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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 28, 2019


Bungee jumping for science
Immediately before a person decides to launch themselves off a bridge for a bungee jump, there is a measurable increase in their brain activity.
How common are mental health disorders after diagnosis of head and neck cancer?
Treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) might cure the disease but it also can result in adverse effects such as disfigurement and speech difficulties, which can affect quality of life for patients.
India's child nutrition program sees higher utilization, but fewer gains in high-burden states
Expansion and utilization of one of India's largest government-run community-based nutrition programs increased significantly between 2006 and 2016, especially among historically disadvantaged castes and tribes.
Intervention with at-risk infants increases children's compliance at age 3
Children who are maltreated often develop problems complying with directions and expectations of parents and other authority figures.
UMMS scientists develop technology to give night vision to mammals
A new study in the journal Cell describes how UMass Medical School biochemist Gang Han, PhD, and colleagues developed technology to give night vision to mammals with a simple injection that contains nanoantennae, allowing the animals to see light beyond the visible spectrum, into the range of infrared light.
Higher hospital readmission rates for cardiac patients in Northern vs. Southern Ontario: Importance
Patients hospitalized with heart attacks, heart failure, atrial fibrillation or stroke in Northern Ontario, Canada, were more likely to be readmitted to the hospital and repeatedly hospitalized after discharge than those living in Southern Ontario.
New study uses big data to analyze the international food trade
A new study, ''Food Inequality, Injustice, and Rights,'' looks at international food trade and whether it enhances or erodes equitable access to food across the planet.
New research suggests earlier emergence of malaria in Africa
After carrying out extensive research into the βS mutation by performing full sequencing of the HBB gene together with a large-scale genomic study on 479 individuals from 13 populations from Sub-Saharan Africa, scientists were able to reveal that malaria emerged in Africa at least 20,000 years ago - and not at the same time as the adoption of agriculture 4,000 to 5,000 years ago.
Atlas of acute myeloid leukemia cell types may lead to improved, targeted therapies
A research team led by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators has assembled a detailed atlas of bone marrow cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia, an aggressive blood cancer that usually leads to death within five years of diagnosis.
Climate change shrinks many fisheries globally, Rutgers-led study finds
Climate change has taken a toll on many of the world's fisheries, and overfishing has magnified the problem, according to a Rutgers-led study in the journal Science today.
Heart disease in pregnancy: A special look at peripartum cardiomyopathy
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Special Issue on Women's Cardiovascular Health, Volume 3, Number 4, 2019, Guest Editor Gladys P.
Wutip now a depression, spotted on NASA-NOAA satellite imagery
Once a super typhoon, Tropical Cyclone Wutip weakened to a depression on February 28.
Could medical marijuana help grandma and grandpa with their ailments?
Medical marijuana may bring relief to older people who have symptoms like pain, sleep disorders or anxiety due to chronic conditions including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, neuropathy, spinal cord damage and multiple sclerosis, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 71st Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, May 4-10, 2019.
The Lancet: Conceiving within a year of stillbirth does not increase risks for next pregnancy
The results are from the first large-scale observational study to investigate the interval between stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy, including almost 14,500 births in women from Australia, Finland and Norway who had a stillbirth in their previous pregnancy.
Reduced salinity of seawater wreaks havoc on coral chemistry
New research confirms that drastic changes in ocean salinity from, for example, severe freshwater flooding, as recently experienced off the coast of north-east Queensland from abnormal monsoonal conditions, provoke a similar stress response in corals as extreme heating, resulting in 'freshwater bleaching' and if unabated, coral death.
The songs of singing mice suggest how human brain achieves conversation
By studying the rapid song-like responses of singing tropical mice, researchers have discovered a neural mechanism that may support the high-speed back and forth vocal exchanges that characterize human conversation.
Hybrid material may outperform graphene in several applications
A structure comprising a molybdenum disulfide monolayer on an azobenzene substrate could be used to build a highly compactable and malleable quasi-two-dimensional transistor powered by light.
