catalytically active copper-ceria interface
Recently, Dr. ZHOU Yan and Prof. SHEN Wenjie at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators identified the atomic structure of the catalytically active copper-ceria interface and proposed a copper bilayer model.
Oral antifungal drug used to treat yeast infections linked to higher rates of miscarriage
A commonly used medication, fluconazole, used to treat vaginal yeast infections, is linked to higher rates of miscarriage if used during pregnancy, found new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Fibers from old tires can improve fire resistance of concrete
A new way of protecting concrete from fire damage using materials recycled from old tires has been successfully tested by researchers at the University of Sheffield.
Lupus strongly linked to imbalances in gut microbiome
The disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) -- marked by the attack on joints, skin, and kidneys by the body's immune system -- is linked to an abnormal mix of bacteria in the gut.
Research shows structural barriers are the biggest reason for low participation in clinical trials
New findings in Journal of the National Cancer Institute show patients don't have enough opportunities for participation.
Gene therapy durably reverses congenital deafness in mice
Scientists have managed to restore hearing in an adult mouse model of DFNB9 deafness -- a hearing disorder that represents one of the most frequent cases of congenital genetic deafness.
Texas A&M researchers develop new therapeutic approach to treating osteoarthritis
Researchers from Texas A&M University, led by Dr. Akhilesh K.
Spherical display brings virtual collaboration closer to reality
Virtual reality can often make a user feel isolated from the world, with only computer-generated characters for company.
Digital PLL achieves a power consumption of 0.265 mW
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have developed an advanced phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer that can drastically cut power consumption.
How to make the push-up work for you
If you want to improve your golf swing, softball pitch, or tennis serve, the push-up is for you.
American women have better control of high blood pressure but are more obese than men
The George Institute for Global Health at the University of Oxford examined rates and management of diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and smoking and found that while there had been some improvements, women were now more likely to be obese and men less likely to have their blood pressure and diabetes under control.
Survey: Misunderstanding food date labels linked with higher food discards
A new survey examining US consumer attitudes and behaviors related to food date labels found widespread confusion, leading to unnecessary discards, increased waste and food safety risks.
No evidence tougher policies deter adolescent cannabis use
A new study from the University of Kent has found no evidence that teenage cannabis use is lower in countries with tougher policies.
New model mimics persistent interneuron loss seen in prematurity
Children's research-clinicians created a novel preclinical model that mimics the persistent interneuron loss seen in preterm human infants, identifying interneuron subtypes that could become future therapeutic targets to prevent or lessen neurodevelopmental risks.
Jobs vs. death toll: Calculating corporate death penalties
What misdeeds warrant corporate death penalties? A new study explores two case studies focused on industries that kill more people than they employ.
Novel gene therapy approach creates new route to tackle rare, inherited diseases
A new study reveals a novel approach and robust technology platform for suppressing nonsense mutations using engineered transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules.
New technology captures movement of quantum particles with unprecedented resolution
A new Tel Aviv University study explores the activity of quantum particles in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution.
Research shows human trafficking screening tool effective in identifying victims
A screening tool designed specifically to assess for human trafficking was more likely to identify sexual and labor exploitation of youth, as well as the risk factors, than a commonly used psychosocial assessment, reported researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) and Baylor College of Medicine.
Visualizing mental valuation processes
Rafael Polanía and his team of ETH researchers have developed a computer model capable of predicting certain human decisions.
More cancer survivors, fewer cancer specialists point to challenge in meeting care needs
An aging population, a growing number of cancer survivors, and a projected shortage of cancer care providers will result in a challenge in delivering the care for cancer survivors in the United States if systemic changes are not made.
The monkey hunters: Humans colonize South Asian rainforest by hunting primates
Researchers have found evidence for humans hunting small mammals in the forests of Sri Lanka at least 45,000 years ago.
Incoherent testimony from sexually abused children with PTSD can indicate credibility
Age and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are key factors that affect how coherently sexually abused children are able to recount traumatic events, according to a new study published in the journal Heliyon.
