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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 22, 2019


Political corruption scars young voters forever, new research finds
New research by Bocconi University, Milan, finds that political corruption has a long-term scarring effect on trust in democratic institutions and on voters' behavior and that such an effect differs according to one's age cohort, with first-time voters at the time of corruption revelation still being affected 25 years later.
Fungus from the intestinal mucosa can affect lung health
Writing in the journal Cell, a research team from Cologne and Kiel describes the mechanism of 'immune cross-reactivity'.
New World Health Organization strategy aims to halve the global impact of snakebite
New strategy aims to ensure safe, effective and affordable treatment for all; empower communities at all levels to take proactive action; strengthen health systems to deliver better outcomes; build a global coalition of partners to coordinate action and mobilise resources.
The ancient people in the high-latitude Arctic had well-developed trade
Russian scientists studied the Zhokhov site of ancient people, which is located in the high-latitude Arctic, and described in detail the way of life of the ancient people had lived there.
A peek at living room decor suggests how decorations vary around the world
People around the world paint their walls different colors, buy plants to spruce up their interiors and engage in a variety of other beautifying techniques to personalize their homes, which inspired a team of researchers to study about 50,000 living rooms across the globe.
Are the French lousy at languages? Not if there's noise!
It is often said that the French have poor English skills.
Could blockchain ensure integrity of clinical trial data?
UC San Francisco researchers have created a proof-of-concept method for ensuring the integrity of clinical trials data with blockchain.
Less burnout seen among US physicians, Stanford researcher says
The epidemic levels of physicians reporting burnout dropped modestly in 2017, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, the Mayo Clinic and the American Medical Association.
Extinct weasel relative with confounding skull likely ate meat with a side of veggies
The oddly shaped skull of Leptarctus primus, an extinct weasel relative that lived in North America and Asia about 20 million years ago, has long led to conflicting theories about its diet.
Exploring the global landscape of quantum technology research
Leading quantum technology experts from around the world have explored their respective regional and national goals for the future of the field, in a new focus issue of Quantum Science and Technology.
How diabetes causes muscle loss
Diabetes is associated with various health problems including decline in skeletal muscle mass.
Potential of strategic partnerships to form a Health Equity Network of the Americas (HENA)
Recognizing the persistence of health inequities in the Americas, an emerging Health Equity Network of the Americas (HENA) describes its approach to promoting health equity through intersectoral partnerships in a newly released issue of Ethnicity & Disease.
A 'joint' problem: Investigating marijuana and tobacco co-use
A survey of marijuana and tobacco co-users by Medical University of South Carolina investigators found that co-users with high degree of interrelatedness between their use of the two substances had greater tobacco dependence and smoked more cigarettes per day.
Honeybees' waggle dance no longer useful in some cultivated landscapes
For bees and other social insects, being able to exchange information is vital for the success of their colony.
New MRI sensor can image activity deep within the brain
MIT researchers have developed an MRI-based calcium sensor that allows them to peer deep into the brain.
Studying species interactions using remote camera traps
In a recent study carried out by researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) in Germany and University of California, Davis, USA, the scientists explored to what extent camera trap data are suitable to assess subtle species interactions such as avoidance in space and time.
UTSA researchers examine patterns of prescription opioid misuse and other substance use
Researchers at the University of Texas at San Antonio have studied the opioid epidemic in a representative sample from the United States and found that the majority of people misusing prescription opioids are also using other licit and illicit substances.
New dynamic dependency framework may lead to better neural social and tech systems models
In a paper published recently in Nature Physics, researchers present a dynamic dependency framework that can capture interdependent and competitive interactions between dynamic systems which are used to study synchronization and spreading processes in multilayer networks with interacting layers.
Revealing the role of the mysterious small proteins
CRG investigators develop a technique to identify and classify proteins with less than 100 amino acids.
Scientists unravel genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Finns
One third of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases in Finland are caused by one of the four major mutations, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital shows.
Doctor-affiliated PACs fund political candidates who oppose firearm safety policies
Researchers found that physician-affiliated political action committees provided more financial support to candidates who opposed increased background checks, contrary to many societies' recommendations for evidence-based policies to reduce firearm injuries.
Surprise rheumatoid arthritis discovery points to new treatment
Researchers have identified an unexpected contributor to rheumatoid arthritis that may help explain the painful flare-ups associated with the disease.
Did volcanoes kill the dinosaurs? New evidence points to 'maybe.'
Princeton geoscientists Blair Schoene and Gerta Keller led an international team of researchers who have assembled the first high-resolution timeline for the massive eruptions in India's Deccan Traps, determining that the largest eruption pulse occurred less than 100,000 years before the mass extinction that killed the (non-avian) dinosaurs.
Older biologic age linked to elevated breast cancer risk
Biologic age, a DNA-based estimate of a person's age, is associated with future development of breast cancer, according to scientists at the National Institutes of Health.