Too-tight membrane keeps cells from splitting
Scientists uncover how one protein keeps conditions 'just right' so that cells can easily divide into two identical daughter cells.
How prostate cancer becomes treatment resistant
Scientists from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have identified how prostate cancer transforms into a deadly treatment-resistant prostate cancer subtype called neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) following treatment with anti-androgen therapy.
New study links electronic cigarettes and wheezing in adults
People who vaped were nearly twice as likely to experience wheezing compared to people who didn't use tobacco products, according to a study published in Tobacco Control.
Exchanging information securely using quantum communication in future fiber-optic networks
Searching for better security during data transmission, governments and other organizations around the world have been investing in and developing technologies related to quantum communication and related encryption methods.
Tracking food leads to losing pounds
Without following a particular diet, overweight people who tracked daily food consumption using a free smartphone app lost a significant amount of weight in a new Duke University study.
Shedding light -- literally -- on resistance to radiation therapy
A new Johns Hopkins study offers promise towards someday being able to non-invasively examine changes in cancerous tumors to determine whether they'll respond to radiation treatment, before treatment even begins.
By blocking protein, researchers keep brain tumors from repairing themselves
Researchers at the San Diego Branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at UC San Diego report inhibiting activity of a specific protein in glioblastomas boosts their sensitivity to radiation, improving treatment prospects for one of the most common and aggressive forms of brain cancer.
Warm seas scatter fish
Fish provide a vital source of protein for over half the world's population, with over 56 million people employed by or subsisting on fisheries.
New findings shed light on origin of upright walking in human ancestors
The oldest distinguishing feature between humans and our ape cousins is our ability to walk on two legs - a trait known as bipedalism.
Clues to Martian life found in Chilean desert
A robotic rover deployed in the most Mars-like environment on Earth, the Atacama Desert in Chile, has successfully recovered subsurface soil samples during a trial mission to find signs of life.
In-depth insights into glass corrosion
Silicate glass has many applications, including the use as a nuclear waste form to immobilize radioactive elements from spent fuel.
Integrated silicon photonic switch has lowest signal loss in high-speed data transmission
Experimental photonic switches tested by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, US, show promise toward the goal of fully optical, high-capacity switching for future high-speed data transmission networks.
How Capsella followed its lonely heart
The Brassicaceae plant family boasts a stunning diversity of fruit shapes.
Brain processes concrete and abstract words differently
A new review explores the different areas of the brain that process the meaning of concrete and abstract concepts.
Congenital heart defects vastly increase risk of heart problems later in life
An infant born with a relatively simple heart defect is far more likely to develop heart problems as an adult, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have discovered.
Using stardust grains, ASU scientists build new model for nova eruptions
ASU scientists make breakthrough in modeling how stars erupt thanks to studies of microscopic stardust grains.
A trap for positrons
For the first time, scientists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) have succeeded in losslessly guiding positrons, the antiparticles of electrons, into a magnetic field trap.
Recent advances in spina bifida care extend life and improve quality of life
Spina bifida (myelomeningocele) is the most common, permanently disabling birth defect compatible with life.
Does extra sleep on the weekends repay your sleep debt? No, researchers say
Insufficient sleep and untreated sleep disorders put people at increased risk for metabolic problems, including obesity and diabetes.
Machinery used in basic cell division does double duty as builder of neurons
Researchers at the San Diego branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at University of California San Diego have identified an entirely new mechanism underlying the development and structure of the nervous system during embryogenesis.
Online reviews after 'tummy tuck' -- Cosmetic results aren't the only factor affecting positive ratings
For patients undergoing 'tummy tuck' surgery (abdominoplasty), satisfaction with the aesthetic outcome is the main factor affecting whether they write a positive or negative online review for their plastic surgeon, reports the March issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Protein content as a marker for response to therapy in brain cancer
Brain tumors vary widely in how they respond to treatment.
Natural climate solutions are not enough
To stabilize the Earth's climate for people and ecosystems, it is imperative to ramp up natural climate solutions and, at the same time, accelerate mitigation efforts across the energy and industrial sectors, according to a new policy perspective published today in Science.