Travelers use hotels' loyalty programs to get instant perks and rewards
Many travelers are members of multiple loyalty programs, and the role of these programs is often insignificant when choosing between different hotels, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.
Report reveals more than a million Australian heart patients not given a second chance
A new report, developed by the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, reveals that prevention of secondary heart attacks and strokes is critical to combating Australia's number one killer -- cardiovascular disease.
Multinational collaboration study on familial primary distal renal tubular acidosis
Familial primary distal renal tubular acidosis may be associated with significant complications.
Researchers develop new one-two punch against melanoma in mouse model
Study shows new forms of an older anti-cancer agent appear to enhance the immune system's ability to fight melanoma in mice.
NIST 'Astrocomb' opens new horizons for planet-hunting telescope
The hunt for Earth-like planets, and perhaps extraterrestrial life, just got more precise, thanks to record-setting starlight measurements made possible by a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 'astrocomb.'
Technology developed in Brazil will be part of the International Space Station
Presented during FAPESP Week London, instrument created in São Paulo will be improved in collaboration with Russia and will measure solar flares; launch is scheduled for 2022.
Study: Adolescent female blood donors at risk for iron deficiency and associated anemia
Female adolescent blood donors are more likely to have low iron stores and iron deficiency anemia than adult female blood donors and nondonors, which could have significant negative consequences on their developing brains, a new study led by Johns Hopkins researchers suggests.
Ancient 'night' marsupial faced four months of winter darkness
Paleontologists working on a steep river bank in Alaska have discovered fossil evidence of the northernmost marsupial known to science.
Paper: Carbon taxes could create new winners and losers among countries
A global carbon tax would create new sets of economic winners and losers, with some countries holding a distinct competitive advantage over others, says new research from Don Fullerton, a Gutgsell Professor of Finance at Illinois and a scholar at the Institute of Government and Public Affairs.
Research finds federalism still effective against would-be strongmen like Trump
The fear that states in federal countries are destined to lose their powers to central government is unwarranted, new research at the University of Kent has found.
Study finds inadequate FDA oversight of prescribing of fentanyl products
A study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturers did not take action when evidence emerged that potentially lethal fentanyl products were being inappropriately prescribed to patients.
Fishing and pollution regulations don't help corals cope with climate change
A new study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill reports that protecting coral reefs from fishing and pollution does not help coral populations cope with climate change.
Nanopores make portable mass spectrometer for peptides a reality
University of Groningen scientists have developed nanopores that can be used to directly measure the mass of peptides.
Beyond the bulkheterojunction
Bulkheterojunctions (blended junctions) are indispensable for organic solar cells. However, the fabrication of electron and hole transport routes in bulkheterojunction remains quite challenging.
Breakthrough in the search for graphene-based electronics
A team of researchers from Denmark has solved one of the biggest challenges in making effective nanoelectronics based on graphene.
Porous carbon fiber research one step closer to use in automotive industry
Liu's porous carbon fibers can enable high energy density and high electron/ion charging rates, which are typically mutually exclusive in electrochemical energy storage devices.
The invasive species are likely to spread to a community not adapted to climate change
Laboratory experiment to indicate how invasive species are to spread new areas.
Renewable energy generation with kites and drones
A group of researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid has recently developed a new software aimed at the analysis of energy generation systems based on kites and drones.
Robots track moving objects with unprecedented precision
A novel system developed at MIT uses RFID tags to help robots home in on moving objects with unprecedented speed and accuracy.
A lack of antibody diversity may make the elderly more susceptible to the flu
The influenza vaccine may be less effective in the elderly because their B cells are less capable of producing antibodies that can adapt to protect against new viral strains, researchers report Feb.
Investigators figure out how to block new antibiotic resistance gene
A new antimicrobial-resistance gene, VCC-1, a ß-lactamase gene, has been discovered in benign close relatives of virulent Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera.