Treatment to a T? Taking a 'BiTE' out of lung cancer
An Osaka University-led research team assayed T cell cytotoxicity in tumor tissue in lung cancer, along with normal lung tissue and peripheral blood.
Study links Celebrex, heart valve calcification after earlier research declared drug safe
On National Heart Valve Disease Awareness Day, Vanderbilt study disputes that Celebrex has no more impact on valves than older drugs in its class.
Illinois researchers are first to count growth factors in single cells
In a recent paper published in Nature Communications, University of Illinois professor Andrew Smith reported the invention of a new technology platform that digitally counts, for the first time ever, the amount of growth factor entering an individual cell.
Outfitting T cell receptors to combat a widespread and sometimes deadly virus
Researchers have engineered 'antibody-like' T cell receptors that can specifically stick to cells infected with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, a virus that causes lifelong infection in more than half of all adults by age 40.
A quantum magnet with a topological twist
Researchers probed a special kind of magnet containing atoms arranged in a pattern called a kagome lattice, which takes its name from a Japanese basket.
Pharmaceutical residues in fresh water pose a growing environmental risk
Over the past 20 years, concentrations of pharmaceuticals have increased in freshwater sources all over the world, as research by environmental experts at Radboud University has revealed.
Good dog? Bad dog? Their personalities can change
When dog-parents spend extra time scratching their dogs' bellies, take their dogs out for long walks and games of fetch, or even when they feel constant frustration over their dogs' naughty chewing habits, they are gradually shaping their dogs' personalities.
HIV infections in US could be reduced by up to 67 percent by 2030, study finds
New HIV infections in the United States could be substantially reduced by up to 67 percent by 2030 if ambitious goals for HIV care and treatment are met and targeted prevention interventions for people at risk for HIV are rapidly scaled up, according to a study by Georgia State University and the University at Albany-SUNY.
Geographic distribution of opioid-related deaths
Identifying changes in the geographic distribution of opioid-related deaths is important, and this study analyzed data for more than 351,000 US residents who died of opioid-related causes from 1999 to 2016.
UCF study finds high IQs won't be enough to prevent ecological disasters
High IQs aren't going to be enough to stop an ecological disaster.
NASA-NOAA satellite provides wide view of Tropical Cyclone Oma
When you look at a Tropical Cyclone Oma from space, you'll get a sense of its massive size.
Finding keyholes in metals 3D printing
New research published today in Science, led by researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and Argonne National Laboratory, has identified how and when these gas pockets form, as well as a methodology to predict their formation -- a pivotal discovery that could dramatically improve the 3D printing process.
NASA-NOAA satellite analyzes Typhoon Wutip
Typhoon Wutip was impacting the Federated States of Micronesia in the Southern Pacific Ocean when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and analyzed the storm in infrared light.
Captured carbon dioxide converts into oxalic acid to process rare earth elements
Removing carbon dioxide from power plant emissions is a good idea to start with -- and it may have an extra economic benefit.
Study: With Twitter, race of the messenger matters
University of Kansas journalism researchers showed real tweets about the NFL anthem protests to a group of millennials.
Researchers engineer a tougher fiber
Researchers have developed a fiber that combines the elasticity of rubber with the strength of a metal, resulting in a tougher material that could be incorporated into soft robotics, packaging materials or next-generation textiles.
Correct antibiotic dosing could preserve lung microbial diversity in cystic fibrosis
Children and young adults with cystic fibrosis whose lung infections were treated with suboptimal doses of antibiotics had fewer changes in lung microbial diversity during the IV treatment, and their microbial diversity levels were higher 30 days later, a multi-institutional study that includes Children's researchers shows.
More water resources over the Sahel region of Africa in the 21st century under global warming
Scientists from Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences found that the projection uncertainty of Sahel summer precipitation among the climate models is closely related to the historical precipitation simulation in South Asia and the western North Pacific.
Food allergies: A research update
Families impacted by food allergies will need psychosocial support as they try promising new therapies that enable them to ingest a food allergen daily or wear a patch that administers a controlled dose of that food allergen.
US patient advocacy groups received majority of pharma donations in multi-country study
A new study by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers found that U.S.-based patient advocacy organizations received a disproportionate amount of contributions made by the world's 10 largest pharmaceutical companies in 2016.
Setting the stage for cassava disease monitoring: A baseline for Vietnam and Cambodia
Southeast Asia is the source of 95 percent of global cassava exports, and the detection in 2015 in Cambodia of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus raised alarm.
Understanding high efficiency of deep ultraviolet LEDs
Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) made from aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) efficiently transfer electrical energy to optical energy due to the growth of one of its bottom layers in a step-like fashion.
Split and continuous sleep in teens impact cognition and glucose levels differently
Under conditions of insufficient sleep, effects on cognitive performance and morning glucose levels vary depending on how sleep is distributed, says study's principal investigator Professor Michael Chee.