Large-scale initiative linked to reductions in maternal and newborn deaths in Indonesia
A U.S.-funded initiative to improve quality of care and referrals during pregnancy and childbirth in Indonesia resulted in significant reductions in maternal and newborn mortality at participating hospitals, according to a new study led by scientists at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
SwRI-led New Horizons research indicates small Kuiper Belt objects are surprisingly rare
Using New Horizons data from the Pluto-Charon flyby in 2015, a Southwest Research Institute-led team of scientists have indirectly discovered a distinct and surprising lack of very small objects in the Kuiper Belt.
Researchers use health data tools to rapidly detect sepsis in newborns
Automated programs can identify which sick infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have sepsis hours before clinicians recognize the life-threatening condition.
Challenges in cardiovascular risk prediction and stratification in women
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Special Issue on Women's Cardiovascular Health, Volume 3, Number 4, 2019, Guest Editor Gladys P.
Sleeping in on the weekend won't repay your sleep debt
Attempting to get extra sleep on the weekend to make up for lost sleep during the week has no lasting metabolic health benefits and can actually make our ability to regulate blood sugar worse, according to new University of Colorado Boulder research.
No wires, more cuddles: Sensors are first to monitor babies in the NICU without wires
An interdisciplinary Northwestern University team has developed a pair of soft, flexible wireless sensors that replace the tangle of wire-based sensors that currently monitor babies in hospitals' neonatal intensive care units and pose a barrier to parent-baby cuddling and physical bonding.
Mobile bedside bioprinter can heal wounds
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) scientists have created such a mobile skin bioprinting system -- the first of its kind -- that allows bi-layered skin to be printed directly into a wound.
More women are training to be plastic surgeons, but racial/ethnic representation still lags behind
While the proportion of women entering plastic surgery residency programs has increased in recent years, numbers of Black and Hispanic trainees are declining or unchanged, reports a study in the March issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
Nanotechnology makes it possible for mice to see in infrared
Mice with vision enhanced by nanotechnology were able to see infrared light as well as visible light, reports a study published Feb.
Is alcohol consumption more helpful than harmful? It depends on your age
Studies of health effects of alcohol consumption may underestimate the risks of imbibing, particularly for younger people, according to a new study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.
Inflammation signals induce dormancy in aging brain stem cells
In old age, the amount of stem cells in the brains of mice decreases drastically.
Zika: Silent long-term circulation in Thailand
In an attempt to shed light on Zika circulation, scientists from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS, in collaboration with US teams and the Thai National Institute of Health, decided to investigate the history of the Zika virus in Thailand.
New machine learning approach could give a big boost to the efficiency of optical networks
New work leveraging machine learning could increase the efficiency of optical telecommunications networks.
AU researchers develop genetic test to detect antimicrobial resistance
Researchers at American University have developed a new, highly sensitive rapid genetic test that can determine whether bacteria carries a gene that causes resistance to two common antibiotics used to treat strep throat and other respiratory illnesses.
NASA finds a hint of an eye in Tropical Cyclone Pola
Visible imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite revealed the hint of an eye developing in the center of Tropical Cyclone Pola.
Study shows economic burden of dengue fever
Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of South-East Asia and South America and its prevalence in Africa is thought to be expanding.
Home insurance buyers lack access to public flood data
Canadian homeowners do not have the information they need to know if they should buy flood insurance leaving them exposed to significant financial risk.
Visualizing the interconnections among climate risks
Climate change affects multiple sectors in virtually every part of the world.
Zips on the nanoscale
Nanostructures based on carbon are promising materials for nanoelectronics. However, to be suitable, they would often need to be formed on non-metallic surfaces, which has been a challenge -- up to now.
Blood test could give two month warning of kidney transplant rejection
New research from the NIHR Guy's and St Thomas' Biomedical Research Centre has found a way to predict rejection of a kidney transplant before it happens, by monitoring the immune system of transplant patients.