Possible pathway to new therapy for Alzheimer's disease
Researchers have uncovered an enzyme and a biochemical pathway they believe may lead to the identification of drugs that could inhibit the production of beta-amyloid protein, the toxic initiator of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Study unveils a blueprint for treating a deadly brain tumor
In a study of mice and human brain tumors researchers at the University of the Michigan, Ann Arbor, searched for new treatments by exploring the reasons why some patients with gliomas live remarkably longer than others.
New nurses work overtime, long shifts, and sometimes a second job
New nurses are predominantly working 12-hour shifts and nearly half work overtime, trends that have remained relatively stable over the past decade, finds a new study by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing.
Citizen scientist finds ancient white dwarf star encircled by puzzling rings
The oldest and coldest known white dwarf -- an Earth-sized remnant of a sun-like star that has died -- could be the first known white dwarf with multiple dust rings.
Familiarity breeds aggression
Aggressiveness among animals may increase the longer individuals live together in stable groups.
Bringing delivery forward to collect the 'baby check' posed a risk to babies
A study by Libertad González, professor with the Department of Economics and Business at UPF and the Barcelona GSE; Cristina Borra (University of Seville) and Almudena Sevilla (University College, London), found that children born prematurely due to the scrapping of the 'baby check' weighed less at birth (between 130 and 300 grams) and had 20 percent more hospitalizations, especially due to respiratory problems, although the negative effects seem to dissipate after the second month of life.
Penn engineers can detect ultra rare proteins in blood using a cellphone camera
Commercial approaches to ultrasensitive protein detection are starting to become available, but they are based on expensive optics and fluid handlers, which make them relatively bulky and expensive.
Acupuncture may ease troublesome menopausal symptoms
A brief course of acupuncture may help to ease troublesome menopausal symptoms, suggests a small study published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Quarrying of Stonehenge 'bluestones' dated to 3000 BC
Excavations at two quarries in Wales, known to be the source of the Stonehenge 'bluestones', provide new evidence of megalith quarrying 5,000 years ago, according to a new UCL-led study.
Record number of late-breaking trials submitted to EHRA 2019 Congress
March 17 to 19, 2019 in Lisbon, Portugal. A record number of late-breaking trials and scientific abstracts have been submitted to EHRA 2019, the leading arrhythmias meeting in Europe, which will reveal cutting edge science on cardiac rhythm disorders.
Revealed: How the 'Iron Man' of immune cells helps T cells fight infection
The immune system's killer T cells are crucial in fighting viral infections.
First molecular test that selects immunotherapy for kidney cancer
National Cancer Centre Singapore and Lucence Diagnostics Announce First Molecular Test that Selects Immunotherapy for Kidney Cancer.
Epidemiological model lends insight to chlamydia outbreak in Japan
Mathematical models that quantify the dynamics of infectious diseases are crucial predictive tools for the control of ongoing and future outbreaks.
Scientists create new map of brain's immune system
A team of researchers under the direction of the Medical Center -- University of Freiburg has created an entirely new map of the brain's own immune system in humans and mice.
Increasing frailty may lead to death
A new study published in Age and Ageing indicates that frail patients in any age group are more likely to die than those who are not frail.
Keep calm and don't carry on when parenting teens
In a new study, University of Rochester psychologists find that mothers and fathers who are less capable of dampening down their anger are more likely to resort to harsh discipline aimed at their teens, and that fathers in particular were not as good at considering alternative explanations for their teens' behavior.
Children with autism, co-occurring ADHD symptoms lag in key measures of independence
A pair of new studies has provided new insight into the challenges faced by children on the autism spectrum who exhibit symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Birch pollen allergen immunotherapy normalizes nasal gene-expression and microbial community
According to a new study, birch pollen allergen immunotherapy modifies the gene expression and microbiome profile of the nasal epithelium to correspond to those of healthy controls.
Using anti-cancer immunotherapy to fight HIV
Researchers at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) have shown that immunotherapy treatments against cancer could reduce the amount of virus that persists in people on triple therapy.
Researchers key to advance care planning with cancer clinical trial patients
Cancer clinical trials are an important option for patients with cancer.