Stopping inflammation from becoming chronic
An international research team led by Friedrich Schiller University in Jena has developed a highly sensitive cell model to study the complex effects -- and side effects -- of anti-inflammatory drugs, with the ultimate aim of preventing chronic inflammation.
Scientists find routine allomaternal nursing in an Old World monkey
A team of scientists led by Professor Li Ming at the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found widespread allomaternal nursing behavior in an Old World monkey, the golden snub-nosed monkey.
Diving into Earth's interior helps scientists unravel secrets of diamond formation
Understanding the global carbon cycle provides scientists with vital clues about the planet's habitability.
US opioid deaths jump fourfold in 20 years; epidemic shifts to Eastern states
Opioid-related deaths nationwide jumped fourfold in the last two decades, and the epidemic has made major inroads in the Eastern states, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine, Harvard University and the University of Toronto.
Virtual reality a promising tool for reducing fears and phobia in autism
In a new pilot study, autistic adults showed real-life, functional improvement after a combination treatment approach that included graded exposure to fear and anxiety-producing experiences in a virtual reality environment.
Trinity and St. James's Hospital report successful measurement of vitamin D in human hair
A new study by researchers from Trinity College Dublin and St.
New 2019 guidelines for patients with atrial fibrillation
Lin Yee Chen, MD, MS, Associate Professor with Tenure, Cardiovascular Division, in the Department of Medicine with the University of Minnesota Medical School was part of a Writing Committee tasked with updating the 2014 guidelines for patients with AFib.
New research identifies causes for defects in 3D printing and paves way for better results
New research, led by teams from Carnegie Mellon University and the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, has identified how and when tiny gas pockets in manufactured products, which lead to cracks and other failures, form.
Scientists reveal impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen discharge on nitrogen transport in global rivers
Scientists found that riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the USA has increased primarily due to the use of nitrogen fertilizers.
Physician well-being improving, but burnout risk remains
The good news is that physician burnout appears to be improving, along with indicators for physician well-being.
CCNY's Nir Krakauer in monsoon research breakthrough
With average precipitation of 35 inches per four-month season over an area encompassing most of the Indian subcontinent, the South Asia summer monsoon is intense, only partly understood, and notoriously difficult to predict.
Antarctic flies protect fragile eggs with 'antifreeze'
A molecular analysis by the University of Cincinnati found that wingless flies protected their eggs with a temperature-resistant gel to help them withstand freezing and thawing in Antarctica.
Disability progression in multiple sclerosis linked to income, education
Neighborhood income and education level is associated with risk of disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, suggests new research from the University of British Columbia.
Magnetization reversal achieved at room temperature using only an electric field
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology achieved magnetization reversal in cobalt-substituted bismuth ferrite by applying only an electric field.
Proximity to land determines how coral reef communities respond to climate change events
Severe weather and environmental disturbances, such as cyclones or thermal coral bleaching, affect specific areas of coral reefs differently, new research has shown.
A tasty Florida butterfly turns sour
A 15-year study led by University of Arizona entomologist Katy Prudic found that, when living apart from the unsavory bug it mimics, the viceroy butterfly becomes yucky, making biologists rethink old theories about animal mimicry.
Clinical trial: Prenatal DHA prevents blood-pressure increase from obesity during childhood
A clinical trial at the University of Kansas and KU Medical Center finds pregnant mothers who daily consumed 600 milligrams of DHA -- an omega-3 fatty acid -- protected their offspring from the blood pressure-elevating effects of excessive weight in early childhood.
Medicaid expansion led to increase in screening for colorectal cancer patients in Kentucky
The number of low-income patients screened for colorectal cancer more than tripled after Medicaid expansion in 2014, according to study findings in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons.
Scientists sharpen their molecular scissors and expand the gene editing toolbox
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine scientists have figured out a better way to deliver a DNA editing tool to shorten the presence of the editor proteins in the cells in what they describe as a 'hit and run' approach.
Topological defects could be key to future nano-electronics
An article published this week in the leading journal Nature Materials by FLEET/UNSW Prof Jan Seidel outlines emerging research into different types of 'defective' order, i.e. topological structures in materials, and their potential highly interesting applications in nanotechnology and nanoelectronics.
Study: ACA Medicaid expansion shows impact on colon cancer screenings, survival in Kentucky
A new University of Kentucky study published in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons shows a direct link between the adoption of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion and the impact of colon cancer on Kentuckians.
UCI, UCR scientists eavesdrop on DNA synthesizer to steal genetic blueprint
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine and the University of California, Riverside have uncovered the possibility of an acoustic side-channel attack on the DNA synthesis process, a vulnerability that could present a serious risk to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and academic research institutions.
Machines whisper our secrets
Scientists from UC Irvine and UC Riverside showed they could reconstruct what a researcher was doing by recording the sounds of the lab instrument used.

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