Researchers identify how metabolites target brain-homing immune cells to treat MS
A newly published paper featured on the March cover of the journal Brain details how metabolites can be used to inhibit epigenetic mechanisms and effectively treat multiple sclerosis and a range of other diseases.
Psychosocial stress, the unpredictability schema, and cardiovascular disease in women
In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Special Issue on Women's Cardiovascular Health, Volume 3, Number 4, 2019, Guest Editor Gladys P.
New lipid shape atlas holds key to early disease detection
A team of Vanderbilt University chemists started decoding the total human molecular picture by examining 456 variations of one class of molecule, lipids, bellwethers of disease.
Researchers reveal unexpected genome-wide off-target mutations caused by cytosine base editing
A research team led by Professor GAO Caixia of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences performed a comprehensive investigation of the off-target mutations of BE3, HF1-BE3 and ABE using whole genome sequencing (WGS) in rice, an important crop species.
Living together: How legume roots accommodate two distinct microbial partners
University of Tsukuba researchers, collaborating with two other Japanese universities, have revealed a key piece in the complex genetic systems that control how legume roots form close associations (symbioses) with microbial partners that help supply nutrients to the plant.
Gonorrhoea: Drug resistance compromises recommended treatment in Europe
Gonorrhoea is the second most commonly notified sexually transmitted infection across the EU/EEA countries with almost 500 000 reported cases between 2007 and 2016.
China-led research collaboration develops new way to test gene-editing safety
Chinese and international scientists have developed a new technique to evaluate the safety of genome-editing tools -- a method that could become the industry standard.
UCF researchers develop first sypersymmetric laser array
A team of University of Central Florida researchers has overcome a long-standing problem in laser science, and the findings could have applications in surgery, drilling and 3D laser mapping.
Pluto and Charon's ancient scars reveal a dearth of small Kuiper Belt objects
By mapping the scars of ancient impacts on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, researchers have gained a better understanding of the formation and evolution of the Kuiper Belt, a vast halo of orbiting debris lying at the fringes of our solar system.
New blueprint for understanding, predicting and optimizing complex nanoparticles
Northwestern University researchers have developed a blueprint for understanding and predicting the properties and behavior of complex nanoparticles and optimizing their use for a broad range of scientific applications.
Ability to control stress reduces negative impact
In individuals, stress exposure in adolescence increases vulnerability and risk of developing psychopathologies in adulthood, such as drug addiction, mood, anxiety, addiction to gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.
'Amazing snapshots' plumb volcanic depths
Research shedding light on the internal 'plumbing' of volcanoes may help scientists better understand volcanic eruptions and unrest.
'Mutation hotspot' allows common fungus to adapt to different host environments
A new study finds that samples of Candida albicans from patients frequently lack one copy of a vital master regulator, which gives them flexibility to lose the other copy and adapt to different environments.
Turning them on, turning them off -- how to control stem cells
Scientists at the University of Bath have identified how a mutant gene in fish is involved in controlling stem cells.
2018's biggest volcanic eruption of sulfur dioxide
The Manaro Voui volcano on the island of Ambae in the nation of Vanuatu in the South Pacific Ocean made the 2018 record books.
WSU researcher discovers oldest tattoo tool in western North America
Washington State University archaeologists have discovered the oldest tattooing artifact in western North America.
Ant societies' arms race: Gene activity in defenders depends on invading slavemaking ants
Temnothorax americanus is a slavemaking ant found in northeastern America.
Data sharing uncovers five new risk genes for Alzheimer's disease
Analysis of genetic data revealed five new and confirmed 20 known risk genes for Alzheimer's disease.
Unveiling disease-causing genetic changes in chromosome 17
Extensive single Watson-Crick base pair mutations can occur in addition to duplication or deletion of an entire group of genes on chromosomal region 17p11.2.
Mindfulness could promote positive body image
Making people more aware of their own internal body signals, such as heartbeat or breathing rate, could promote positive body image, according to new research published in the journal Body Image.