NASA-NOAA satellite sees powerful Tropical Cyclone Oma affecting New Caledonia
Tropical Cyclone Oma appeared well-organized on satellite imagery as it moved through the Southern Pacific Ocean, just northwest of New Caledonia.
Terror attacks by Muslims get 357 percent more media coverage than other terror attacks, study shows
Terror attacks carried out by Muslims receive on average 357 percent more media coverage than those committed by other groups, according to research conducted at Georgia State University.
Prenatal forest fire exposure stunts children's growth
Forest fires are more harmful than previously imagined, causing stunted growth in children who were exposed to smoke while in the womb, according to new research from Duke University and the National University of Singapore.
Potential link between vitamin D deficiency and loss of brain plasticity
University of Queensland research may explain why vitamin D is vital for brain health, and how deficiency leads to disorders including depression and schizophrenia.
Women more likely to take Bible literally, but that may be tied to intimacy, not gender
Women are more likely than men to believe the Bible is literally true, but a recent Baylor University study finds this may have more to do with how people relate to God than it does gender.
T-cell receptor diversity may be key to treatment of follicular lymphoma, Mayo study finds
Healthy white blood cells, called ''T-cells,'' play a crucial role in how the body fights follicular lymphoma.
UA researcher: Great disparities exist in how news media cover terror attacks
This is the first study to specifically look at how perpetrator religion impacts coverage across such a wide scope of terrorism cases.
Long periods of sedentary behavior may increase cardiovascular risk in older women
A new study has found that the longer older women sit or lay down during the course of a day -- and the longer the individual periods of uninterrupted sitting--the greater their risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease and stroke.
Solar tadpole-like jets seen with NASA'S IRIS add new clue to age-old mystery
Scientists have discovered tadpole-shaped jets coming out of the Sun that may help explain why the corona (the wispy upper atmosphere of our star) is so inexplicably hot.
20-million-year-old tusked sea cow is Central America's oldest marine mammal
A researcher searching the shoreline of the Panama Canal for fossil plants instead found an ancient sea cow.
Micro-control of liver metabolism
A new discovery has shed light on small RNAs called microRNAs in the liver that regulate fat and glucose metabolism.
Graphene 'sandwich' key to new electronics
Graphene Flagship researchers managed to carve out graphene to nanoscale dimensions, solving one of the main challenges towards effective nano-electronics.
Common acid reflux medications linked to increased kidney disease risk
Mining a large database of adverse reactions to medications, UC San Diego researchers found that people who took proton pump inhibitors (e.g., Prilosec, Nexium) for heartburn and acid reflux were more likely to experience kidney disease than people who took other forms of antacid.
New study in mice reveals unexpected place for learning, memory in the brain
Columbia neuroscientists have revealed that a simple brain region, known for processing basic sensory information, can also guide complex feats of mental activity.
Altered brain activity patterns of parkinson's captured in mice
Researchers pinpoint how brain activity changes in mouse models of Parkinson's disease, hinting at what may drive symptoms in humans.
New laser methods create dazzling colors on metals
In a new study, researchers describe how to use a single commercially available laser to achieve three techniques for laser colorization on metal, making the techniques more practical for a wide range of applications in art and jewelry making.
Fluorescing urine signals organ transplant rejection, could replace needle biopsies
Glowing pee may replace the biopsy needle: In detecting organ transplant rejection, a new nanoparticle has proven much faster and more thorough in the lab than a biopsy.
Putting the brakes on aging
Salk Institute researchers have developed a new gene therapy to help decelerate the aging process.
Researchers discover variants in DNA that significantly influence how the body distributes fat
A new breakthrough that identifies multiple genetic variants associated with how the body stores and distributes fat, broadening our understanding of how genes can predispose certain individuals to more pear-like obesity or more apple-like obesity, is published in Nature Genetics today.