Nicotine may harm human embryos at the single-cell level
Nicotine induces widespread adverse effects on human embryonic development at the level of individual cells, researchers report Feb.
Lipid-filled particle may work with immune system to keep fat healthy
Researchers have discovered a new particle in fat that works with the immune system to rejuvenate fat.
Population increases and climate change point to future US water shortages
Climate change plus population growth are setting the stage for water shortages in parts of the U.S. long before the end of the century, according to a new study in the AGU journal Earth's Future.
Psychiatry: Case notes indicate impending seclusion
Using notes made by the attending healthcare professionals about psychiatric patients enables impending coercive measures to be predicted in advance -- potentially even through automated text analysis.
PE, PP and PS: The most abundant type of microplastics in Mediterranean coastal waters
Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene are the most abundant microplastics in the Mediterranean coastal waters, according to a new study published by the journal Marine Pollution Bulletin -by the experts Miquel Canals, William P. de Haan, and Anna Sànchez-Vidal, from the Consolidated Research Group on Marine Geosciences of the Faculty of Earth Sciences of the University of Barcelona.
Hiding black hole found
Astronomers have detected a stealthy black hole from its effects on an interstellar gas cloud.
In singing mice, scientists find clue to our own rapid conversations
Studying the songs of mice from the cloud forests of Costa Rica, researchers have identified a brain circuit that might enable the high-speed back and forth of human conversation.
Pan-filovirus T-cell vaccine protects mice from Ebola and Marburg
Vaccines that induce protective T-cell responses could protect against members across the filovirus family, according to a study published Feb.
Interactive surfaces enter a whole new dimension of flexibility
Researchers at Osaka University propose a novel flexible tube display that is able to take various surface shapes.
Amoebae diversified at least 750 million years ago, far earlier than expected
Reconstitution of Amoebozoa's evolution shows significant Precambrian species diversity. This study changes the view of how life evolved in the very remote past and deepens the understanding of current climate change.
Despite export bans global seahorse trade continues
Many countries are engaged in a vast illegal and unrecorded international trade in seahorses, one that circumvents global regulations, according to new UBC study that has implications for many other animal species.
Digital breast tomosynthesis vs digital mammography screening outcomes
This study compared data on 180,340 breast cancer screenings for about 96,000 women ages 40 to 74 who underwent screening with 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and 2D digital mammography to see if the outcomes varied by patient age and breast density.
500-million-year old worm 'superhighway' discovered in Canada
Prehistoric worms populated the sea bed 500 million years ago--evidence that life was active in an environment thought uninhabitable until now, research by the University of Saskatchewan (USask) shows.
Exiled planet linked to stellar flyby 3 million years ago
Paul Kalas of UC Berkeley was puzzled by the tilted but stable orbit of a planet around a binary star -- an orbit like that of our solar system's proposed Planet Nine.
Asian elephants may lose up to 42 percent of suitable habitats in India and Nepal
Protecting and expanding suitable habitats for wildlife is key to the conservation of endangered species, but owing to climate and land use change the ideal habitats of today may not be fitting in 30 or 50 years.
Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease in women
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in Women In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Special Issue on Women's Cardiovascular Health, Volume 3, Number 4, 2019, Guest Editor Gladys P.
Researchers break efficiency record for data transfer in ultra-fast transatlantic cable
If you are making an overseas phone call or using cloud computing, there is a 99 percent chance an undersea fiber optic cable is being utilized.
Thermodynamic properties of hevein investigated by Lobachevsky University scientists
Hevein is a small protein consisting of forty-three amino acid residues.
Open-source software tracks neural activity in real time
A software tool called CaImAn automates the arduous process of tracking the location and activity of neurons.
Junk food purchases increase after recreational marijuana legalization
New research by a UConn economist found a link between state recreational marijuana legalization and increased consumption of certain high-calorie foods.
Happy in marriage? Genetics may play a role
People fall in love for many reasons -- similar interests, physical attraction, and shared values among them.
Drilling results reveal global climate influence on basin waters in young rifts
New results from the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, a continental rift zone where the first stage of ocean basin formation is taking place, show how the environmental conditions and sediment input into the rift basin changed as the Earth alternated between non-glaciated to glaciated conditions over the last 500 thousand years.
Scientists at FAU are researching a new method for developing artificial ovaries
An interdisciplinary team of researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg led by Professor Aldo R.
An atlas of an aggressive leukemia
A team of researchers led by Bradley Bernstein at the Ludwig Center at Harvard has used single-cell technologies and machine learning to create a detailed 'atlas of cell states' for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that could help improve treatment of the aggressive cancer.
Researchers move closer to practical photonic quantum computing
For the first time, researchers have demonstrated a way to map and measure large-scale photonic quantum correlation with single-photon sensitivity.
Research identifies mechanism that helps plants fight bacterial infection
A team led by a plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside, has identified a regulatory, genetic mechanism in plants that could help fight bacterial infection.
For the fisheries of the future, some species are in hot water
Some fisheries may falter while others could become more productive as the world's waters continue to warm, according to a new study, which looks to the productivity of fisheries in the past to help predict the impact of climate change on future fisheries.
Immigrant Asian American women may be at higher risk for breast cancer
According to the results of a new study led by a researcher from the University of California, Riverside, a subset of women living in the US may be at higher risk for breast cancer than previously observed.
U-M biologists capture super-creepy photos of Amazon spiders making meals of frogs, lizards
Warning to arachnophobes and the faint of heart: This is the stuff of nightmares, so you might want to proceed with caution.
2015-2016 El Niño triggered disease outbreaks across globe
The 2015-2016 El Niño event brought weather conditions that triggered regional disease outbreaks throughout the world, according to a new NASA study.
ESA tipsheet for March 4,5, 2019
Get a sneak peek into these new scientific papers, publishing on March 4,5, 2019 in the Ecological Society of America's journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.
Study of singing mice suggests how mammalian brain achieves conversation
By studying the songs of mice from the cloud forests of Costa Rica, researchers have discovered a brain circuit that may enable the high-speed back and forth of conversation.
Cell atlas of the aging lung
Aging promotes lung function decline and increases susceptibility to diseases of the respiratory tract.
New sanitation system halves healthcare associated infections and cuts costs by 75 percent
The spread of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals can be limited by sanitation methods that remodulate the hospital microbiota, leading to lower antimicrobial consumption and costs, according to a paper in Infection and Drug Resistance co-authored by two Bocconi University scholars.
Layering titanium oxide's different mineral forms for better solar cells
A Japan-based research team led by Kanazawa University improved the efficiency of a new type of solar cell with a double layer consisting of pure anatase and brookite, two different mineral forms of titanium oxide.
Study first to show processes determining fate of new RNA pesticide in soils
Researchers at the McKelvey School of Engineering at Washington University in St.
A clearer view of past climate from tree rings
To see where the Earth's climate is headed, we have to see where it's been.
Endangered eel located using DNA from one liter of water
Researchers have shed light on the distribution of Japanese eel by analyzing environmental DNA (eDNA) from small samples of river water.
Hall effect becomes viscous in graphene
The movement of electron fluid in graphene has, for the first time, been observed to exist with two separate viscosities showing that the Hall effect -- a phenomenon well known for more than a century -- is no longer as universal as it was thought to be.
New wireless system 'cuts the cord' from newborn patient monitoring approaches
A new, less invasive system for monitoring the vital signs of some of the world's most fragile patients -- infants born pre-term or with debilitating disease -- would allow parents skin-to-skin contact with these children when they otherwise couldn't have it.
Mother's dengue immunity worsens baby's response to Zika
New research uncovers previously unknown mechanism behind why some, but not all, Zika virus infections during pregnancy lead to fetal brain abnormalities.
Scientists develop bubble diameter prediction model for industrial use
A research team led by Prof. YANG Chao from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology systematically investigated the influence of orifice diameter, liquid viscosity, surface tension and orifice superficial gas velocity on the bubble diameter of gas spargers under industrial jetting conditions.

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