Engineered 'suicide genes' prevent tumors in stem cell-derived beta cells
Scientists from the Diabetes Research Institute at the University of Miami have engineered a human pluripotent stem cell line containing two 'suicide genes' that induce cell death in all but the desired insulin-producing cells.
New training statement defines Level III echocardiography competencies for first time
A new advanced training statement from the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the American Society of Echocardiography defines the training requirements for performing advanced echocardiographic procedures, or 'Level III' training, for the first time.
The Lancet Oncology: Rapid scale-up of HPV vaccine and screening could prevent up to 13 million cases of cervical cancer by 2050
Cervical cancer could be eliminated as a public health problem in most countries by the end of the century by rapid expansion of existing interventions, according to a modelling study published in The Lancet Oncology journal.
New insights into phenotypic complexity and diversity among cichlids
Researchers from the University of Konstanz, the University of California-Los Angeles, Tel Aviv University and the Inter-University Institute for Marine Sciences in Eilat gain new in-sights into how phenotypic complexity influences diversification among Lake Malawi cichlid fish.
Want to learn about dinosaurs? Pick up some Louisiana roadkill
Scientists are able to learn about an animal's ecosystem by studying the chemical makeup of its body, whether the animal died recently or millions of years ago.
The key to increased lifespan? Rubicon alters autophagy in animals during aging
Autophagy is an important biological recycling mechanism that influences the progression of aging in animals.
Eating nuts may reduce cardiovascular disease risk for people with diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes who ate five servings of nuts per week enjoyed a 17 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Citizen scientist finds ancient white dwarf star with enigmatic dust rings
Volunteer working with the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 project has found the oldest and coldest known white dwarf star, ringed by dust and debris.
In the blink of an eye: Team uses quantum of light to create new quantum simulator
Imagine being stuck inside a maze and wanting to find your way out.
A NASA infrared look at Tropical Depression 02W, warnings posted
Tropical Depression 02W formed in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on February 19 and the National Weather Service in Guam has issued warnings for Pohnpei, Chuuk and Yap States.
Polymer twin: New implant imitates bone structure
Scientists from the National University of Science and Technology MISIS developed a unique hybrid bone implant, the core of which is made of porous ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, and the shell is made of polyetheretherketone.
Study finds acetaminophen significantly reduced in-hospital delirium
Patients treated with acetaminophen demonstrated a significant reduction in in-hospital delirium.
People more likely to be generous towards charities if they donate before a windfall
People will donate more to charity if they make a pledge before receiving an unexpected cash windfall, a study has shown.
Let's dance!
Research shows that dance supports wellbeing, improves group spirit, and boosts learning.
Firefly-inspired surfaces improve efficiency of LED lightbulbs
A new type of light-emitting diode lightbulb could one day light homes and reduce power bills, according to Penn State researchers who suggest that LEDs made with firefly-mimicking structures could improve efficiency.
Food allergies and multiple sclerosis: study reveals a new link
Investigating the correlation between allergy and inflammatory disease activity, a team of investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital has found new evidence connecting food allergies and relapses of multiple sclerosis.
High fat diet linked to unfavorable changes in gut bacteria and inflammatory triggers
A high fat diet is linked to unfavourable changes in the type and numbers of gut bacteria-collectively known as the microbiome-as well as a rise in inflammatory triggers in the body, finds the first study of its kind, published online in the journal Gut.
LOFAR radio telescope reveals secrets of solar storms
The team of scientist showed that solar storms can accelerate particles simultaneously in several locations by combining data from the Low Frequency Array, LOFAR, with images from NASA, NOAA and ESA spacecraft.
Young children may see nationality as biological, new study suggests
Young children see national identity, in part, as biological in nature, a perception that diminishes as they get older.
Darwin's finches don't tell the whole story of avian evolution
The connection between bird diet and skull shape is surprisingly weak for most species according to a new study led by UCL and the Natural History Museum, rewriting our understanding of how ecosystems influence evolution.
Physically active women have significantly decreased risk of heart disease
Women with lower sedentary time or who frequently interrupt their sitting have a significantly lower risk of heart disease.

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